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Canadian Confederation
Confederation
(French: Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion
Dominion
of Canada
Canada
on July 1, 1867.[1][2] Upon confederation, the old province of Canada
Canada
was divided into Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec; along with Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces.[3] Over the years since Confederation, Canada
Canada
has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories.[4]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 History

2.1 Colonial organization 2.2 Early attempts 2.3 Influences leading to Confederation 2.4 Ideological origins and philosophical dimensions 2.5 Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Conference

2.5.1 Delegates' reactions 2.5.2 Press and popular reaction

2.6 Quebec
Quebec
Conference

2.6.1 Press and popular reaction

2.7 The London
London
Conference 2.8 British North America
North America
Acts 2.9 Results

3 Fathers of Confederation 4 Joining Confederation 5 Legacy 6 References 7 Further reading

7.1 Provinces and regions 7.2 Primary sources

8 External links

Terminology[edit] Canada
Canada
is a federation[5] and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which "confederation" means in contemporary political theory. It is nevertheless often considered to be among the world's more decentralized federations.[6] The use of the term Confederation
Confederation
arose in the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
to refer to proposals beginning in the 1850s to federate all of the British North American colonies, as opposed to only Canada
Canada
West (Ontario) and Canada
Canada
East (Quebec). To contemporaries of Confederation
Confederation
the con- prefix indicated a strengthening of the centrist principle compared to the American federation.[7] In this Canadian context, confederation generally describes the political process that united the colonies in the 1860s, related events and the subsequent incorporation of other colonies and territories.[8] The term is now often used to describe Canada
Canada
in an abstract way, such as in "the Fathers of Confederation". Provinces and territories that became part of Canada
Canada
after 1867 are also said to have joined, or entered into, confederation (but not the Confederation).[9] The term is also used to divide Canadian history into pre- Confederation
Confederation
(i.e. pre-1867) and post- Confederation
Confederation
(i.e. post-1867) periods.[10] History[edit] Further information: Constitutional history of Canada Colonial organization[edit]

Map of North America
North America
before the French and Indian War, that is part of the greater worldwide conflict known as the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
(1756 to 1763). Possessions of Britain (pink), France (sky blue), and Spain (green)

All the former colonies and territories that became involved in the Canadian Confederation
Confederation
on July 1, 1867, were initially part of New France, and were once ruled by France.[11] Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
was granted in 1621 to Sir William Alexander under charter by James VI.[11] This claim overlapped the French claims to Acadia, and although the Scottish colony of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
was short-lived, for political reasons, the conflicting imperial interests of France and the 18th century Great Britain
Great Britain
led to a long and bitter struggle for control. The British acquired present-day mainland Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 and the Acadian population was expelled by the British in 1755. They called Acadia
Acadia
Nova Scotia, which included present-day New Brunswick.[11] The rest of New France
New France
was acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris (1763), which ended the Seven Years' War. From 1763 to 1791, most of New France
New France
became the Province of Quebec.[11] However, in 1769 the present-day Prince Edward Island, which had been part of Acadia, was renamed "St John's Island" and organized as a separate colony.[12] It was renamed "Prince Edward Island" in 1798 in honour of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn.[12] The first English attempt at settlement had been in Newfoundland, which would not join the Confederation
Confederation
until 1949.[13] The Society of Merchant Venturers of Bristol
Bristol
began to settle Newfoundland and Labrador at Cuper's Cove
Cuper's Cove
as far back as 1610, and Newfoundland had also been the subject of a French colonial enterprise.[14] In the wake of the American Revolution, an estimated 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America.[11] The British created the separate colony of New Brunswick
New Brunswick
in 1784 for the Loyalists who settled in the western part of Nova Scotia.[15] While Nova Scotia (including New Brunswick) received slightly more than half of this influx, many Loyalists also settled in the Province of Quebec, which by the Constitutional Act of 1791
Constitutional Act of 1791
was separated into a predominantly English Upper Canada
Canada
and a predominantly French Lower Canada.[16] The War of 1812
War of 1812
and Treaty of 1818
Treaty of 1818
established the 49th parallel as the border with the United States
United States
from the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to the Rocky Mountains in Western Canada.[17]

Canadian Territory at Confederation

Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended that Upper and Lower Canada
Canada
be joined as the Province of Canada
Canada
and that the new province should have a responsible government.[18] As a result of Durham's report, the British Parliament passed the Act of Union 1840, and the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
was formed in 1841.[19] The new province was divided into two parts: Canada
Canada
West (the former Upper Canada) and Canada
Canada
East (the former Lower Canada).[19] Governor General Lord Elgin granted ministerial responsibility in 1848, first to Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and then to Canada. In the following years, the British would extend responsible government to Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
(1851), New Brunswick
New Brunswick
(1854), and Newfoundland (1855).[20] The area which constitutes modern-day British Columbia
British Columbia
is the remnants of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia District
Columbia District
and New Caledonia District following the Oregon Treaty. Prior to joining Canada
Canada
in 1871, British Columbia
British Columbia
consisted of the separate Colony of British Columbia (formed in 1858, in an area where the Crown had previously granted a monopoly to the Hudson's Bay Company), and the Colony of Vancouver Island (formed in 1849) constituting a separate crown colony until it was united with the Colony of British Columbia
British Columbia
in 1866.[21] The remainder of modern-day Canada
Canada
was made up of Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land
and the North-Western Territory
North-Western Territory
(both of which were controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
and sold to Canada
Canada
in 1870) and the Arctic Islands, which were under direct British control and became a part of Canada
Canada
in 1880.[22] Early attempts[edit]

George-Étienne Cartier

The idea of unification was presented in 1839 by Lord Durham in his Report on the Affairs of British North America,[23] which resulted in the Union of Upper and Lower Canada. Beginning in 1857, Joseph-Charles Taché proposed a federation in a series of 33 articles published in the Courrier du Canada.[24] In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier
George-Étienne Cartier
and John Ross travelled to Great Britain
Great Britain
to present the British Parliament
British Parliament
with a project for confederation of the British colonies. The proposal was received by the London
London
authorities with polite indifference. By 1864, it was clear that continued governance of the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
under the terms of the 1840 Act of Union had become impracticable. Therefore, a Great Coalition
Great Coalition
of parties formed in order to reform the political system.[25] Influences leading to Confederation[edit] There were several factors that influenced Confederation, both caused from internal sources and pressures from external sources.[26][27][28]

Internal causes that influenced Confederation

political deadlock resulting from the current political structure demographic pressure (population expansion) economic nationalism and the promise of economic development an inter-colony railroad which would improve trade, military movement, and transportation in general [29]

External pressures that influenced Confederation

cancellation of the Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty (a free trade policy whereby products were allowed into the United States without taxes or tariffs starting in 1854, which was then considered to be beneficial for Canada), in 1865 by the United States, partly as a revenge against Great Britain
Great Britain
for unofficial support of the South in the American Civil War the U.S. doctrine of Manifest Destiny, the possible threat of invasion from the U.S.— Canadians
Canadians
had fended off American invasions during the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812—increased by the Alaska Purchase of March 30, 1867, which was supported on the floor of the U.S. Senate (by Charles Sumner, among others) precisely in terms of taking over the remainder of North America
North America
from the British the American Civil War, which horrified Canadians
Canadians
and drove many away from any thought of republicanism, along with British actions during the war, and American reactions to Canada
Canada
[30] the Fenian raids the Little Englander philosophy, whereby Britain no longer wanted to maintain troops in its colonies. political pressure from British financiers who had invested money in the loss-making Grand Trunk Railway The Trent Affair

Ideological origins and philosophical dimensions[edit]

Map of the Eastern British Provinces in North America
North America
at the time of Canadian Confederation, 1867.

There is extensive scholarly debate on the role of political ideas in Canadian Confederation. Traditionally, historians regarded Canadian Confederation
Confederation
an exercise in political pragmatism that was essentially non-ideological. In the 1960s, historian Peter Waite derided the references to political philosophers in the legislative debates on Confederation
Confederation
as "hot air". In Waite's view, Confederation
Confederation
was driven by pragmatic brokerage politics and competing interest groups.[31] In 1987, political scientist Peter J. Smith challenged the view that Canadian Confederation
Confederation
was non-ideological. Smith argued that Confederation
Confederation
was motivated by new political ideologies as much as the American and French Revolutions and that Canadian Confederation
Confederation
was driven by a Court Party ideology. Smith traces the origins of this ideology to eighteenth and nineteenth-century Britain, where political life was polarized between defenders of classical republican values of the Country Party and proponents of a new pro-capitalist ideology of the Court Party, which believed in centralizing political power. In British North America
North America
in the 1860s, the Court Party tradition was represented by the supporters of Confederation, whereas the anti-capitalist and agrarian Country Party tradition was embodied by the Anti-Confederates.[32] In a 2000 journal article, historian Ian McKay argued that Canadian Confederation
Confederation
was motivated by the ideology of liberalism and the belief in the supremacy of individual rights. McKay described Confederation
Confederation
as part of the classical liberal project of creating a "liberal order" in northern North America.[33] Many Canadian historians have adopted McKay's liberal order framework as a paradigm for understanding Canadian history.[34] In 2008, historian Andrew Smith advanced a very different view of Confederation’s ideological origins. He argues that in the four original Canadian provinces, the politics of taxation were a central issue in the debate about Confederation. Taxation was also central to the debate in Newfoundland, the tax-averse colony that rejected it. Smith argued Confederation
Confederation
was supported by many colonists who were sympathetic to a relatively interventionist, or statist, approach to capitalist development. Most classical liberals, who believed in free trade and low taxes, opposed Confederation
Confederation
because they feared that it would result in Big Government. The struggle over Confederation involved a battle between a staunchly individualist economic philosophy and a comparatively collectivist view of the state’s proper role in the economy. According to Smith, the victory of the statist supporters of Confederation
Confederation
over their anti-statist opponents prepared the way for Sir John A. Macdonald’s government to enact the protectionist National Policy and to subsidize major infrastructure projects such as the Intercolonial and Pacific Railways.[35] In 2007, political scientist Janet Ajzenstat connected Canadian Confederation
Confederation
to the individualist ideology of John Locke. She argued that the union of the British North American colonies was motivated by a desire to protect individual rights, especially the rights to life, liberty, and property. She contends that the Fathers of Confederation were motivated by the values of the Enlightenment of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. She argues that their intellectual debts to Locke are most evident when one looks at the 1865 debates in the Province of Canada’s legislature on whether or not union with the other British North American colonies would be desirable.[36] Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Conference[edit] Main article: Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Conference In the spring of 1864, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
premier Samuel Leonard Tilley, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
premier Charles Tupper, and Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
premier John Hamilton Gray were contemplating the idea of a Maritime Union which would join their three colonies together.[37]

Delegates of the Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
on the steps of Government House, September 1864.

The Premier of the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
John A. Macdonald
John A. Macdonald
surprised the Atlantic premiers by asking if the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
could be included in the negotiations. The request was channelled through the Governor-General, Monck, to London
London
and accepted by the Colonial Office.[38] After several years of legislative paralysis in the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
caused by the need to maintain a double legislative majority (a majority of both the Canada
Canada
East and Canada
Canada
West delegates in the Province of Canada’s legislature), Macdonald had led his Liberal-Conservative Party
Liberal-Conservative Party
into the Great Coalition
Great Coalition
with George-Étienne Cartier’s Parti bleu
Parti bleu
and George Brown’s Clear Grits.[39] Macdonald, Cartier, and Brown felt that union with the other British colonies might be a way to solve the political problems of the Province of Canada.[39] The Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
began on September 1, 1864. Since the agenda for the meeting had already been set, the delegation from the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
was initially not an official part of the Conference. The issue of Maritime Union
Maritime Union
was deferred and the Canadians were formally allowed to join and address the Conference.[40] No minutes from the Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
survive, but we do know that George-Étienne Cartier
George-Étienne Cartier
and John A. Macdonald
John A. Macdonald
presented arguments in favour of a union of the three colonies;[41] Alexander Tilloch Galt presented the Province of Canada’s proposals on the financial arrangements of such a union;[41] and that George Brown presented a proposal for what form a united government might take.[42] The Canadian delegation’s proposal for the governmental system involved:

preservation of ties with Great Britain; residual jurisdiction left to a central authority; a bicameral system including a Lower House with representation by population (rep by pop) and an Upper House with representation based on regional, rather than provincial, equality; responsible government at the federal and provincial levels; the appointment of a governor general by the British Crown.

Other proposals attractive to the politicians from the Maritime colonies were:

assumption of provincial debt by the central government;[43] revenues from the central government apportioned to the provinces on the basis of population;[43] the building of an intercolonial railway to link Montreal and Halifax, giving Canada
Canada
access to an ice-free winter port and the Maritimes easy access to Canada
Canada
and Rupert's Land.[44]

By September 7, 1864, the delegates from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
gave a positive answer to the Canadian delegation, expressing the view that the federation of all of the provinces was considered desirable if the terms of union could be made satisfactory[45] and the question of Maritime Union
Maritime Union
was waived.[42] After the Conference adjourned on September 9, there were further meetings between delegates held at Halifax, Saint John, and Fredericton.[46][47] These meetings evinced enough interest that it was decided to hold a second Conference.

Thomas D'Arcy McGee
D'Arcy McGee
in 1868

Delegates' reactions[edit] One of the most important purposes of the Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
was the introduction of Canadians
Canadians
to the leaders from the Maritime Provinces and vice versa. At this point there was no railway link from Quebec
Quebec
City to Halifax, and the people of each region had little to do with one another. D'Arcy McGee
D'Arcy McGee
was one of the few Canadian delegates who had been to the Maritimes, when he had gone down earlier that summer with a trade mission of Canadian businessmen, journalists and politicians.[48] George Brown remarked in a letter to his wife Anne that at a party given by the premier of PEI, Colonel John Hamilton Gray, he met a woman who had never been off the island in her entire life. Nevertheless, he found Prince Edward Islanders to be "amazingly civilized".[49] Press and popular reaction[edit] Reaction to the Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
varied among the different newspapers. In the Maritimes there was concern that the smooth Canadians
Canadians
with their sparkling champagne and charming speeches were outsmarting the delegates of the smaller provinces. "From all accounts it looks as if these [Canadian] gentlemen had it all their own way; ... and that, what with their arguments and what with their blandishments, (they gave a champagne lunch on board the Victoria where Mr. McGee's wit sparkled brightly as the wine), they carried the Lower Province delegates a little off their feet."[50] Quebec
Quebec
Conference[edit] Main articles: Quebec Conference, 1864
Quebec Conference, 1864
and Quebec
Quebec
Resolutions After returning home from the Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Conference, John A. Macdonald asked Viscount Monck, the Governor General of the Province of Canada
Canada
to invite delegates from the three Maritime provinces and Newfoundland to a conference with United Canada
Canada
delegates. Monck obliged and the Conference went ahead at Quebec
Quebec
City in October 1864.

Delegates at the Quebec
Quebec
Conference, October 1864.

The Conference began on October 10, 1864, on the site of present-day Montmorency Park.[51] The Conference elected Étienne-Paschal Taché as its chairman, but it was dominated by Macdonald. Despite differences in the positions of some of the delegates on some issues, the Quebec
Quebec
Conference, following so swiftly on the success of the Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Conference, was infused with a determinative sense of purpose and nationalism.[52] For the Reformers of Canada
Canada
West, led by George Brown, the end of what they perceived as French-Canadian interference in local affairs was in sight.[53] For Maritimers such as Tupper of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
or Tilley of New Brunswick, horizons were suddenly broadened to take in much larger possibilities for trade and growth.[53] On the issue of the Senate, the Maritime Provinces pressed for as much equality as possible. With the addition of Newfoundland to the Conference, the other three Maritime colonies did not wish to see the strength of their provinces in the upper chamber diluted by simply adding Newfoundland to the Atlantic category.[54] It was the matter of the Senate that threatened to derail the entire proceedings.[55] It was Macdonald who came up with the acceptable compromise of giving Newfoundland four senators of its own when it joined.[56] The delegates from the Maritimes also raised an issue with respect to the level of government—federal or provincial—that would be given the powers not otherwise specifically defined. Macdonald, who was aiming for the strongest central government possible, insisted that this was to be the central government, and in this he was supported by, among others, Tupper.[57] At the end of the Conference, it adopted the Seventy-two Resolutions which would form the basis of a scheduled future conference. The Conference adjourned on October 27. Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
emerged disappointed from the Quebec
Quebec
Conference. It did not receive support for a guarantee of six members in the proposed House of Commons, and was denied an appropriation of $200,000 that it felt had been offered at Charlottetown
Charlottetown
to assist in buying out the holdings of absentee landlords.[58] Press and popular reaction[edit] "Never was there such an opportunity as now for the birth of a nation" proclaimed a pamphlet written by S. E. Dawson and reprinted in a Quebec
Quebec
City newspaper during the Conference.[56] Again, reaction to the Quebec
Quebec
Conference varied depending on the political views of the critic. The London
London
Conference[edit] Main article: London
London
Conference of 1866

Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
granted royal assent to the British North America
North America
Act on March 29, 1867

Following the Quebec
Quebec
Conference, the Province of Canada's legislature passed a bill approving the union. The union proved more controversial in the Maritime provinces, however, and it was not until 1866 that New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
passed union resolutions, while Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland continued to opt against joining. In December 1866, sixteen delegates from the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
travelled to London, where Queen Victoria received each in private audience, as well as holding court for their wives and daughters.[59] At meetings held at the Westminster Palace Hotel, the delegates reviewed and approved the 72 resolutions; although Charles Tupper
Charles Tupper
had promised anti-union forces in Nova Scotia that he would push for amendments, he was unsuccessful in getting any passed. Now known as the London
London
Resolutions, the conference's decisions were forwarded to the Colonial Office. After breaking for Christmas, the delegates reconvened in January 1867 and began drafting the British North America
North America
Act. They agreed that the new country should be called Canada, that Canada
Canada
East should be renamed Quebec
Quebec
and that Canada
Canada
West should be renamed Ontario.[60] There was, however, heated debate about how the new country should be designated. Ultimately, the delegates elected to call the new country the Dominion
Dominion
of Canada, after "kingdom" and "confederation", among other options, were rejected for various reasons. The term dominion was allegedly suggested by Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley.[61] The delegates had completed their draft of the British North America Act by February 1867. The Act was presented to Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
on February 11, 1867. The bill was introduced in the House of Lords
House of Lords
the next day. The bill was quickly approved by the House of Lords, and then also quickly approved by the British House of Commons. (The Conservative Lord Derby was prime minister of the United Kingdom at the time.) The Act received royal assent on March 29, 1867, and set July 1, 1867, as the date for union.[62] British North America
North America
Acts[edit] Main article: British North America
North America
Acts

Proclamation of Canadian Confederation

Confederation
Confederation
was accomplished when the Queen gave royal assent to the British North America
North America
Act (BNA Act) on March 29, 1867, followed by a royal proclamation stating: "We do ordain, declare, and command that on and after the First day of July, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Sixty-seven, the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, shall form and be One Dominion, under the name of Canada."[63] That act, which united the Province of Canada
Province of Canada
with the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, came into effect on July 1 that year. The act replaced the Act of Union (1840)
Act of Union (1840)
which had previously unified Upper Canada
Canada
and Lower Canada
Canada
into the united Province of Canada. Separate provinces were re-established under their current names of Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec. July 1 is now celebrated as a public holiday, Canada
Canada
Day, the country's official National Day. The form of the country's government was influenced by the American republic to the south. Noting the flaws perceived in the American system, the Fathers of Confederation
Confederation
opted to retain a monarchical form of government. John A. Macdonald, speaking in 1865 about the proposals for the upcoming confederation of Canada, said:

By adhering to the monarchical principle we avoid one defect inherent in the Constitution of the United States. By the election of the president by a majority and for a short period, he never is the sovereign and chief of the nation. He is never looked up to by the whole people as the head and front of the nation. He is at best but the successful leader of a party. This defect is all the greater on account of the practice of reelection. During his first term of office he is employed in taking steps to secure his own reelection, and for his party a continuance of power. We avoid this by adhering to the monarchical principle—the sovereign whom you respect and love. I believe that it is of the utmost importance to have that principle recognized so that we shall have a sovereign who is placed above the region of party—to whom all parties look up; who is not elevated by the action of one party nor depressed by the action of another; who is the common head and sovereign of all.[64]

The form of government chosen is regarded as having created a federation that is a kingdom in its own right.[65][66][67] John A. Macdonald had spoken of "founding a great British monarchy" and wanted the newly created country to be called the "Kingdom of Canada".[68] Although it had its monarch in London, the Colonial Office
Colonial Office
opposed as "premature" and "pretentious" the term "kingdom", as it was felt it might antagonize the United States. The term dominion was chosen to indicate Canada's status as a self-governing polity of the British Empire, the first time it was used in reference to a country. While the BNA Act eventually resulted in Canada
Canada
having more autonomy than it had before, it was far from full independence from the United Kingdom. According to the Supreme Court of Canada, Canadian "sovereignty was acquired in the period between its separate signature of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and the Statute of Westminster, 1931" long after Confederation
Confederation
in 1867.[69] Defence of British North America became a Canadian responsibility.[70] Foreign policy remained in British hands, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
remained Canada's highest court of appeal, and the constitution could be amended only in Britain. Gradually, Canada
Canada
gained more autonomy, and in 1931, obtained almost full autonomy within the British Commonwealth with the Statute of Westminster. Because the provinces of Canada
Canada
were unable to agree on a constitutional amending formula, this power remained with the British Parliament. In 1982, the constitution was patriated when Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
gave her royal assent to the Canada
Canada
Act 1982. The Constitution of Canada
Canada
is made up of a number of codified acts and uncodified traditions; one of the principal documents is the Constitution Act, 1982, which renamed the BNA Act 1867 to Constitution Act, 1867.[71] Results[edit]

John A. Macdonald
John A. Macdonald
became the first Prime Minister of Canada.

Dominion
Dominion
elections were held in August and September to elect the first Parliament, and the four new provinces' governments recommended the 72 individuals (24 each for Quebec
Quebec
and Ontario, 12 each for New Brunswick and Nova Scotia) who would sit in the Senate.[72] The Anti- Confederation
Confederation
Party won 18 out of 19 federal Nova Scotia seats in September 1867, and in the Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
provincial election of 1868, 36 out of 38 seats in the legislature. For seven years, William Annand and Joseph Howe led the ultimately unsuccessful fight to convince British imperial authorities to release Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
from Confederation. The government was vocally against Confederation, contending that it was no more than the annexation of the province to the pre-existing province of Canada.[73] Prior to the coming into effect of the Constitution Act, 1867
Constitution Act, 1867
there had been some concern regarding a potential "legislative vacuum" that would occur over the 15-month period between the prorogation of the Province of Canada's final Parliament in August 1866 and the opening of the now Dominion
Dominion
of Canada's first Parliament in November 1867. To prevent this, the Constitution Act, 1867
Constitution Act, 1867
provided for "continuance of existing laws" from the three colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick until new laws could be established in the Dominion.[74] Thus, the "Dominion's financial systems, structures and actors were able to operate under the provisions of the old Province of Canada Acts" following confederation, and many institutions and organizations were continued and assumed "the same responsibilities for the new federal government that it had held as a provincial organization".[75] Fathers of Confederation[edit] Main article: Fathers of Confederation The original Fathers of Confederation
Confederation
are those delegates who attended any of the conferences held at Charlottetown
Charlottetown
and Quebec
Quebec
in 1864, or in London, United Kingdom, in 1866, leading to Confederation.[76] There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.[77] The later "Fathers" who brought the other provinces into Confederation
Confederation
after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation". In this way, Amor De Cosmos
Amor De Cosmos
who was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia
British Columbia
and in bringing his province into Confederation, is considered by many to be a Father of Confederation.[78] As well, Joey Smallwood referred to himself as "the Last Father of Confederation", because he helped lead Newfoundland into Confederation
Confederation
in 1949.[79] Joining Confederation[edit] After the initial Act of Union in 1867, Manitoba
Manitoba
was established by an Act of the Canadian Parliament on July 15, 1870, originally as an area of land much smaller than the current province.[80] British Columbia joined Canada
Canada
July 20, 1871, by an Imperial Order-in-Council enacted under the authority of the British North America
North America
Act.[81][82][83] The Order-in-Council incorporated the Terms of Union negotiated by the governments of Canada
Canada
and British Columbia, including a commitment by the federal government to build a railway connecting British Columbia to the railway system of Canada
Canada
within 10 years of union.[84] Prince Edward Island (P.E.I) joined July 1, 1873, also by an Imperial Order-in-Council.[85] One of the Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
Terms of Union was a guarantee by the federal government to operate a ferry link, a term which was deleted upon completion of the Confederation
Confederation
Bridge in 1997.[81] Alberta
Alberta
and Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
were established September 1, 1905, by Acts of the Canadian Parliament. Newfoundland joined on March 31, 1949 by an Act of the Imperial Parliament, also with a ferry link guaranteed.[81][86] The Crown acquired Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land
and the North-Western Territory
North-Western Territory
from the Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
in 1869 (though final payment to the Hudson's Bay Company did not occur until 1870), and then transferred jurisdiction to the Dominion
Dominion
on July 15, 1870, merging them and naming them North-West Territories.[87] In 1880, the British assigned all North American Arctic
Arctic
islands to Canada, right up to Ellesmere Island.[88] From this vast swath of territory were created three provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and two territories (Yukon Territory and North-West Territories, now Yukon
Yukon
and Northwest Territories), and two extensions each to Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba. Later, the third territory of Nunavut
Nunavut
was carved from the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
on April 1, 1999.[89] Below is a list of Canadian provinces and territories in the order in which they entered Confederation; territories are italicized. At formal events, representatives of the provinces and territories take precedence according to this ordering, except that provinces always precede territories. For provinces that entered on the same date, the order of precedence is based on the provinces' populations at the time they entered Confederation.

Date Name Previously

July 1, 1867  Ontario Canada
Canada
West region of the Province of Canada[N 1]

 Quebec Canada
Canada
East region of the Province of Canada[N 1]

 Nova Scotia Colony of Nova Scotia

 New Brunswick Colony of New Brunswick

July 15, 1870  Manitoba part of Rupert's Land[N 2][N 1]

 Northwest Territories all of Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land
and the North-Western Territory
North-Western Territory
except for the part which became Manitoba[N 2]

July 20, 1871  British Columbia United Colony of British Columbia

July 1, 1873  Prince Edward Island Colony of Prince Edward Island

June 13, 1898   Yukon
Yukon
Territory[N 3] part of the Northwest Territories[N 2]

September 1, 1905  Saskatchewan part of the Northwest Territories

 Alberta part of the Northwest Territories

March 31, 1949  Newfoundland[N 4] Dominion
Dominion
of Newfoundland

April 1, 1999  Nunavut part of the Northwest Territories

^ a b c Later received additional land from the Northwest Territories. ^ a b c In 1870 the Hudson's Bay Company-controlled Rupert's Land
Rupert's Land
and North-Western Territory
North-Western Territory
were transferred to the Dominion
Dominion
of Canada. Most of these lands were formed into a new territory named Northwest Territories, but the region around Fort Garry
Fort Garry
was simultaneously established as the province of Manitoba
Manitoba
by the Manitoba
Manitoba
Act of 1870. ^ Renamed Yukon
Yukon
in 2003. (Library and Archives Canada. "Yukon Territory name change to Yukon" (PDF). Retrieved July 14, 2009. ) ^ Renamed Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
in 2001.

Legacy[edit] The term Confederation
Confederation
has entered into Canadian parlance both as a metaphor for the country and for the historical events that created it. It has therefore become one of the most common names for Canadian landmarks. Examples include Mount Confederation, Confederation
Confederation
Square, Confederation
Confederation
Building, Confederation
Confederation
Park, Confederation
Confederation
Station, Confederation
Confederation
Heights, Confederation
Confederation
Bridge, and so on. This is similar to the American practices of naming things "Union" and likewise the Australians with "Federation". Also see

Expo 67 Canada
Canada
150 History of Canada Territorial evolution of Canada List of documents from the constitutional history of Canada

References[edit]

^ "Constitution Act, 1867". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. March 29, 1867. p. s.9. Retrieved September 3, 2012.  ^ Martin, Ged (1995). Britain and the Origins of Canadian Confederation, 1837–67. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0774804875.  ^ "Constitution Act, 1867". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. March 29, 1867. p. s.5. Retrieved September 3, 2012.  ^ "Constitution Act, 1867". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. March 29, 1867. p. 18. Retrieved September 3, 2012.  ^ "How Canadians
Canadians
Govern Themselves,. 7th ed". .parl.gc.ca. Retrieved May 8, 2012.  ^ "Collaborative Federalism in an era of globalization". Pco-bcp.gc.ca. April 22, 1999. Retrieved May 8, 2012.  ^ Waite, Peter B. (1962). The Life and Times of Confederation, 1864–1867. University of Toronto Press. Pages 37–38, footnote 6.  ^ Canada. "Canadian Confederation". How Canada
Canada
came to be. Government of Canada. Retrieved June 29, 2011.  ^ Edward W. Walker (May 1, 2003). Dissolution: sovereignty and the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-7425-2453-8.  ^ Martin Brook Taylor; Doug Owram (May 17, 1994). Canadian History: Beginnings to Confederation. University of Toronto Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8020-6826-2.  ^ a b c d e Jacques Dorin; Michèle Kaltemback; Sheryl Rahal (2007). Canadian Civilization. Presses Univ. du Mirail. pp. 14–17. ISBN 978-2-85816-888-0. Retrieved February 20, 2012.  ^ a b Neil Semple (April 16, 1996). The Lord's Dominion: The History of Canadian Methodism. McGill-Queens. p. 460. ISBN 978-0-7735-1400-3.  ^ Derek Hayes (August 31, 2006). Historical Atlas of Canada: Canada's History Illustrated with Original Maps. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-55365-077-5.  ^ Sandra Clarke (April 1, 2010). Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
English. Edinburgh University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7486-2617-5.  ^ Derek Hayes (August 31, 2006). Historical Atlas of Canada: Canada's History Illustrated with Original Maps. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-55365-077-5.  ^ R. D. Francis; Richard Jones, Donald B. Smith, R. D. Francis; Richard Jones; Donald B. Smith (February 2009). Journeys: A History of Canada. Cengage Learning. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-17-644244-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Roger L. Kemp (May 30, 2010). Documents of American Democracy: A Collection of Essential Works. McFarland. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7864-4210-2.  ^ Geoffrey J. Matthews; R. Louis Gentilcore (1987). Historical Atlas of Canada: The land transformed, 1800–1891. University of Toronto Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8020-3447-2.  ^ a b Paul R. Magocsi; Multicultural History Society of Ontario (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 552. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6.  ^ J. M. S. Careless (June 30, 2011). Canada: A Story of Challenge. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-107-67581-0.  ^ Mercantile Library Association (San Francisco, Calif.); Alfred Edward Whitaker (1874). Catalogue of the library of the Mercantile library association of San Francisco. Francis & Valentine, printers. p. 106.  ^ Charles Emmerson (March 2, 2010). The Future History of the Arctic. PublicAffairs. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-58648-636-5.  ^ Will Kaufman; Heidi Slettedahl Macpherson (2005). Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. ABC-CLIO. p. 822. ISBN 978-1-85109-431-8.  ^ Peter B. Waite (2001). The life and times of Confederation, 1864–1867: politics, newspapers, and the union of British North America. Robin Brass Studio. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-896941-23-3.  ^ Waite, p. 44 ^ Ged Martin (1995). Britain and the origins of Canadian confederation, 1837–67. UBC Press. pp. 23–57. ISBN 978-0-7748-0487-5.  ^ Ged Martin (1990). The Causes of Canadian confederation. Acadiensis Press. pp. 12–24. ISBN 978-0-919107-25-0.  ^ Andrew Smith, British Businessmen and Canadian Confederation Constitution-Making in an Era of Anglo-Globalization (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008) ^ The Intercolonial Railway, Dictionary of Canadian Biography http://biographi.ca/en/theme_conferences_1864.html?p=4 ^ The American Dimension, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://biographi.ca/en/theme_conferences_1864.html?p=3 ^ See Introduction by Ged Martin in Peter B. Waite, The Confederation Debates in the Province of Canada, 1865 A Selection (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2006) ^ Smith, Peter J. 1987. "The Ideological Origins of Canadian Confederation". Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue Canadienne De Science Politique. 20, no. 1: 3–29. ^ Mckay, I. 2000. "The Liberal Order Framework: A Prospectus for a Reconnaissance of Canadian History". CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW. 81: 617–645. ^ Ducharme, Michel, and Jean-François Constant. Liberalism and Hegemony: Debating the Canadian Liberal Revolution. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. ^ Smith, Andrew. 2008. "Toryism, Classical Liberalism, and Capitalism: The Politics of Taxation and the Struggle for Canadian Confederation". The Canadian Historical Review. 89, no. 1: 1–25. ^ Ajzenstat, Janet. The Canadian Founding: John Locke
John Locke
and Parliament. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2007. ^ Waite, p. 56 ^ Richard Gwyn (October 28, 2008). John A: The Man Who Made Us. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-679-31476-9.  ^ a b J. M. S. Careless (January 26, 2012). Canada: A Story of Challenge. Cambridge University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-107-67581-0.  ^ Waite, p. 83 ^ a b Gwyn, p. 304 ^ a b Waite, p. 87 ^ a b Waite, p. 85 ^ Gwyn, p. 307 ^ Gwyn, p. 305 ^ Waite, p. 88 ^ Gwyn, p. 306 ^ Gwy, p. 306 ^ cited in Gwyn, p. 305 ^ Fredericton
Fredericton
Head Quarters, of September 14, 1864, cited in Waite, p. 90 ^ " Quebec
Quebec
2008 (400th Anniversary website), Government of Canada". Quebec400.gc.ca. November 8, 2007. Archived from the original on May 6, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2012.  ^ Waite, p. 98 ^ a b Waite, p. 99 ^ Waite, p. 100 ^ Gwyn p. 317 ^ a b Gwyn, p. 317 ^ Waite, p. 105 ^ Waite, p. 107 ^ Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (1991). Royal Observations. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 16. ISBN 1-55002-076-5. Retrieved March 7, 2010.  ^ James Stuart Olson; Robert Shadle (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 916. ISBN 978-0-313-29367-2.  ^ Alan Rayburn (March 1, 2001). Naming Canada: Stories About Canadian Place Names. University of Toronto Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8020-8293-0.  ^ Christopher Moore (July 27, 2011). 1867: How the Fathers Made a Deal. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-55199-483-3.  ^ Bousfield 1991, p. 17 ^ "Macdonald, John A.; ''On Canadian Confederation''; 1865". Bartleby.com. Retrieved May 8, 2012.  ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The crown in Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved February 19, 2009.  ^ The Royal Household. "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada". Queen's Printer. Retrieved May 14, 2009.  ^ "Heritage Saint John > Canadian Heraldry". Heritage Resources of Saint John and New Brunswick
New Brunswick
Community College. Archived from the original on June 17, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2009.  ^ Farthing, John; Freedom Wears a Crown; Toronto, 1957 ^ "Reference Re: Offshore Mineral Rights". Ottawa: Supreme Court of Canada. 1967. p. 816.  ^ Rand Dyck (March 2011). Canadian Politics. Cengage Learning. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-17-650343-7.  ^ Nọnso Okafọ (October 22, 2009). Reconstructing law and justice in a postcolony. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-7546-4784-3. Retrieved February 20, 2012.  ^ Chambers's encyclopaedia: a dictionary of universal knowledge for the people. Collier. 1887. p. 225.  ^ R. D. Francis; Richard Jones, Donald B. Smith, R. D. Francis; Richard Jones; Donald B. Smith (February 2009). Journeys: A History of Canada. Cengage Learning. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-17-644244-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Constitution Act, 1867". Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. 1867. p. 129.  ^ Baker, Ron; Rennie, Morina (2012). "An institutional perspective on the development of Canada's first public accounts". Accounting History. University of Regina / University of Guelph: Sage. 18 (1): 37.  ^ Patrick Malcolmson; Richard Myers (August 15, 2009). The Canadian Regime: An Introduction to Parliamentary Government in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4426-0047-8.  ^ Robert Alexander Harrison; Peter Oliver; Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History (October 1, 2003). The conventional man: the diaries of Ontario
Ontario
Chief Justice Robert A. Harrison, 1856–1878. University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN 978-0-8020-8842-0.  ^ Stanford, Frances (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-55035-708-0.  ^ Christopher McCreery (2005). The Order of Canada: its origins, history, and development. University of Toronto Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-8020-3940-8.  ^ Douglas N. Sprague (June 2, 1988). Canada
Canada
and the Métis, 1869–1885. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-88920-964-0.  ^ a b c Rae Murphy (1993). The essentials of canadian history: Canada since 1867, the post-confederate nation. Research & Education Assoc. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-87891-917-8.  ^ British Columbia
British Columbia
Terms of Union, May 16, 1871. ^ Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Access to Information Act".  ^ British Columbia
British Columbia
Terms of Union, para. 11. ^ Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
Terms of Union, June 26, 1873 ^ Newfoundland Act, 12 & 13 Geo. VI, c. 22 (U.K.). ^ Dominion
Dominion
Lands Policy. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. January 15, 1973. pp. 1–. GGKEY:ND80W0QRBQN. Retrieved February 20, 2012.  ^ Richard J. Diubaldo (January 18, 1999). Stefansson and the Canadian Arctic. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7735-1815-5.  ^ Jens Dahl; Jack Hicks; Peter Jull; International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (2000). Nunavut: Inuit regain control of their lands and their lives. IWGIA. p. 20. ISBN 978-87-90730-34-5. 

Further reading[edit]

Careless, J.M.C. "George Brown and Confederation," Manitoba
Manitoba
Historical Society Transactions, Series 3, Number 26, 1969–70 online Creighton, Donald Grant. The road to confederation: The emergence of Canada, 1863–1867 (1965) a standard history Creighton, Donald Grant. The young politician. Vol. 1 (1952) vol 1 of biography of Macdonald Gwyn, Richard. John A: The Man Who Made Us (2008) vol 1 of biography of Macdonald Knox, Bruce A. "Conservative Imperialism 1858–1874: Bulwer Lytton, Lord Carnarvon, and Canadian Confederation." International History Review (1984) 6#3 pp: 333–357. Martin, Ged. Britain and the origins of Canadian confederation, 1837–67 (UBC Press, 1995). Martin, Ged, ed. The Causes of Canadian confederation (Acadiensis Press, 1990). Moore, Christopher. 1867: How the Fathers Made a Deal (McClelland & Stewart, 2011) Morton, William Lewis. The critical years: the union of British North America, 1857–1873 (McClelland & Stewart, 1964) a standard history Smith, Andrew. British Businessmen and Canadian Confederation Constitution-Making in an Era of Anglo-Globalization (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008) Smith, Andrew. "Toryism, Classical Liberalism, and Capitalism: The Politics of Taxation and the Struggle for Canadian Confederation." Canadian Historical Review 89#1 (2008): 1–25. Smith, Jennifer. "Canadian confederation and the influence of American federalism." Canadian Journal of Political Science 21#3 (1988): 443–464. Smith, Peter J. "The Ideological Origins of Canadian Confederation". Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue Canadienne De Science Politique 1987. 20#1 pp : 3–29. Vronsky, Peter. Ridgeway: The American Fenian Invasion and the 1866 Battle That Made Canada
Canada
(Penguin Canada, 2011) Waite, Peter B. The life and times of Confederation, 1864–1867: politics, newspapers, and the union of British North America
North America
(Robin Brass Studio, 2001). White, Walter Leroy, and W. C. Soderlund. Canadian Confederation: A Decision-making Analysis (McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP, 1979) Wilson, David A. Thomas D'Arcy McGee: The Extreme Moderate, 1857–1868. Vol. 2 (McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP, 2011)

Provinces and regions[edit]

Bailey, Alfred G. "The basis and persistence of opposition to confederation in New Brunswick." Canadian Historical Review 23#4 (1942): 374–397. Bailey, Alfred G. "Railways and the Confederation
Confederation
Issue in New Brunswick, 1863–1865." Canadian Historical Review 21#4 (1940): 367–383. Bolger, Francis. " Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
and Confederation" CCHA, Report, 28 (1961) pp: 25–30 online Bonenfant, Jean-Charles. The French Canadians
Canadians
and the birth of Confederation
Confederation
(Canadian Historical Association, 1966) Buckner, Phillip. "CHR Dialogue: The Maritimes and Confederation: A Reassessment." Canadian Historical Review 71#1 (1990) pp: 1–45. Hiller, James. Confederation
Confederation
Defeated: The Newfoundland Election of 1869 (Newfoundland Historical Society, 1976) Pryke, Kenneth G. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and Confederation, 1864–74 (1979) Shelton, W. George, ed. British Columbia
British Columbia
and Confederation
Confederation
(1967) Silver, Arthur I. The French-Canadian idea of confederation, 1864–1900 (University of Toronto Press, 1997) Wilson, George E. "New Brunswick's entrance into confederation." Canadian Historical Review 9#1 (1928): 4–24.

Primary sources[edit]

Waite, Peter B., ed. The Confederation
Confederation
Debates in the Province of Canada, 1865 A Selection (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2006) Quebec
Quebec
and London
London
Conferences. Report of resolutions adopted at a conference of delegates from the provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, and the colonies of Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island ..., London: s.n., 1867? [Resolutions of the Quebec
Quebec
Conference of October 10, 1864, and those of the London
London
Conference of December 4, 1866, side by side] Nova Scotia. House of Assembly (1867). Debate on the union of the provinces, in the House of Assembly of Nova Scotia, March 16th, 18th and 19th, 1867.  Joseph Howe; William Annand; Hugh McDonald; Great Britain. Foreign Office (1867). Letter addressed to the Earl of Carnarvon by Mr. Joseph Howe, Mr. William Annand, and Mr. Hugh McDonald, stating their objections to the proposed scheme of union of the British North American provinces. Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode, for H.M. Stationery Off. p. 36.  Canada. Parliament; Murray A. Lapin; Canada. Archives branch; J. S. Patrick (1865). Parliamentary debates on the subject of the confederation of the British North American provinces, 3rd session, 8th provincial Parliament of Canada. Hunter, Rose & co., parliamentary printers. 

External links[edit]

Library and Archives Canada.gov: Canadian Confederation
Confederation
collection Canadiana: "On the Road to Confederation" McCord Museum: "Confederation: The Creation of Canada" Dictionary of Canadian Biography, "The Charlottetown
Charlottetown
and Quebec Conferences of 1864"

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