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The CANADIAN ARCTIC ARCHIPELAGO, also known as the ARCTIC ARCHIPELAGO, is a group of islands north of the Canadian mainland.

Situated in the northern extremity of North America and covering about 1,424,500 km2 (550,000 sq mi), this group of 36,563 islands in the Arctic Sea comprises much of the territory of Northern Canada – most of Nunavut and part of the Northwest Territories . The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is showing some effects of global warming , with some computer estimates determining that melting there will contribute 3.5 cm (1.4 in) to the rise in sea levels by 2100.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Map with links to islands * 4 Mapping * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading

HISTORY

British claims on the islands were based on the explorations in the 1570s by Martin Frobisher . Canadian sovereignty was originally (1870–80) only over island portions that drained into Foxe Basin , Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait . Canadian sovereignty over all of the islands was not established until the 1880 transfer by Britain to Canada of the remaining islands. The District of Franklin – established in 1895 – comprised almost all of the archipelago; the district was dissolved upon the creation of Nunavut in 1999. Canada claims all the waterways of the Northwestern Passages as Canadian Internal Waters ; however the United States and most other maritime countries view these as international waters . Disagreement over the passages' status has raised Canadian concerns about environmental enforcement, national security, and general sovereignty. Hans Island , in the Nares Strait east of Ellesmere Island, is a territory currently contested between Canada and Denmark .

GEOGRAPHY

Satellite image of Baffin Island, the largest island by total area of the Arctic Archipelago Satellite image montage showing Ellesmere Island and its neighbours, including Axel Heiberg Island (left of Ellesmere). Greenland is to the right in this photo.

The archipelago extends some 2,400 km (1,500 mi) longitudinally and 1,900 km (1,200 mi) from the mainland to Cape Columbia , the northernmost point on Ellesmere Island . It is bounded on the west by the Beaufort Sea ; on the northwest by the Arctic Ocean ; on the east by Greenland , Baffin Bay and Davis Strait ; and on the south by Hudson Bay and the Canadian mainland. The various islands are separated from each other and the continental mainland by a series of waterways collectively known as the Northwestern Passages . Two large peninsulas , Boothia and Melville , extend northward from the mainland.

The archipelago consists of 36,563 islands, of which 94 are classified as major islands, being larger than 130 km2 (50 sq mi), and cover a total area of 1,400,000 km2 (540,000 sq mi). The islands of the archipelago over 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi), in order of descending area, are:

NAME LOCATION* AREA AREA RANK Population (2001)

WORLD CANADA

Baffin Island NU 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi) 5 1 9,563

Victoria Island NT , NU 217,291 km2 (83,897 sq mi) 8 2 1,707

Ellesmere Island NU 196,236 km2 (75,767 sq mi) 10 3 168

Banks Island NT 70,028 km2 (27,038 sq mi) 24 5 114

Devon Island NU 55,247 km2 (21,331 sq mi) 27 6 0

Axel Heiberg Island NU 43,178 km2 (16,671 sq mi) 32 7 0

Melville Island NT , NU 42,149 km2 (16,274 sq mi) 33 8 0

Southampton Island NU 41,214 km2 (15,913 sq mi) 34 9 718

Prince of Wales Island NU 33,339 km2 (12,872 sq mi) 40 10 0

Somerset Island NU 24,786 km2 (9,570 sq mi) 46 12 0

Bathurst Island NU 16,042 km2 (6,194 sq mi) 54 13 0

Prince Patrick Island NT 15,848 km2 (6,119 sq mi) 55 14 0

King William Island NU 13,111 km2 (5,062 sq mi) 61 15 1279

Ellef Ringnes Island NU 11,295 km2 (4,361 sq mi) 69 16 0

Bylot Island NU 11,067 km2 (4,273 sq mi) 72 17 0

* NT = Northwest Territories , NU = Nunavut

After Greenland, the archipelago is the world’s largest high-Arctic land area. The climate of the islands is arctic , and the terrain consists of tundra except in mountainous areas. Most of the islands are uninhabited; human settlement is extremely thin and scattered, being mainly coastal Inuit settlements on the southern islands.

MAP WITH LINKS TO ISLANDS

* King Christian map 1 * Borden map 2 * Lougheed map 3 * Brock map 4 * Mackenzie King map 5 * Helena map 6 * Cameron map 7 * Emerald map 8 * Prince Patrick map 9 * Île Vanier map 10 * Eglinton map 11 * Alexander map 12 * Bathurst map 13 * Melville map 14 * Byam Martin map 15 * Banks map 16 * Stefansson map 17 * Russell map 18 * Prince of Wales map 19 * Prescott map 20 * Somerset map 21 * Victoria map 22 * King William map 23 * Matty map 24 * Wales map 25 * Belcher map 26 * Long map 27 * Akimiski map 28 * Charlton map 29

* Ellesmere map 30 * Meighen map 31 * Axel Heiberg map 32 * Ellef Ringnes map 33 * Amund Ringnes map 34 * Cornwall map 35 * Graham map 36 * North Kent map 37 * Baillie-Hamilton map 38 * Little Cornwallis map 39 * Cornwallis map 40 * Devon map 41 * Bylot map 42 * Baffin map 43 * Jens Munk map 44 * Koch map 45 * Bray map 46 * Rowley map 47 * Foley map 48 * Air Force map 49 * Prince Charles map 50 * Vansittart map 51 * White map 52 * Southampton map 53 * Resolution map 54 * Loks map 55 * Akpatok map 56 * Big map 57 * Salisbury map 58 * Nottingham map 59 * Mansel map 60 * Coats map 61

ISLANDS NOT ON MAP

* Beechey map 62 * Duke of York map 63 * Gateshead map 64 * Haig-Thomas map 65 * Hans map 66 * Killiniq map 67

* Jenny Lind map 68 * Ottawa map 69 * Prince Leopold map 70 * Skraeling map 71 * Trodeley map 72 * Weston map 73

MAPPING

* ^MAP 1 King Christian Island, 77°45′N 102°00′W / 77.750°N 102.000°W / 77.750; -102.000 (King Christian Island, NU) * ^MAP 2 Borden Island, 78°33′N 111°10′W / 78.550°N 111.167°W / 78.550; -111.167 (Borden Island, NT, NU) * ^MAP 3 Lougheed Island, 77°24′N 105°15′W / 77.400°N 105.250°W / 77.400; -105.250 (Lougheed Island, NT) * ^MAP 4 Brock Island, 77°51′N 114°27′W / 77.850°N 114.450°W / 77.850; -114.450 (Brock Island, NT) * ^MAP 5 Mackenzie King Island, 77°43′N 111°57′W / 77.717°N 111.950°W / 77.717; -111.950 (Mackenzie King Island, NT, NU) * ^MAP 6 Helena Island, 76°40′N 101°00′W / 76.667°N 101.000°W / 76.667; -101.000 (Helena Island, NU) * ^MAP 7 Cameron Island, 77°48′N 101°51′W / 77.800°N 101.850°W / 77.800; -101.850 (Cameron Island, NU) * ^MAP 8 Emerald Isle, 76°48′N 114°07′W / 76.800°N 114.117°W / 76.800; -114.117 (Emerald Isle, NT) * ^MAP 9 Prince Patrick Island, 76°45′N 119°30′W / 76.750°N 119.500°W / 76.750; -119.500 (Prince Patrick Island, NT) * ^MAP 10 Île Vanier, 76°10′N 103°15′W / 76.167°N 103.250°W / 76.167; -103.250 (Île Vanier, NU) * ^MAP 11 Eglinton Island, 75°46′N 118°27′W / 75.767°N 118.450°W / 75.767; -118.450 (Eglinton Island, NT) * ^MAP 12 Alexander Island, 75°52′N 102°37′W / 75.867°N 102.617°W / 75.867; -102.617 (Alexander Island, NU) * ^MAP 13 Bathurst Island, 75°46′N 099°47′W / 75.767°N 99.783°W / 75.767; -99.783 (Bathurst Island, NU) * ^MAP 14 Melville Island, 75°30′N 111°30′W / 75.500°N 111.500°W / 75.500; -111.500 (Melville Island, NT, NU) * ^MAP 15 Byam Martin Island, 75°12′N 104°17′W / 75.200°N 104.283°W / 75.200; -104.283 (Byam Martin Island, NU) * ^MAP 16 Banks Island, 73°00′N 121°30′W / 73.000°N 121.500°W / 73.000; -121.500 (Banks Island, NU) * ^MAP 17 Stefansson Island, 73°30′N 105°30′W / 73.500°N 105.500°W / 73.500; -105.500 (Stefansson Island, NU) * ^MAP 18 Russell Island, 74°00′N 098°25′W / 74.000°N 98.417°W / 74.000; -98.417 (Russell Island, NU) * ^MAP 19 Prince of Wales Island, 72°36′N 098°32′W / 72.600°N 98.533°W / 72.600; -98.533 (Prince of Wales Island, NU) * ^MAP 20 Prescott Island, 73°03′N 096°49′W / 73.050°N 96.817°W / 73.050; -96.817 (Prescott Island, NU) * ^MAP 21 Somerset Island, 73°15′N 093°30′W / 73.250°N 93.500°W / 73.250; -93.500 (Somerset Island, NU) * ^MAP 22 Victoria Island, 71°00′N 110°00′W / 71.000°N 110.000°W / 71.000; -110.000 (Victoria Island, NT, NU) * ^MAP 23 King William Island, 68°58′N 097°14′W / 68.967°N 97.233°W / 68.967; -97.233 (King William Island, NU) * ^MAP 24 Matty Island, 69°28′N 095°40′W / 69.467°N 95.667°W / 69.467; -95.667 (Matty Island, NU) * ^MAP 25 Wales Island, 68°01′N 086°40′W / 68.017°N 86.667°W / 68.017; -86.667 (Wales Island, NU) * ^MAP 26 Belcher Islands, 56°20′N 079°30′W / 56.333°N 79.500°W / 56.333; -79.500 (Belcher Islands, NU) * ^MAP 27 Long Island, 54°52′N 079°25′W / 54.867°N 79.417°W / 54.867; -79.417 (Long Island, NU) * ^MAP 28 Akimiski Island, 53°00′N 081°20′W / 53.000°N 81.333°W / 53.000; -81.333 (Akimiski Island, NU) * ^MAP 29 Charlton Island, 52°00′N 079°26′W / 52.000°N 79.433°W / 52.000; -79.433 (Charlton Island, NU) * ^MAP 30 Ellesmere Island, 79°49′N 078°00′W / 79.817°N 78.000°W / 79.817; -78.000 (Ellesmere Island, NU) * ^MAP 31 Meighen Island, 79°59′N 099°30′W / 79.983°N 99.500°W / 79.983; -99.500 (Meighen Island, NU) * ^MAP 32 Axel Heiberg Island, 79°26′N 090°46′W / 79.433°N 90.767°W / 79.433; -90.767 (Axel Heiberg Island, NU) * ^MAP 33 Ellef Ringnes Island, 78°37′N 101°56′W / 78.617°N 101.933°W / 78.617; -101.933 (Ellef Ringnes Island, NU) * ^MAP 34 Amund Ringnes Island, 78°19′N 096°25′W / 78.317°N 96.417°W / 78.317; -96.417 (Amund Ringnes Island, NU) * ^MAP 35 Cornwall Island, 77°37′N 094°52′W / 77.617°N 94.867°W / 77.617; -94.867 (Cornwall Island, NU) * ^MAP 36 Graham Island, 77°26′N 090°30′W / 77.433°N 90.500°W / 77.433; -90.500 (Graham Island, NU) * ^MAP 37 North Kent Island, 76°40′N 090°15′W / 76.667°N 90.250°W / 76.667; -90.250 (North Kent Island, NU)

* ^MAP 38 Baillie-Hamilton Island, 75°53′N 094°35′W / 75.883°N 94.583°W / 75.883; -94.583 (Baillie-Hamilton Island, NU) * ^MAP 39 Little Cornwallis Island, 75°30′N 096°30′W / 75.500°N 96.500°W / 75.500; -96.500 (Little Cornwallis Island, NU) * ^MAP 40 Cornwallis Island, 75°05′N 095°00′W / 75.083°N 95.000°W / 75.083; -95.000 (Cornwallis Island, NU)

* ^MAP 41 Devon Island, 75°15′N 088°00′W / 75.250°N 88.000°W / 75.250; -88.000 (Devon Island, NU) * ^MAP 42 Bylot Island, 73°13′N 078°34′W / 73.217°N 78.567°W / 73.217; -78.567 (Bylot Island, NU) * ^MAP 43 Baffin Island, 69°00′N 072°00′W / 69.000°N 72.000°W / 69.000; -72.000 (Baffin Island, NU) * ^MAP 44 Jens Munk Island, 69°40′N 079°40′W / 69.667°N 79.667°W / 69.667; -79.667 (Jens Munk Island, NU) * ^MAP 45 Koch Island, 69°35′N 078°20′W / 69.583°N 78.333°W / 69.583; -78.333 (Koch Island, NU) * ^MAP 46 Bray Island, 69°20′N 077°00′W / 69.333°N 77.000°W / 69.333; -77.000 (Bray Island, NU) * ^MAP 47 Rowley Island, 69°05′N 078°52′W / 69.083°N 78.867°W / 69.083; -78.867 (Rowley Island, NU) * ^MAP 48 Foley Island, 68°30′N 075°00′W / 68.500°N 75.000°W / 68.500; -75.000 (Foley Island, NU) * ^MAP 49 Air Force Island, 67°58′N 074°05′W / 67.967°N 74.083°W / 67.967; -74.083 (Air Force Island, NU) * ^MAP 50 Prince Charles Island, 67°45′N 076°00′W / 67.750°N 76.000°W / 67.750; -76.000 (Prince Charles Island, NU) * ^MAP 51 Vansittart Island, 65°50′N 084°00′W / 65.833°N 84.000°W / 65.833; -84.000 (Vansittart Island, NU)

* ^MAP 52 White Island, 65°46′N 084°53′W / 65.767°N 84.883°W / 65.767; -84.883 (White Island, NU) * ^MAP 53 Southampton Island, 64°30′N 084°30′W / 64.500°N 84.500°W / 64.500; -84.500 (Southampton Island, NU) * ^MAP 54 Resolution Island, 61°35′N 065°00′W / 61.583°N 65.000°W / 61.583; -65.000 (Resolution Island, NU)

* ^MAP 55 Loks Land Island, 62°26′N 064°38′W / 62.433°N 64.633°W / 62.433; -64.633 (Loks Land Island, NU) * ^MAP 56 Akpatok Island, 60°25′N 068°08′W / 60.417°N 68.133°W / 60.417; -68.133 (Akpatok Island, NU) * ^MAP 57 Big Island, 62°43′N 070°43′W / 62.717°N 70.717°W / 62.717; -70.717 (Big Island, NU) * ^MAP 58 Salisbury Island, 63°35′N 077°00′W / 63.583°N 77.000°W / 63.583; -77.000 (Salisbury Island, NU) * ^MAP 59 Nottingham Island, 63°17′N 077°55′W / 63.283°N 77.917°W / 63.283; -77.917 (Nottingham Island, NU)

* ^MAP 60 Mansel Island, 62°00′N 079°50′W / 62.000°N 79.833°W / 62.000; -79.833 (Mansel Island, NU) * ^MAP 61 Coats Island, 62°35′N 082°45′W / 62.583°N 82.750°W / 62.583; -82.750 (Coats Island, NU) * ^MAP 62 Beechey Island, 74°43′N 091°51′W / 74.717°N 91.850°W / 74.717; -91.850 (Beechey Island, NU) * ^MAP 63 Duke of York Archipelago, 68°15′N 112°30′W / 68.250°N 112.500°W / 68.250; -112.500 (Duke of York Archipelago, NU) * ^MAP 64 Gateshead Island, 70°35′N 100°25′W / 70.583°N 100.417°W / 70.583; -100.417 (Gateshead Island, NU) * ^MAP 65 Haig-Thomas Island, 78°15′N 094°30′W / 78.250°N 94.500°W / 78.250; -94.500 (Haig-Thomas Island, NU) * ^MAP 66 Hans Island, 80°49′N 066°27′W / 80.817°N 66.450°W / 80.817; -66.450 (Hans Island, Canada, Denmark) * ^MAP 67 Killiniq Island, 60°22′N 064°37′W / 60.367°N 64.617°W / 60.367; -64.617 (Killiniq Island, NU) * ^MAP 68 Jenny Lind Island, 68°43′N 101°58′W / 68.717°N 101.967°W / 68.717; -101.967 (Jenny Lind Island, NU) * ^MAP 69 Ottawa Islands, 59°34′N 080°16′W / 59.567°N 80.267°W / 59.567; -80.267 (Ottawa Islands, NU) * ^MAP 70 Prince Leopold Island, 74°01′N 090°04′W / 74.017°N 90.067°W / 74.017; -90.067 (Prince Leopold Island, NU) * ^MAP 71 Skraeling Island, 78°55′N 075°40′W / 78.917°N 75.667°W / 78.917; -75.667 (Skraeling Island, NU) * ^MAP 72 Trodely Island, 52°14′N 079°26′W / 52.233°N 79.433°W / 52.233; -79.433 (Trodely Island, NU) * ^MAP 73 Weston Island, 52°32′N 079°35′W / 52.533°N 79.583°W / 52.533; -79.583 (Weston Island, NU)

SEE ALSO

* Geography of Canada portal * Arctic portal

Map all coordinates using OSM Map all coordinates using Google

Export all coordinates as KML

Export all coordinates as GPX

Map all microformatted coordinates

Place data as RDF

* British Arctic Territories * List of Canadian islands by area * List of islands of Canada

REFERENCES

* ^ Marsh, James H., ed. 1988. " Arctic Archipelago" _The Canadian Encyclopedia _. Toronto: Hurtig Publishers. * ^ Thinning of the Arctic Sea-Ice Cover * ^ Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast * ^ Wayman, Erin. "Canada’s ice shrinking rapidly". _Science News _. * ^ "Canada". World Statesmen. Retrieved 30 June 2016. * ^ " Northwest Passage gets political name change". Edmonton Journal . Archived from the original on 2016-01-16 – via Canada.com.

* ^ Arctic Archipelago

FURTHER READING

* Aiken, S.G., M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, et al. _Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval_. Ottawa: NRC Research Press; Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Nature, 2007. ISBN 978-0-660-19727-2 . * Aiken, S. G., Laurie Lynn Consaul, and M. J. Dallwitz. _Grasses of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. Ottawa: Research Division, Canadian Museum of Nature, 1995. * Balkwill, H.R.; Embry, Ashton F. _ Arctic Geology and Geophysics: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Arctic Geology_ (Hardcover). Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists. ISBN 0-920230-19-9 . * Bouchard, Giselle. _Freshwater Diatom Biogeography of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada , 2005. ISBN 0-494-01424-5 * Brown, Roger James Evan. _Permafrost in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. National Research Council of Canada, Division of Building Research, 1972. * Cota GF, LW Cooper, DA Darby, and IL Larsen. 2006. "Unexpectedly High Radioactivity Burdens in Ice-Rafted Sediments from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago". _The Science of the Total Environment_. 366, no. 1: 253-61. * Dunphy, Michael. _Validation of a modelling system for tides in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. Canadian technical report of hydrography and ocean sciences, 243. Dartmouth, N.S.: Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2005. * Glass, Donald J.; Embry, Ashton F. ; McMillan, N. J. _Devonian of the World: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on the Devonian System_ (Hardcover). Calgary, Canada: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists. ISBN 0-920230-47-4 . * Hamilton, Paul B., Konrad Gajewski, David E. Atkinson, and David R.S. Lean. 2001. "Physical and Chemical Limnology of 204 Lakes from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago". _Hydrobiologia_. 457, no. 1/3: 133-148. * Mi︠a︡rss, Tiĭu, Mark V. H. Wilson, and R. Thorsteinsson. _Silurian and Lower Devonian Thelodonts and Putative Chondrichthyans from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. Special papers in palaeontology, no. 75. London: Palaeontological Association, 2006. ISBN 0-901702-99-4 * Michel, C Ingram, R G, and L R Harris. 2006. "Variability in Oceanographic and Ecological Processes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago". _Progress in Oceanography_. 71, no. 2: 379. * Porsild, A.E. _The Vascular Plants of the Western Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. Ottawa: E. Cloutier, Queen's printer, 1955. * Rae, R. W. _Climate of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. Toronto: Canada Dept. of Transport, 1951. * Thorsteinsson, R., and Ulrich Mayr. _The Sedimentary Rocks of Devon Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. Ottawa, Canada: Geological Survey of Canada, 1987. ISBN 0-660-12319-3 * Van der Baaren, Augustine, and S. J. Prinsenberg. _Geostrophic transport estimates from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago_. Dartmouth, N.S.: Ocean Sciences Division, Maritimes Region, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, 2002.

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