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Canacidae, incorrectly Canaceidae, or beach flies, surf or surge flies, is a family of Diptera.There are 113 species in 12 genera.[3][4][5][6] The family now includes Tethininae as a subfamily.

face on view of the head of Canace ranula, Loew

Wing venation

Contents

1 Family description 2 Classification 3 Biology 4 References 5 External links

Family description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera. Minute (1.6mm.-5 mm.) yellow, grey or grey-brown pruinose flies with whitish to greyish markings.The head is large with small antenna bearing bare to pubescent arista.The "mouth" is a large oval opening. There are three or four pairs of orbital bristles on the head directed outward (inset upswept).Postvertical bristles are absent but diverging pseudopostocellar bristles are present.Other head bristles present are ocellar bristles, 2-5 pairs of frontal bristles, curving outward, interfrontal bristles and vibrissae. The genae are high with 1 or more upcurving bristles. Tibiae are without a dorsal preapical bristle. The wing is in almost all species unmarked.The costa has a subcostal break, the subcosta is parallel to vein R1 and merging with that vein just before the costa. Tibiae without dorsal preapical bristle. See [1] Drawings of Canace. Classification[edit]

Subfamily Canacinae Jones, 1906[1]

Tribe Canacini Jones, 1906[1]

Canace Haliday in Curtis, 1837 [7]

Tribe Dynomiellini Mathis, 1982 [7][8]

Canacea Cresson, 1924[9] Chaetocanace Hendel, 1914[10] Dynomiella Giordani Soika, 1956[11] Isocanace Mathis, 1982[8] Trichocanace Wirth, 1951[12] Xanthocanace Hendel, 1914[10]

Subfamily Apetaeninae Mathis & Munari, 1996[13]

Apetaenus Eaton, 1875[14]

Subfamily Horaismopterinae Sabrosky, 1978

Horaismoptera Hendel, 1907 Tethinosoma Malloch, 1930

Subfamily Nocticanacinae Mathis, 1982[15]

Canaceoides Cresson, 1934 Nocticanace Malloch, 1933 [15] Paracanace Mathis & Wirth, 1978 Procanace Hendel, 1913

Subfamily Tethininae Hendel, 1916[2]

Afrotethina Munari, 1986[16] Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel, 1934[17] Plesiotethina Munari, 2000[18] Pseudorhicnoessa Malloch, 1914[19] Sigaloethina Munari, 2004[20] Tethina Haliday in Curtis, 1837[7] Thitena Munari, 2004[20]

Subfamily Zaleinae McAlpine, 1985

Zalea McAlpine, 1985 Suffomyia Freidberg, 1995[21]

Biology[edit] Canacidae are mostly intertidal flies.They ar found along sea coasts, on the surface of small water bodies, saline and fresh, at places protected from wind. They feed on Infusoria and other minute organisms. References[edit]

^ a b c Jones, B.J. (1906). "Catalogue of the Ephydridae, with bibliography and description of new species". University of California Publications in Entomology. University of California, Los Angeles. 1 (2): 153–198.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Hendel, Friedrich (1916). "Beiträge zur Systematik der Acalyptraten Musciden (Dipt.)". Entomologische Mitteilungen. 5 (9-12): 294–299.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Mathis, Wayne N. (1992). "World Catalog of the Beach-Fly Family Canacidae (Diptera)". Smithson. Contr. Zool. (Print). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 536: 1–18. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.536.  ^ Munari, Lorenzo; Mathis, Wayne N. (2010). "World Catalog of the Family Canacidae (including Tethinidae) (Diptera), with keys to the supraspecific taxa" (PDF). Zootaxa. Auckland, New Zealand: Magnolia Press. 2471: 1–84. ISSN 1175-5334. Retrieved 25 January 2012.  ^ Mathis, Wayne N (1998). Papp, L.; Darvas, B, eds. Family Canacidae. Contributions to a Manual of palaearctic Diptera. 3. Budapest: Science Herald,. pp. 251–257.  ^ Mathis, Wayne N; Freidberg, A. (1991). "Review of Afrotropical beach flies of the tribe Canacini and subfamily Nocticanacinae (Diptera: Canacidae)". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington DC, USA: Entomological Society of Washington. 93: 70–85. ISSN 0013-8797.  ^ a b c Haliday, A.H. (1837). "New British Insects Indicated in Mr. Curtis's Guide". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 2: 183–190. doi:10.1080/00222933809512369.  ^ a b Mathis, W.N. (1982). "Studies of Canacidae (Diptera), I: Suprageneric revision of the family, with revisions of new tribe Dynomiellini and new genus Isocanace". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Smithsonian. 347: iii+1–29.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Cresson, E.T., Jr. (1924). "Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the Dipterous Family Ephydridae, Paper VI". Entomological News. 35 (5): 159–164.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Hendel, Friedrich (1914). "Acalyptrate Musciden (Dipt.) III. In , H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute". Supplementa Entomologica. 3: 90–117.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Giordani Soika, A. (1956). "Diagnosi preliminari di nuovi Ephydridae e Canaceidae della Regione etiopica e del Madagascar (Diptera)". Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia. 9: 123–130.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Wirth, W.W. (1951). "A revision of the dipterous family Canaceidae". Occasional Papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Bishop Museum. 20 (14): 245–275.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Mathis, W.N.; Munari, L. (1996). "World Catalog of the Family Tethinidae (Diptera)". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Smithsonian. 584: iv+1–27. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.584.  ^ Eaton, A.E. (1875). "Breves Dipterarum uniusque Lepidopterarum insulae Kerguelensi indigenarum diagnoses". The Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine. 12: 58–61.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Mathis, W.N. (1982). "Description of a new species of Nocticanace Malloch (Diptera: Canacidae) from Sri Lanka with notes on two related species". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. The Entomological Society of Washington. 84 (3): 421–425.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Munari, Lorenzo (1986). "Contributo alla conoscenza dei Tethinidae afrotropicali. II. Considerazioni tassonomiche sulla sottofamiglia Horaismopterinae Sabr. e descrizione di un genere e due specie nuove (Diptera, Tethinidae)". Società Veneziana di Scienze Naturali - Lavori. 11: 41–52.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Hendel, Friedrich (1934). "Revision der Tethiniden (Dipt. Muscid. acal.)". Tijdschrift voor Entomologie. Amsterdam: Nederlandse Entomologische Vereniging. 77: 37–54.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Munari, Lorenzo (2000). "Beach Flies from South-Western coast of Australia, with Descriptions of a New Genus and Two New Species (Diptera Tethinidae)". Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana. 132 (3): 237–248.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Malloch, John Russel (1914). Formosan Agromyzidae (PDF). Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 12. pp. 306–336. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ a b Munari, Lorenzo (2004). "Beach Flies (Diptera: Tethinidae: Tethininae) from Australia and Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of two new genera and ten new species" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. Australian Museum, Sydney. 56 (1): 29–56. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.56.2004.1395. ISSN 0067-1975. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ Freidberg, A. (1995). "A study of Zaleinae, a taxon transitional between Canacidae and Tethinidae (Diptera), with the description of a new genus and species". Entomologica Scandinavica. 26: 447–457. doi:10.1163/187631295x00107. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canacidae.

http://www.diptera.info/downloads/Munari_Almeida_Andrade_2009.pdf Munari, Almeida, Andrade Description of a new species of Tethina Excellent photos. Diptera.info Images Canacidae in Italian Encyclopedia of Life World taxa list

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae (meniscus midges) Corethrellidae (frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae (phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae (solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae (net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae (march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae (wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae (dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae (gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae (minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae (phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae (winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae (hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae (robber flies) Bombyliidae (bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae (window flies) Therevidae (stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae (dance flies) Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies) Empididae (dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae (small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae (tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae (scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae (flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae (spear-winged flies) Platypezidae (flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae (big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae (thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae (flutter flies) Piophilidae (cheese flies) Platystomatidae (signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae (peacock flies) Ulidiidae (picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae (stilt-legged flies) Neriidae (cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae (rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae (kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae (black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae (marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae (small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae (beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae (aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae (leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae (lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae (quasimodo flies) Diastatidae (bog flies) Ephydridae (shore flies) Drosophilidae (vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae (bee lice) Canacidae (beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae (frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae (freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae (lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae (cabbage flies) Fanniidae (little house flies) Muscidae (house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae (dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae (blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae (tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae (louse flies) Mormotomyiidae (frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae (bat flies) Streblidae (bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae (timber flies) Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) Xylomyidae (wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae (snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae (water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae (awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q140403 BugGuide: 746961 EoL: 491 Fauna Europaea: 10895 GBIF: 7287 iNaturalist: 203411 NCBI: 126

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