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CANAAN (/ˈkeɪnən/ ; Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
: _knaʿn_; Phoenician : 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
/ Masoretic
Masoretic
: כְּנָעַן _) was a Semitic -speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
. In the Bible
Bible
it corresponds to the Levant
Levant
, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant
Levant
that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
, i.e., the area of Israel
Israel
, Philistia , Phoenicia
Phoenicia
, and other nations.

The name _Canaan_ occurs commonly in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
. In particular, the references in Genesis 10 and Numbers 34 define the "Land of Canaan" as extending from Lebanon
Lebanon
southward to the "Brook of Egypt
Egypt
" and eastward to the Jordan
Jordan
River Valley . References to Canaan in the Bible
Bible
usually look back in history, referring to a region that had become something else (i.e., the Land of Israel ).

The word CANAANITES serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations—both settled and nomadic-pastoral groups—throughout the regions of the southern Levant
Levant
or Canaan. _Canaanite_ is by far the most frequently used ethnic term in the Bible. In the Book of Joshua , Canaanites are included in a list of nations to exterminate , and later described as a group which the Israelites
Israelites
had annihilated.

Archaeological attestation of the name _Canaan_ in Ancient Near Eastern sources relates almost exclusively to the period in which the region operated as a colony of the New Kingdom of Egypt (16th–11th centuries BC), with usage of the name almost disappearing following the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
(c. 1206–1150 BC). The references suggest that during this period the term was familiar to the region's neighbors on all sides, although scholars have disputed to what extent such references provide a coherent description of its location and boundaries, and regarding whether the inhabitants used the term to describe themselves. The Amarna Letters and other cuneiform documents use _Kinaḫḫu_ , while other sources of the Egyptian New Kingdom mention numerous military campaigns conducted in _Ka-na-na_.

The name "Canaanites" (כְּנָעַנִיְם _KǎNā‘ANīM,_ כְּנָעַנִי _KǎNā‘ANī_) IS ATTESTED, MANY CENTURIES LATER, AS THE ENDONYM OF THE PEOPLE LATER KNOWN TO THE ANCIENT GREEKS FROM C. 500 BC AS PHOENICIANS , and following the emigration of Canaanite-speakers to Carthage
Carthage
(founded in the 9th century BC), was also used as a self-designation by the Punics (_chanani_) of North Africa during Late Antiquity . This mirrors later usage in later books of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
(such as at the end of the Book of Zechariah , where it is thought to refer to a class of merchants or to non-monotheistic worshippers in Israel
Israel
or neighbouring Sidon
Sidon
and Tyre ), as well as in its single independent usage in the New Testament (where it alternates with the term "Syrophoenician" in two parallel passages ).

Canaan
Canaan
had significant geopolitical importance in the Late Bronze Age Amarna period
Amarna period
(14th century BC) as the area where the spheres of interest of the Egyptian , Hittite , Mitanni and Assyrian Empires converged. Much of modern knowledge about Canaan
Canaan
stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel Hazor , Tel Megiddo , and Gezer .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Archaeology

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* 2.3 Late Bronze Age cuneiform (1500–1000 BC) * 2.4 Late Bronze Age Hieroglyphic and Hieratic (1500–1000 BC) * 2.5 Later sources

* 3 Greco-Roman historiography

* 4 History

* 4.1 Overview * 4.2 Prehistory
Prehistory
* 4.3 Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(3500–2000) * 4.4 Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(2000–1550) * 4.5 Late Bronze Age (1550–1200) * 4.6 Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse * 4.7 Iron Age
Iron Age

* 5 Culture * 6 Legacy * 7 List of Canaan\'s rulers

* 8 In Jewish and Christian
Christian
Scriptures

* 8.1 Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
* 8.2 New Testament
New Testament

* 9 Black Africans as descendants of Canaan
Canaan
* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

_ Map of the Near East
Near East
by Robert de Vaugondy (1762), indicating Canaan_ as limited to the Holy Land
Holy Land
, to the exclusion of Lebanon
Lebanon
and Syria
Syria

The English term _Canaan_ (pronounced /ˈkeɪnən/ since c. AD 1500, due to the Great Vowel Shift ) comes from the Hebrew
Hebrew
כנען‎ (_knʿn_), via Greek Χαναάν _Khanaan_ and Latin
Latin
_Canaan_. It appears as KUR _ki-na-ah-na_ in the Amarna letters (14th century BC), and _knʿn_ is found on coins from Phoenicia
Phoenicia
in the last half of the 1st millennium. It first occurs in Greek in the writings of Hecataeus as _Khna_ (Χνᾶ). Scholars connect the name _Canaan_ with _knʿn_, _Kana'an_, the general Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
name for this region.

The etymology is uncertain. An early explanation derives the term from the Semitic root _knʿ_ "to be low, humble, subjugated". Some scholars have suggested that this implies an original meaning of "lowlands", in contrast with Aram , which would then mean "highlands", whereas others have suggested it meant "the subjugated" as the name of Egypt's province in the Levant, and evolved into the proper name in a similar fashion to Provincia Nostra (the first Roman colony north of the Alps, which became Provence
Provence
).

An alternative suggestion put forward by Ephraim Avigdor Speiser in 1936 derives the term from Hurrian _Kinahhu_, purportedly referring to the colour purple, so that _Canaan_ and _Phoenicia_ would be synonyms ("Land of Purple"). Tablets found in the Hurrian city of Nuzi
Nuzi
in the early 20th century appear to use the term _Kinahnu_ as a synonym for red or purple dye , laboriously produced by the Kassite rulers of Babylon
Babylon
from murex shells as early as 1600 BC, and on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast by the Phoenicians from a byproduct of glassmaking. Purple cloth became a renowned Canaanite export commodity which is mentioned in Exodus . The dyes may have been named after their place of origin. The name 'Phoenicia' is connected with the Greek word for "purple", apparently referring to the same product, but it is difficult to state with certainty whether the Greek word came from the name, or _vice versa_. The purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia was well known far and wide and was associated by the Romans with nobility and royalty. However, according to Robert Drews , Speiser's proposal has generally been abandoned.

ARCHAEOLOGY

ORIGINS

See also: Prehistory
Prehistory
of the Levant
Levant

Canaanite culture apparently developed _in situ_ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture, which pioneered the Mediterranean agricultural system typical of the Canaanite region, which comprised intensive subsistence horticulture , extensive grain growing, commercial wine and olive cultivation and transhumance pastoralism . Ghassulian itself developed from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex , which in turn developed from a fusion of their ancestral Natufian and Harifian cultures with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
(PPNB) farming cultures, practicing animal domestication , during the 6200 BC climatic crisis which led to the Agricultural Revolution /Neolithic Revolution in the Levant
Levant
. The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit
Ugarit
(at Ras Shamra in Syria
Syria
) is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically, even though its Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite language group proper.

MIDDLE BRONZE AGE

EBLA TABLETS (ca. 2500–2200 BC)

A disputed reference to _Lord of ga-na-na_ in the Semitic Eblaite tablets (dated 2350 BC) from the archive of Tell Mardikh has been interpreted by some scholars to mention the deity Dagon
Dagon
by the title "Lord of Canaan" If correct, this would suggest that Eblaites were conscious of Canaan
Canaan
as an entity by 2500 BC. Jonathan Tubb states that the term _ga-na-na_ "may provide a third millennium reference to _Canaanite_" while at the same time stating that the first certain reference is in the 18th century BC. See Ebla-Biblical controversy for further details.

MARI LETTERS (ca. 2000 BC)

A letter from Mutu-bisir to Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1809 – 1776 BC) of the Old Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
(2025–1750 BC) has been translated: "It is in Rahisum that the brigands (habbatum) and the Canaanites (Kinahnum) are situated". It was found in 1973 in the ruins of Mari , an Assyrian outpost at that time in Syria
Syria
. Additional unpublished references to Kinahnum in the Mari letters refer to the same episode. Whether the term Kinahnum refers to people from a specific region or rather people of "foreign origin" has been disputed, such that Robert Drews states that the "first certain cuneiform reference" to Canaan
Canaan
is found on the Alalakh
Alalakh
statue of King Idrimi
Idrimi
(below).

LATE BRONZE AGE CUNEIFORM (1500–1000 BC)

ALALAKH TEXTS

A reference to Ammiya being "in the land of Canaan" is found on the Statue of Idrimi (16th century BC) from Alalakh
Alalakh
in modern Syria. After a popular uprising against his rule, Idrimi
Idrimi
was forced into exile with his mother's relatives to seek refuge in "the land of Canaan", where he prepared for an eventual attack to recover his city. The other references in the Alalakh
Alalakh
texts are:

* AT 154 (unpublished) * AT 181: A list of 'Apiru people with their origins. All are towns, except for Canaan * AT 188: A list of Muskenu people with their origins. All are towns, except for three lands including Canaan * AT 48: A contract with a Canaanite hunter

AMARNA LETTERS Amarna tablet EA 9

References to Canaanites are also found throughout the Amarna letters of Pharaoh Akenaton circa 1350 BC. In the Amarna letters (circa 1350 BC), some of which were sent by governors and princes of Canaan
Canaan
to their Egyptian overlord Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(Amenhotep IV) in the 14th century BC, are found, beside _Amar_ and _Amurru_ ( Amorites ), the two forms _Kinahhi_ and _Kinahni_, corresponding to _Kena_ and _Kena'an_ respectively, and including Syria
Syria
in its widest extent, as Eduard Meyer has shown. The letters are written in the official and diplomatic East Semitic Akkadian language of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
, though "Canaanitish" words and idioms are also in evidence. The known references are:

* EA 8: Letter from Burna-Buriash II to Akhenaten
Akhenaten
, explaining that his merchants "were detained in Canaan
Canaan
for business matters", robbed and killed "in Hinnatuna of the land of Canaan" by the rulers of Acre and Shamhuna, and asks for compensation because " Canaan
Canaan
is your country" * EA 9 : Letter from Burna-Buriash II to Tutankhamen , "all the Canaanites wrote to Kurigalzu saying "come to the border of the country so we can revolt and be allied with you" * EA 30: Letter from Tushratta : "To the kings of Canaan... Provide with safe entry into Egypt" * EA 109: Letter of Rib-Hadda : "Previously, on seeing a man from Egypt, the kings of Canaan
Canaan
fled before him, but now the sons of Abdi-Ashirta make men from Egypt
Egypt
prowl about like dogs" * EA 110: Letter of Rib-Hadda : "No ship of the army is to leave Canaan" * EA 131: Letter of Rib-Hadda : "If he does not send archers, they will take and all the other cities, and the lands of Canaan
Canaan
will not belong to the king. May the king ask Yanhamu about these matters." * EA 137: Letter of Rib-Hadda : "If the king neglects Byblos
Byblos
, of all the cities of Canaan
Canaan
not one will be his" * EA 367 : "Hani son (of) Mairēya, "chief of the stable" of the king in Canaan" * EA 162: Letter to Aziru : "You yourself know that the king does not want to go against all of Canaan
Canaan
when he rages" * EA 148: Letter from Abimilku to the Pharaoh: " has taken over the land of the king for the 'Apiru. May the king ask his commissioner, who is familiar with Canaan" * EA 151: Letter from Abimilku to the Pharaoh: "The king, my lord wrote to me: 'write to me what you have heard from Canaan'." Abimilku describes in response what has happened in eastern Cilicia
Cilicia
(Danuna ), the northern coast of Syria
Syria
( Ugarit
Ugarit
), in Syria
Syria
(Qadesh , Amurru , and Damascus
Damascus
) as well as in Sidon
Sidon
.

UGARIT TEXTS

Text RS 20.182 from Ugarit
Ugarit
is a copy of a letter of the king of Ugarit
Ugarit
to Ramesses II
Ramesses II
concerning money paid by "the sons of the land of Ugarit" to the "foreman of the sons of the land of Canaan (_*kn'ny_)" According to Jonathan Tubb, this suggests that the Semitic people of Ugarit, contrary to much modern opinion, considered themselves to be non-Canaanite.

The other Ugarit
Ugarit
reference, KTU 4.96, shows a list of traders assigned to royal estates, of which one of the estates had three Ugaritans, an Ashdadite, an Egyptian and a Canaanite.

ASHUR TABLETS

A Middle Assyrian letter during the reign of Shalmaneser I includes a reference to the "travel to Canaan" of an Assyrian official.

HATTUSA LETTERS

Four references are known from Hattusa:

* An evocation to the Cedar Gods: Includes reference to Canaan alongside Sidon, Tyre and possibly Amurru * KBo XXVIII 1: Ramesses II
Ramesses II
letter to Hattusili III
Hattusili III
, in which Ramesses suggested he would meet "his brother" in Canaan
Canaan
and bring him to Egypt * KUB III 57 (also KUB III 37 + KBo I 17): Broken text which may refer to Canaan
Canaan
as an Egyptian sub-district * KBo I 15+19: Ramesses II
Ramesses II
letter to Hattusili III
Hattusili III
, describing Ramesses' visit to the "land of Canaan
Canaan
on his way to Kinza and Harita

LATE BRONZE AGE HIEROGLYPHIC AND HIERATIC (1500–1000 BC)

_ The name Canaan_ occurs in hieroglyphs as _k3nˁnˁ_ on the Merneptah Stele in the 13th century BC

During the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egyptian texts use the term _Canaan_ to refer to an Egyptian-ruled colony, whose boundaries generally corroborate the definition of Canaan
Canaan
found in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
, bounded to the west by the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, to the north in the vicinity of Hamath in Syria, to the east by the Jordan
Jordan
Valley , and to the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
to around Gaza . Nevertheless, the Egyptian and Hebrew
Hebrew
uses of the term are not identical: the Egyptian texts also identify the coastal city of Qadesh in north west Syria
Syria
near Turkey
Turkey
as part of the "Land of Canaan", so that the Egyptian usage seems to refer to the entire Levantine coast of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, making it a synonym of another Egyptian term for this coastland, Retenu or rather RETJENU .

Lebanon, in northern Canaan, bordered by the Litani river to the watershed of the Orontes River , was known by the Egyptians as upper Retjenu . In Egyptian campaign accounts, the term Djahi was used to refer to the watershed of the Jordan
Jordan
river. Many earlier Egyptian sources also mention numerous military campaigns conducted in _Ka-na-na_, just inside Asia.

16 references are known in Egyptian sources, from the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Egypt
onwards.

* Amenhotep II
Amenhotep II
inscriptions: Canaanites are included in a list of prisoners of war * Three topographical lists * Papyrus Anastasi I 27,1" refers to the route from Sile to Gaza "the of the end of the land of Canaan" * Merneptah Stele * Papyrus Anastasi IIIA 5–6 and Papyrus Anastasi IV 16,4 refer to "Canaanite slaves from Hurru" * Papyrus Harris After the collapse of the Levant
Levant
under the so-called " Peoples of the Sea " Ramesses III (ca. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen to receive tribute from the southern Levant. This was described as being built in _Pa-Canaan_, a geographical reference whose meaning is disputed, with suggestions that it may refer to the city of Gaza or to the entire Egyptian-occupied territory in the south west corner of the Near East .

LATER SOURCES

Padiiset\'s Statue is the last known Egyptian reference to Canaan, a small statuette labelled "Envoy of the Canaan
Canaan
and of Peleset , Pa-di-Eset, the son of Apy". The inscription is dated to 900–850 BC, more than 300 years after the preceding known inscription.

During the period from c. 900–330 BC, the dominant empires of the Neo-Assyrians and Achaemenid Persians make no mention of Canaan.

GRECO-ROMAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

Coin of Alexander II Zabinas with the inscription "Laodikeia, metropole of Canaan" Further information: Syria
Syria
Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Palestine

The Greek term _ Phoenicia
Phoenicia
_ is first attested in the first two works of Western literature , Homer
Homer
's _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_. It does not occur in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, but occurs three times in the New Testament in the Book of Acts . In the 6th century BC, Hecataeus of Miletus affirms that Phoenicia
Phoenicia
was formerly called χνα, a name that Philo of Byblos
Byblos
subsequently adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix ". Quoting fragments attributed to Sanchuniathon , he relates that Byblos
Byblos
, Berytus
Berytus
and Tyre were among the first cities ever built, under the rule of the mythical Cronus , and credits the inhabitants with developing fishing, hunting, agriculture, shipbuilding and writing.

Coins of the city of Beirut
Beirut
/ Laodicea bear the legend, "Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan"; these coins are dated to the reign of Antiochus IV (175–164 BC) and his successors until 123 BC.

Saint Augustine also mentions that one of the terms the seafaring Phoenicians called their homeland was "Canaan". Augustine also records that the rustic people of Hippo in North Africa retained the Punic self-designation _Chanani_. Since 'punic' in Latin
Latin
also meant 'non-Roman', some scholars however argue that the language referred to as Punic in Augustine may have been Libyan .

The Greeks
Greeks
also popularized the term _Palestine_, named after the Greek Philistines or the Aegean Pelasgians , for roughly the region of Canaan, excluding Phoenicia, with Herodotus
Herodotus
' first recorded use of _Palaistinê_, ca. 480 BC. From 110 BC, the Hasmoneans
Hasmoneans
extended their authority over much of the region, creating a Judean
Judean
-Samaritan - Idumaean - Ituraean - Galilean
Galilean
alliance. The Judean
Judean
(Jewish, see Ioudaioi ) control over the wider area resulted in it also becoming known as Judaea
Judaea
, a term that had previously only referred to the smaller region of the Judean
Judean
Mountains , the allotment of the Tribe of Judah and heartland of the former Kingdom of Judah . Between 73–63 BC, the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
extended its influence into the region in the Third Mithridatic War , conquering Judea in 63 BC, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. Around 130–135 AD, as a result of the suppression of the Bar Kochba revolt, the province of Iudaea
Iudaea
was joined with Galilee
Galilee
to form new province of Syria Palaestina . There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian
Hadrian
with the name change, although the precise date is not certain, and the interpretation of some scholars that the name change may have been intended "to complete the dissociation with Judaea" is disputed.

HISTORY

OVERVIEW

* Prior to 3500 BC (prehistory – Stone Age
Stone Age
and Chalcolithic ): hunter-gatherer societies slowly giving way to farming and herding societies, and early metal-working in the last thousand years; * 3500–2000 BC (Early Bronze): prior to written records in the area; * 2000–1550 BC (Middle Bronze): city-states; * 1550–1200 BC (Late Bronze): Egyptian hegemony; * 1200–586 BC (Iron Age, divided into Iron Age
Iron Age
I and II): village societies in Iron I giving way to kingdoms in Iron II.

After the Iron Age
Iron Age
the periods are named after the various empires that ruled the region: Assyrian , Babylonian, Persian , Greek ( Hellenistic ) and Roman .

PREHISTORY

HISTORY OF THE LEVANT

STONE AGE

* Kebaran culture * Natufian culture * Halaf culture
Halaf culture
* Ghassulian culture * Jericho
Jericho

ANCIENT HISTORY

* Ebla * Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
* Canaanites * Amorites * Arameans * Hittites * Israel
Israel
and Judah * Philistines * Phoenicians * Neo-Assyrian Empire * Neo-Babylonian Empire * Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire

CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY

* Wars of Alexander the Great * Seleucid Empire * Hasmonean dynasty * Nabataeans * Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* Herodians * Palmyra
Palmyra
* Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* Sassanid Empire

MIDDLE AGES

* Muslim
Muslim
conquest

* Early Caliphates

* Umayyads * Abbasids

* Fatimids * Hamdanids * Seljuks
Seljuks
* Crusades
Crusades
* Ayyubids * Mamluks

MODERN HISTORY

* Ottoman Syria
Syria

* Mount Lebanon
Lebanon
* Jerusalem
Jerusalem

* Mandatory Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon

* Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine

* Transjordan

* Syria
Syria
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Jordan
Jordan
* Israel
Israel

* Palestine

* Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip

* v * t * e

Main article: Prehistory
Prehistory
of the Southern Levant
Levant

One of the earliest settlements in the region was at Jericho
Jericho
in Canaan. The earliest settlements were seasonal, but, by the Bronze Age , had developed into large urban centres.

EARLY BRONZE AGE (3500–2000)

By the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
other sites had developed, such as Ebla (where an East Semitic language , Eblaite , was spoken), which by c. 2300 BC was incorporated into the Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
-based Akkadian Empire of Sargon the Great and Naram-Sin of Akkad (biblical Accad). Sumerian references to the _Mar.tu_ ("tent dwellers", later _Amurru_, i.e. Amorite ) country West of the Euphrates date from even earlier than Sargon, at least to the reign of the Sumerian king, Enshakushanna of Uruk
Uruk
, and one tablet credits the early Sumerian king Lugal-anne-mundu with holding sway in the region, although this tablet is considered less credible because it was produced centuries later.

The archives of Ebla show reference to a number of biblical sites, including Hazor , Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, and as a number of people have claimed, to Sodom and Gomorrah
Sodom and Gomorrah
mentioned in Genesis as well. Ebla and Amorites at Hazor , Kadesh (Qadesh-on-the-Orontes), and elsewhere in Amurru (Syria) bordered Canaan
Canaan
in the north and northeast. ( Ugarit
Ugarit
may be included among these Amoritic entities. ) The collapse of the Akkadian Empire in 2154 BC saw the arrival of peoples using Khirbet Kerak Ware pottery, coming originally from the Zagros Mountains (in modern Iran ) east of the Tigris
Tigris
.

The first cities in the southern Levant
Levant
arose during this period. These "proto-Canaanites" were in regular contact with the other peoples to their south such as Egypt
Egypt
, and to the north Asia Minor ( Hurrians , Hattians , Hittites , Luwians ) and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
( Sumer
Sumer
, Akkad , Assyria
Assyria
), a trend that continued through the Iron Age. The end of the period is marked by the abandonment of the cities and a return to lifestyles based on farming villages and semi-nomadic herding, although specialised craft production continued and trade routes remained open.

MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (2000–1550)

Urbanism returned and the region was divided among small city-states, the most important of which seems to have been Hazor. Many aspects of Canaanite material culture now reflected a Mesopotamian influence, and the entire region became more tightly integrated into a vast international trading network.

As early as Naram-Sin of Akkad 's reign (c. 2240 BC), _Amurru_ was called one of the "four quarters" surrounding Sumer
Sumer
, along with Subartu / Assyria
Assyria
, Akkad , and Elam
Elam
.

Amorite dynasties also came to dominate in much of Mesopotamia, including in Larsa
Larsa
, Isin
Isin
and founding the state of Babylon
Babylon
in 1894 BC. Later on, _Amurru_ became the Assyrian/Akkadian term for the interior of south as well as for northerly Canaan. At this time the Canaanite area seemed divided between two confederacies, one centred upon Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley , the second on the more northerly city of Kadesh on the Orontes River.

An Amorite chieftain named Sumu-abum founded Babylon
Babylon
as an independent city-state in 1894 BC. One Amorite king of Babylonia, Hammurabi
Hammurabi
(1792–1750 BC) founded the first Babylonian Empire
Babylonian Empire
, which lasted only as long as his lifetime. Upon his death, the Amorites were driven from Assyria, but remained masters of Babylonia
Babylonia
until 1595 BC, when they were ejected by the Hittites.

The semi-fictional _ Story of Sinuhe _ describes an Egyptian officer, Sinuhe conducting military activities in the area of "Upper Retchenu" and "Finqu" during the reign of Senusret I (ca. 1950 BC). The earliest _bonafide_ Egyptian report of a campaign to "Mentu", "Retchenu" and "Sekmem" ( Shechem
Shechem
) is the Sebek-khu Stele dated to the reign of Senusret III (c. 1862 BC).

Around 1650 BC, Canaanites invaded the eastern Delta of Egypt, where, known as the Hyksos
Hyksos
, they became the dominant power. In Egyptian inscriptions, _Amar_ and _Amurru_ ( Amorites ) are applied strictly to the more northerly mountain region east of Phoenicia, extending to the Orontes .

Archaeological excavations of a number of sites, later identified as Canaanite, show that prosperity of the region reached its apogee during this Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
period, under leadership of the city of Hazor , at least nominally tributary to Egypt
Egypt
for much of the period. In the north, the cities of Yamkhad and Qatna were hegemons of important confederacies , and it would appear that biblical Hazor was the chief city of another important coalition in the south.

LATE BRONZE AGE (1550–1200)

Map of the Ancient Near East during the Amarna Period
Amarna Period
, showing the great powers of the day: Egypt
Egypt
(orange), Hatti (blue), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon
Babylon
(black), Middle Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
(yellow), and Mitanni (brown). The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in purple.

In the early Late Bronze Age, Canaanite confederacies were centered on Megiddo and Kadesh , before again being brought into the Egyptian Empire and Hittite Empire. Later still, the region was assimilated into the Neo Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
.

Among the migrant ancient Semitic-speaking peoples who appear to have settled in the region were the Amorites , who had earlier controlled Babylonia. In the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
, the _Amorites_ are mentioned in the _Table of Peoples _ (Gen. 10:16–18a). Evidently, the Amorites played a significant role in the early history of Canaan. In Gen. 14:7 _f_., Josh. 10:5 _f_., Deut. 1:19 _f_., 27, 44, we find them located in the southern mountain country, while in Num. 21:13, Josh. 9:10, 24:8, 12, etc., we are told of two great Amorite kings residing at Heshbon
Heshbon
and Ashteroth , east of the Jordan. However, in other passages such as Gen. 15:16, 48:22, Josh. 24:15, Judg. 1:34, etc., the name _Amorite_ is regarded as synonymous with "Canaanite"; however "Amorite" is never used for the population on the coast.

In the centuries preceding the appearance of the biblical Hebrews, parts of Canaan
Canaan
and southwestern Syria
Syria
became tributary to the Egyptian Pharaohs, although domination by the Egyptians was sporadic, and not strong enough to prevent frequent local rebellions and inter-city struggles. Other areas such as northern Canaan
Canaan
and northern Syria
Syria
came to be ruled by the Assyrians during this period.

Under Thutmose III
Thutmose III
(1479–1426 BC) and Amenhotep II
Amenhotep II
(1427–1400 BC), the regular presence of the strong hand of the Egyptian ruler and his armies kept the Amorites and Canaanites sufficiently loyal. Nevertheless, Thutmose III
Thutmose III
reported a new and troubling element in the population. Habiru
Habiru
or (in Egyptian) 'Apiru, are reported for the first time. These seem to have been mercenaries, brigands or outlaws, who may have at one time led a settled life, but with bad-luck or due to the force of circumstances, contributed a rootless element of the population, prepared to hire themselves to whichever local mayor, king or princeling prepared to undertake their support.

Although Habiru
Habiru
SA-GAZ (a Sumerian ideogram glossed as "brigand" in Akkadian ), and sometimes _Habiri _ (an Akkadian word) had been reported in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the reign of the Sumerian king, Shulgi of Ur III
Ur III
, their appearance in Canaan
Canaan
appears to have been due to the arrival of a new state based in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
to the north of Assyria based upon Maryannu aristocracy of horse-drawn charioteers , associated with the Indo-Aryan rulers of the Hurrians , known as Mitanni .

The Habiru
Habiru
seem to have been more a social class than an ethnic group. One analysis shows that the majority were, however, Hurrian (a non-Semitic-speaking group from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
who spoke a language isolate ), though there were a number of Semites and even some Kassite and Luwian
Luwian
adventurers amongst their number. The reign of Amenhotep III , as a result was not quite so tranquil for the Asiatic province, as Habiru/'Apiru contributed to greater political instability. It is believed that turbulent chiefs began to seek their opportunities, though as a rule could not find them without the help of a neighbouring king. The boldest of the disaffected nobles was Aziru , son of Abdi-Ashirta , a prince of Amurru, who even before the death of Amenhotep III, endeavoured to extend his power into the plain of Damascus
Damascus
. Akizzi , governor of Katna ( Qatna ?) (near Hamath ), reported this to the Pharaoh, who seems to have sought to frustrate his attempts. In the next reign, however, both father and son caused infinite trouble to loyal servants of Egypt
Egypt
like Rib-Hadda , governor of Gubla (Gebal), not the least through transferring loyalty from the Egyptian crown to that of the expanding neighbouring Asia Minor
Asia Minor
based Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
under Suppiluliuma I .

Egyptian power in Canaan
Canaan
thus suffered a major setback when the Hittites (or Hatti) advanced into Syria
Syria
in the reign of Amenhotep III, and became even more threatening in that of his successor, displacing the Amorites and prompting a resumption of Semitic migration. Abd-Ashirta and his son Aziru , at first afraid of the Hittites, afterwards made a treaty with their king, and joining with the Hittites, attacked and conquered the districts remaining loyal to Egypt. In vain did Rib-Hadda send touching appeals for aid to the distant Pharaoh, who was far too engaged in his religious innovations to attend to such messages.

In the Amarna letters, we meet with the Habiri in northern Syria. Etakkama wrote thus to the Pharaoh, "Behold, Namyawaza has surrendered all the cities of the king, my lord to the SA-GAZ in the land of Kadesh and in Ubi . But I will go, and if thy gods and thy sun go before me, I will bring back the cities to the king, my lord, from the Habiri, to show myself subject to him; and I will expel the SA-GAZ."

Similarly, Zimrida , king of Sidon
Sidon
(named 'Siduna'), declared, "All my cities which the king has given into my hand, have come into the hand of the Habiri." The king of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Abdi-Heba , reported to the Pharaoh, "If (Egyptian) troops come this year, lands and princes will remain to the king, my lord; but if troops come not, these lands and princes will not remain to the king, my lord."

Abdi-heba's principal trouble arose from persons called Iilkili and the sons of Labaya
Labaya
, who are said to have entered into a treasonable league with the Habiri. Apparently this restless warrior found his death at the siege of Gina . All these princes, however, maligned each other in their letters to the Pharaoh, and protested their own innocence of traitorous intentions. Namyawaza, for instance, whom Itakkama (see above) accused of disloyalty, wrote thus to the Pharaoh, "Behold, I and my warriors and my chariots, together with my brethren and my SA-GAZ, and my Suti ?9 are at the disposal of the (royal) troops to go whithersoever the king, my lord, commands."

From the mid 14th century BC through to the 11th century BC, much of Canaan
Canaan
(particularly the north, central and eastern regions of Syria and the north western Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastal regions) fell to the Middle Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
, and both Egyptian and Hittite influence waned as a result. Powerful Assyrian kings forced tribute on Canaanite states and cities from north, east and central Syria
Syria
as far as the Mediterranean. Arik-den-ili (c. 1307–1296 BC), consolidated Assyrian power in the Levant, he defeated and conquered ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of the so-called Ahlamu group. He was followed by Adad-nirari I (1295–1275 BC) who continued expansion to the northwest, mainly at the expense of the Hittites and Hurrians , conquering Hittite territories such as Carchemish and beyond. In 1274 BC Shalmaneser I ascended the throne, a powerful warrior king, he annexed territories in Syria
Syria
and Canaan
Canaan
previously under Egyptian or Hittite influence, and the growing power of Assyria
Assyria
was perhaps the reason why these two states made peace with one another. This trend continued under Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244–1208 BC) and after a hiatus, Tiglath-Pileser I (1115–1077 BC) who conquered the Arameans of northern Syria, and thence he proceeded to conquer Damascus
Damascus
and the Canaanite/Phoenician cities of (Byblos), Sidon
Sidon
, Tyre and finally Arvad .

BRONZE AGE COLLAPSE

Ann Killebrew has shown that cities such as Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were large and important walled settlements in the 'Pre-Israelite' Middle Bronze IIB and the Israelite Iron Age
Iron Age
IIC period (c. 1800–1550 and 720–586 BC), but that during the intervening Late Bronze (LB) and Iron Age
Iron Age
I and IIA/B Ages sites like Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were small and relatively insignificant and unfortified towns.

Just after the Amarna period
Amarna period
a new problem arose which was to trouble the Egyptian control of southern Canaan
Canaan
(the rest of the region now being under Assyrian control). Pharaoh Horemhab campaigned against _ Shasu _ (Egyptian = "wanderers") or living in nomadic pastoralist tribes, who had moved across the Jordan
Jordan
to threaten Egyptian trade through Galilee
Galilee
and Jezreel . Seti I (ca. 1290 BC) is said to have conquered these _ Shasu ,_ Semitic-speaking nomads living just south and east of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
, from the fortress of Taru (Shtir?) to "_Ka-n-'-na_". After the near collapse of the Battle of Kadesh , Rameses II had to campaign vigorously in Canaan
Canaan
to maintain Egyptian power. Egyptian forces penetrated into Moab
Moab
and Ammon
Ammon
, where a permanent fortress garrison (Called simply "Rameses") was established.

Some believe the "Habiru" signified generally all the nomadic tribes known as "Hebrews", and particularly the early Israelites
Israelites
of the period of the "judges", who sought to appropriate the fertile region for themselves. However, the term was rarely used to describe the _ Shasu _. Whether the term may also include other related ancient Semitic-speaking peoples such as the Moabites
Moabites
, Ammonites and Edomites is uncertain. It may not be an ethnonym at all; see the article Habiru for details.

IRON AGE

Main articles: Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and History of ancient Israel and Judah _ Map of the southern Levant
Levant
, c.830s BC. Kingdom of Judah Kingdom of Israel
Israel
Philistine city-states Phoenician states Kingdom of Ammon
Ammon
Kingdom of Edom Kingdom of Aram- Damascus
Damascus
Aramean tribes Arubu tribes Nabatu tribes Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
Kingdom of Moab
Moab
See also: Archaeology of Israel and History of ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah

By the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
, the southern Levant
Levant
came to be dominated by the kingdoms of Israel
Israel
and Judah , besides the Philistine city-states on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast, and the kingdoms of Moab
Moab
, Ammon
Ammon
and Aram- Damascus
Damascus
east of the Jordan
Jordan
River, and Edom to the south. The northern Levant
Levant
was divided into various petty kingdoms, the so-called Syro-Hittite states and the Phoenician city-states.

The entire region (including all Phoenician/Canaanite and Aramean states, together with Israel
Israel
, Philistia and Samarra
Samarra
) was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire during the 10th and 9th centuries BC, and would remain so for three hundred years until the end of the 7th century BC. Assyrian emperor-kings such as Ashurnasirpal , Adad-nirari II , Sargon II , Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
, Esarhaddon , Sennacherib
Sennacherib
and Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
came to dominate Canaanite affairs. The Egyptians , then under a Nubian Dynasty , made a failed attempt to regain a foothold in the region, but were vanquished by the Assyrians , leading to an Assyrian invasion and conquest of Egypt
Egypt
and the destruction of the Kushite Empire . The Kingdom of Judah was forced to pay tribute to Assyria. Between 616 and 605 BC the Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
collapsed due to a series of bitter internal civil wars, followed by an attack by an alliance of Babylonians , Medes and Persians and the Scythians . The Babylonians inherited the western part of the empire of their Assyrian brethren, including all the lands in Canaan
Canaan
and Syria
Syria
, together with Israel
Israel
and Judah . They successfully defeated the Egyptians, who had belatedly attempted to aid their former masters, the Assyrians, and then remained in the region in an attempt to regain a foothold in the Near East
Near East
. The Babylonian Empire
Babylonian Empire
itself collapsed in 539 BC, and Canaan
Canaan
fell to the Persians and became a part of the Achaemenid Empire . It remained so until in 332 BC it was conquered by the Greeks
Greeks
under Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, later to fall to Rome in the late 2nd century BC, and then Byzantium
Byzantium
, until the Arab
Arab
Islamic invasion and conquest of the 7th century AD.

CULTURE

Canaan
Canaan
included what today are Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, northwestern Jordan, and some western areas of Syria. According to archaeologist Jonathan N. Tubb, "Ammonites , Moabites
Moabites
, Israelites
Israelites
and Phoenicians undoubtedly achieved their own cultural identities, and yet ethnically they were all Canaanites", "the same people who settled in farming villages in the region in the 8th millennium BC."

There is uncertainty about whether the name _Canaan_ refers to a specific Semitic-speaking ethnic group wherever they live, the homeland of this ethnic group, or a region under the control of this ethnic group, or perhaps any combination of the three.

Canaanite civilization was a response to long periods of stable climate interrupted by short periods of climate change . During these periods, Canaanites profited from their intermediary position between the ancient civilizations of the Middle East— Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
( Sumer
Sumer
, Akkad , Assyria
Assyria
, Babylonia
Babylonia
), the Hittites , and Minoan Crete —to become city states of merchant princes along the coast, with small kingdoms specializing in agricultural products in the interior. This polarity, between coastal towns and agrarian hinterland, was illustrated in Canaanite mythology by the struggle between the storm god, variously called Teshub ( Hurrian ) or Ba\'al Hadad (Semitic Amorite / Aramean ) and Ya\'a, Yaw , Yahu or Yam , god of the sea and rivers. Early Canaanite civilization was characterized by small walled market towns, surrounded by peasant farmers growing a range of local horticultural products , along with commercial growing of olives , grapes for wine, and pistachios , surrounded by extensive grain cropping, predominantly wheat and barley . Harvest in early summer was a season when transhumance nomadism was practiced—shepherds staying with their flocks during the wet season and returning to graze them on the harvested stubble, closer to water supplies in the summer. Evidence of this cycle of agriculture is found in the Gezer calendar and in the biblical cycle of the year.

Periods of rapid climate change generally saw a collapse of this mixed Mediterranean
Mediterranean
farming system; commercial production was replaced with subsistence agricultural foodstuffs; and transhumance pastoralism became a year-round nomadic pastoral activity, whilst tribal groups wandered in a circular pattern north to the Euphrates, or south to the Egyptian delta with their flocks. Occasionally, tribal chieftains would emerge, raiding enemy settlements and rewarding loyal followers from the spoils or by tariffs levied on merchants. Should the cities band together and retaliate, a neighbouring state intervene or should the chieftain suffer a reversal of fortune, allies would fall away or intertribal feuding would return. It has been suggested that the Patriarchal tales of the Bible
Bible
reflect such social forms. During the periods of the collapse of Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the First Intermediate Period of Egypt
Egypt
, the Hyksos
Hyksos
invasions and the end of the Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia, and the Late Bronze Age collapse , trade through the Canaanite area would dwindle, as Egypt, Babylonia, and to a lesser degree Assyria
Assyria
, withdrew into their isolation. When the climates stabilized, trade would resume firstly along the coast in the area of the Philistine and Phoenician cities. As markets redeveloped, new trade routes that would avoid the heavy tariffs of the coast would develop from Kadesh Barnea , through Hebron , Lachish
Lachish
, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Bethel
Bethel
, Samaria , Shechem
Shechem
, Shiloh through Galilee
Galilee
to Jezreel , Hazor and Megiddo . Secondary Canaanite cities would develop in this region. Further economic development would see the creation of a third trade route from Eilath , Timna
Timna
, Edom (Seir ), Moab
Moab
, Ammon
Ammon
and thence to the Aramean states of Damascus
Damascus
and Palmyra
Palmyra
. Earlier states (for example the Philistines and Tyrians in the case of Judah and Samaria , for the second route, and Judah and Israel
Israel
for the third route) tried generally unsuccessfully to control the interior trade.

Eventually, the prosperity of this trade would attract more powerful regional neighbours, such as Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, Assyria
Assyria
, the Babylonians, Persians , Ancient Greeks and Romans , who would control the Canaanites politically, levying tribute, taxes and tariffs. Often in such periods, thorough overgrazing would result in a climatic collapse and a repeat of the cycle (e.g., PPNB , Ghassulian , Uruk
Uruk
, and the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
cycles already mentioned). The fall of later Canaanite civilization occurred with the incorporation of the area into the Greco-Roman world (as Iudaea
Iudaea
province), and after Byzantine times, into the Muslim
Muslim
Arab
Arab
and proto- Muslim
Muslim
Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
. Western Aramaic , one of the two lingua francas of Canaanite civilization, is still spoken in a number of small Syrian villages, whilst Phoenician Canaanite disappeared as a spoken language in about 100 AD. A separate Akkadian -infused Eastern Aramaic is still spoken by the existing Assyrians of Iraq
Iraq
, Iran
Iran
, northeast Syria
Syria
and southeast Turkey
Turkey
.

Tel Kabri contains the remains of a Canaanite city from the Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(2000–1550 BC). The city, the most important of the cities in the Western Galilee
Galilee
during that period, had a palace at its center. Tel Kabri is the only Canaanite city that can be excavated in its entirety because after the city was abandoned, no other city was built over its remains. It is notable because the predominant extra-Canaanite cultural influence is Minoan ; Minoan-style frescoes decorate the palace.

LEGACY

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"Canaan" is used as a synonym of the Promised Land
Promised Land
; for instance, it is used in this sense in the hymn, _Canaan's Happy Shore_, with the lines : "Oh, brothers, will you meet me, (3x)/On Canaan's happy shore," a hymn set to the tune later used in _The Battle Hymn of the Republic _.

LIST OF CANAAN\'S RULERS

Further information: kings of Ugarit
Ugarit

Names of Canaanite kings or other figures mentioned in historiography or known through archaeology

CONFIRMED ARCHAEOLOGICALLY

* Ammittamru I of Ugarit
Ugarit
(Amarna letters) * Niqmaddu II of Ugarit
Ugarit
(Amarna letters) (1349–1315 BC) * Arhalba of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1315–1313 BC) * Niqmepa of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1313–1260 BC) * Ammittamru II of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1260–1235 BC) * Ibiranu of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1235–1220 BC) * Ammurapi of Ugarit
Ugarit
(1215–1185 BC) * Aziru , ruler of Amurru (Amarna letters) * Labaya
Labaya
, lord of Shechem
Shechem
(Amarna letters) * Abdikheba , mayor of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Amarna letters) * Šuwardata , mayor of Qiltu (Amarna letters)

HEBREW BIBLE AND OTHER HISTORIOGRAPHY

* Canaan, son of Ham (Gen. 10:6) * Sidon
Sidon
, firstborn son of Canaan
Canaan
(Gen. 10:15) * Heth , son of Canaan
Canaan
(Gen. 10:15) * Cronos (Ilus), founder of Byblos
Byblos
according to Sanchuniathon * Mamre , an Amorite chieftain (Gen. 13:18) * Makamaron , king of Canaan
Canaan
(Jubilees 46:6) * Sihon , king of Amorites (Deut 1:4) * Og , king of Bashan (Deut 1:4) * Adonizedek , king of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Josh. 10:1) * Debir , king of Eglon (Josh. 10:3) * Jabin , name of two kings of Hazor (Josh. 11:1; Judges 5:6)

RULERS OF TYRE

* Abibaal 990–978 BC * Hiram I 978–944 BC * Baal-Eser I (Balbazer I) 944–927 BC * Abdastartus 927–918 BC * Methusastartus 918–906 BC * Astarymus 906–897 BC * Phelles 897–896 BC * Eshbaal I 896–863 BC * Baal-Eser II (Balbazer II) 863–829 BC * Mattan I 829–820 BC * Pygmalion 820–774 BC * Eshbaal II 750–739 BC * Hiram II 739–730 BC * Mattan II 730–729 BC * Elulaios 729 694 BC * Abd Melqart 694–680 BC * Baal
Baal
I 680–660 BC * _Tyre may have been under control of Assyria
Assyria
and/or Egypt
Egypt
for 70 years_ * Eshbaal III 591–573 BC—_ Carthage
Carthage
became independent of Tyre in 574 BC_ * Baal
Baal
II 573–564 BC (under Babylonian overlords) * Yakinbaal 564 BC * Chelbes 564–563 BC * Abbar 563–562 BC * Mattan III and Ger Ashthari 562–556 BC * Baal-Eser III 556–555 BC * Mahar- Baal
Baal
555–551 BC * Hiram III 551–532 BC * Mattan III (under Persian Control) * Boulomenus * Abdemon c.420–411 BC

IN JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURES

Map of Canaan, with the border defined by Numbers 34:1–12 shown in red.

HEBREW BIBLE

In Biblical usage, the name was confined to the country west of the Jordan
Jordan
River . Canaanites were described as living "by the sea, and along by the side of the Jordan" ( Book of Numbers 33:51; Book of Joshua
Joshua
22:9). Canaan
Canaan
was especially identified with Phoenicia
Phoenicia
(Book of Isaiah 23:11). The Philistines , while an integral part of the Canaanite milieu, do not seem to have been ethnic Canaanites, and were listed in the Table of Nations as descendants of Mizraim ; the Arameans , Moabites
Moabites
, Ammonites , Midianites and Edomites were also considered fellow descendants of Shem or Abraham
Abraham
, and distinct from generic Canaanites/ Amorites . _" Heth "_, representing the Hittites , is a son of Canaan. The later Hittites spoke an Indo-European language (called _Nesili_ ), but their predecessors the Hattians had spoken a little-known language (_Hattili_ ), of uncertain affinities.

The Horites , formerly of Mount Seir , were implied to be Canaanite ( Hivite ), although unusually there is no direct confirmation of this in the narrative. The Hurrians , based in Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, spoke the Hurrian language . Their language was a language isolate .

In the Bible, the renaming of the Land of Canaan as the Land of Israel
Israel
marks the Israelite conquest of the Promised Land
Promised Land
.

Canaan
Canaan
and the Canaanites are mentioned some 160 times in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
, mostly in the Pentateuch and the books of Joshua
Joshua
and Judges .

An eponymous ancestor called Canaan
Canaan
first appears as one of Noah
Noah
's grandsons. He appears during the narrative known as the Curse of Ham , in which Canaan
Canaan
is cursed with perpetual slavery because his father Ham had "looked upon" the drunk and naked Noah.

God later promises the land of Canaan
Canaan
to Abraham
Abraham
, and eventually delivers it to descendants of Abraham
Abraham
, the Israelites
Israelites
. The biblical history has become increasingly problematic as the archaeological and textual evidence supports the idea that the early Israelites
Israelites
were in fact themselves Canaanites.

The Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
lists borders for the land of Canaan. The Book of Numbers , 34:2, includes the phrase "the land of Canaan
Canaan
as defined by its borders." The borders are then delineated in Numbers 34:3–12. The term "Canaanites" in biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
is applied especially to the inhabitants of the lower regions, along the sea coast and on the shores of the Jordan
Jordan
River, as opposed to the inhabitants of the mountainous regions. By the Second Temple period
Second Temple period
(530 BC–70 AD), "Canaanite" in the Hebrew language had come to be not an ethnic designation, so much as a general synonym for "merchant ", as it is interpreted in, for example, Book of Job
Book of Job
40:30, or Book of Proverbs 31:24.

John N. Oswalt notes that " Canaan
Canaan
consists of the land west of the Jordan
Jordan
and is distinguished from the area east of the Jordan." Oswalt then goes on to say that in Scripture, Canaan
Canaan
"takes on a theological character" as "the land which is God's gift" and "the place of abundance".

The Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
describes the Israelite conquest of Canaan
Canaan
in the "Former Prophets " (_ Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Rishonim_ ), viz. the books of Joshua
Joshua
, Judges , Samuel , and Kings . These books of the Old Testament
Old Testament
canon give the narrative of the Israelites
Israelites
after the death of Moses
Moses
and their entry into Canaan
Canaan
under the leadership of Joshua
Joshua
. In 586 BC, the Kingdom of Judah was annexed into the Neo-Babylonian Empire . The city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
fell after a siege which lasted either eighteen or thirty months. By 586 BC, much of Judah was devastated, and the former kingdom suffered a steep decline of both economy and population. The descendants of the Israelites
Israelites
thus lost control of the land. These narratives of the Former Prophets are also "part of a larger work, called the Deuteronomistic History ".

The passage in the Book of Genesis often called the Table of Nations presents the Canaanites as descendants of an eponymous ancestor called Canaan
Canaan
, the son of Ham and grandson of Noah
Noah
(Hebrew: כְּנַעַן‎‎, _Knaan_). (Genesis 10:15–19) states:

Canaan
Canaan
is the father of Sidon
Sidon
, his firstborn; and of the Hittites , Jebusites , Amorites , Girgashites , Hivites , Arkites , Sinites , Arvadites , Zemarites , and Hamathites . Later the Canaanite clans scattered, and the borders of Canaan
Canaan
reached from Sidon
Sidon
toward Gerar as far as Gaza , and then toward Sodom, Gomorrah , Admah and Zeboiim , as far as Lasha .

The Sidon
Sidon
whom the Table identifies as the firstborn son of Canaan has the same name as that of the coastal city of Sidon
Sidon
in Lebanon
Lebanon
. This city dominated the Phoenician coast, and may have enjoyed hegemony over a number of ethnic groups, who are said to belong to the "Land of Canaan".

Similarly, Canaanite populations are said to have inhabited:

* the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastlands ( Joshua
Joshua
5:1), including Lebanon corresponding to Phoenicia
Phoenicia
(Isaiah 23:11) and the Gaza Strip corresponding to Philistia (Zephaniah 2:5). * the Jordan
Jordan
Valley ( Joshua
Joshua
11:3, Numbers 13:29, Genesis 13:12).

The Canaanites ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: כנענים, Modern _Kna'anim_, Tiberian _Kənaʻănîm_) are said to have been one of seven regional ethnic divisions or "nations" driven out by the Israelites
Israelites
following the Exodus . Specifically, the other nations include the Hittites , the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Perizzites , the Hivites , and the Jebusites (Deuteronomy 7:1).

According to the _ Book of Jubilees _, the Israelite conquest of Canaan
Canaan
is attributed to Canaan's steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham's allotment beyond the Nile
Nile
, and instead "squatting " on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea , within the inheritance delineated for Shem . Canaan
Canaan
thus incurs a further curse from Noah
Noah
for disobeying the agreed apportionment of land.

One of the 613 commandments (precisely n. 596) prescribes that no inhabitants of the cities of six Canaanite nations, the same as mentioned in 7:1, minus the Girgashites , were to be left alive.

While the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
distinguishes the Canaanites ethnically from the ancient Israelites
Israelites
, modern scholars Jonathan Tubb and Mark S. Smith have theorized—based on their archaeological and linguistic interpretations—that the Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and the Kingdom of Judah represented a subset of Canaanite culture.

NEW TESTAMENT

_Canaan_ (Greek : Χαναάν, _Chanaán_) is used only three times in the New Testament: twice in Acts of the Apostles when paraphrasing Old Testament
Old Testament
stories, and once in the exorcism of the Syrophoenician woman\'s daughter . The latter story is told by both the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Mark ; Matthew uses the term _Chananaia_ (Greek : Χαναναία), where Mark calls the woman _Syrophoenician_ (Greek : Συροφοινίκισσα). Strong\'s Concordance describes the term _Chananaia_ as "in Christ 's time equivalent to Phoenician".

BLACK AFRICANS AS DESCENDANTS OF CANAAN

Further information: Curse of Ham and Book of Abraham
Abraham

During the Atlantic slave trade , many Christians began teaching that black Africans were descendants of Canaan
Canaan
and used the Curse of Ham to justify enslaving black Africans. This belief was especially strong in the Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints , who canonized the Book of Abraham
Abraham
, which teaches that Canaan
Canaan
was a descendant of Cain, that his descendants settled Africa, and that they were cursed. Joseph Smith and Brigham Young both used the Curse of Ham to justify slavery in Mormonism . This was also their rationale in denying Africans access to their priesthood until June 1978, at which point their prophet at the time, President Spencer W. Kimball, announced that as far as priesthood was concerned, the curse was lifted.

Modern scholars do not believe that black Africans are related to the Canaanites based upon race as depicted throughout local and Egyptian arts and Genetics and Physical Anthropology.

SEE ALSO

* Amarna letters–localities and their rulers * Canaanite religion * History of the name Palestine * Names of the Levant
Levant

NOTES

* ^ Aaron J. Brody, Roy J. King, \'Genetics and the Archaeology of Ancient Israel,\' Human Biology, Wayne State University 12-1-2013. * ^ William G. Dever , Who Were the Early Israelites
Israelites
and Where Did They Come From?, p.219, quote: "Canaanite is by far the most common ethnic term in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible. The pattern of polemics suggests that most Israelites
Israelites
knew that they had a shared common remote ancestry and once common culture." * ^ Thomas B. Dozeman, _ Joshua
Joshua
1–12: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary,_ Yale University Press, 2015 p.259: "In the ideology of the book of Joshua, the Canaanites are included in the list of nations requiring extermination (3:10; 9:1; 24:11)." * ^ _A_ _B_ Drews 1998 , pp. 48–49: "The name 'Canaan' did not entirely drop out of usage in the Iron Age. Throughout the area that we—with the Greek speakers—prefer to call 'Phoenicia', the inhabitants in the first millennium BC called themselves 'Canaanites'. For the area south of Mt. Carmel, however, after the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
ended references to 'Canaan' as a present phenomenon dwindle almost to nothing (the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
of course makes frequent mention of 'Canaan' and 'Canaanites', but regularly as a land that had become something else, and as a people who had been annihilated)." * ^ Drews 1998 , p. 61: "The name 'Canaan', never very popular, went out of vogue with the collapse of the Egyptian empire." * ^ For details of the disputes, see the works of Lemche and Na'aman, the main protagonists. * ^ _A_ _B_ Redford, Donald B. (1993) _Egypt, Canaan, and Israel
Israel
in Ancient Times_ (Princeton University Press) * ^ David Asheri, Alan Lloyd, Aldo Corcella, _A Commentary on Herodotus, Books 1–4,_ Oxford University Press, 2007 p.75. * ^ Wilhelm Gesenius
Wilhelm Gesenius
, _ Hebrew
Hebrew
Lexicon_, 1833 * ^ Bible
Bible
Places: The Topography of the Holy Land, Henry Baker Tristram , 1884 * ^ Drews 1998 , pp. 47–49:"From the Egyptian texts it appears that the whole of Egypt’s province in the Levant
Levant
was called ‘Canaan’, and it would perhaps not be incorrect to understand the term as the name of that province...It may be that the term began as a Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
common noun, ‘the subdued, the subjugated’, and that it then evolved into the proper name of the Asiaticland that had fallen under Egypt’s dominion (just as the first Roman province in Gaul eventually became Provence)" * ^ Drews 1998 , p. 48: "Until E.A. Speiser proposed that the name ‘Canaan’ was derived from the (unattested) word kinahhu, which Speiser supposed must have been an Akkadian term for reddish-blue or purple, Semiticists regularly explained ‘Canaan’ (Hebrew këna‘an; elsewhere in Northwest Semitic
Northwest Semitic
kn‘n) as related to the Aramaic verb kn‘: ‘to bend down, be low’. That etymology is perhaps correct after all. Speiser’s alternative explanation has been generally abandoned, as has the proposal that ‘Canaan’ meant ‘the land of merchants’." * ^ Lemche 1991 , pp. 24–32 * ^ Zarins, Juris (1992), "Pastoral nomadism in Arabia: ethnoarchaeology and the archaeological record—a case study" in O. Bar-Yosef and A. Khazanov, eds. " Pastoralism in the Levant" * ^ _A_ _B_ Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998), "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) * ^ Woodard, Roger (2008), _The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia_ . * ^ Naveh, Joseph (1987), "Proto-Canaanite, Archaic Greek, and the Script of the Aramaic Text on the Tell Fakhariyah Statue", in Miller; et al., _Ancient Israelite Religion_ . * ^ Coulmas, Florian (1996). _The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems_. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21481-X . * ^ G. Ahlstrom, _The History of Ancient Palestine_ p. 141. * ^ J. Dahood, 1978, "Ebla, Ugarit
Ugarit
and the Old Testament", in _Congress Volume, International Organization for Study of the Old Testament_, p. 83. * ^ Tubb, Johnathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.15 * ^ "Une mention de Cananéens dans une lettre de Mari". JSTOR 4197896 . Missing or empty url= (help ) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Na\'aman 2005 , pp. 110–120. * ^ Lemche , pp. 27–28: "However, all but one of the references belong to the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, the one exception being the mention of some Canaanites in a document from Marl from the 18th century BC. In this document we find a reference to LUhabbatum u LUKi-na-ah-num. The wording of this passage creates some problems as to the identity of these 'Canaanites', because of the parallelism between LUKh-na-ah-num and LUhabbatum, which is unexpected. The Akkadian word habbatum, the meaning of which is actually 'brigands', is sometimes used to translate the Sumerian expression SA.GAZ, which is normally thought to be a logogram for habiru, 'Hebrews'. Thus there is some reason to question the identity of the 'Canaanites' who appear in this text from Marl We may ask whether these people were called 'Canaanites' because they were ethnically of another stock than the ordinary population of Mari, or whether it was because they came from a specific geographical area, the land of Canaan. However, because of the parallelism in this text between LUhabbatum and LUKi-na-ah-num, we cannot exclude the possibility that the expression 'Canaanites' was used here with a sociological meaning. It could be that the word 'Canaanites' was in this case understood as a sociological designation of some sort which shared at least some connotations with the sociological term habiru. Should this be the case, the Canaanites of Marl may well have been refugees or outlaws rather than ordinary foreigners from a certain country (from Canaan). Worth considering is also Manfred Weippert's interpretation of the passage LUhabbatum u LUKi-na-ah-num—literally 'Canaanites and brigands'—as 'Canaanite brigands', which may welt mean 'highwaymen of foreign origin', whether or not they were actually Canaanites coming from Phoenicia." * ^ _ Reallexikon der Assyriologie _, "Kanaan", Manfred Weippert, volume 5, p.352 * ^ Drews 1998 , p. 46: "An eighteenth-century letter from Mari may refer to Canaan, but the first certain cuneiform reference appears on a statue base of Idrimi
Idrimi
, king of Alalakh
Alalakh
c. 1500 BC." * ^ _A_ _B_ Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998) "Canaanites" (British Museum People of the Past) p.16 * ^ Breasted, J.H. (1906) "Ancient records of Egypt" (University of Illinois Press) * ^ Higginbotham, Carolyn (2000). _Egyptianization and Elite Emulation in Ramesside Palestine: Governance and Accommodation on the Imperial Periphery_. Brill Academic Pub. p. 57. ISBN 978-90-04-11768-6 . * ^ Hasel, Michael (Sep 2010). "Pa- Canaan
Canaan
in the Egyptian New Kingdom: Canaan
Canaan
or Gaza?". _University of Arizona Institutional Repository logo Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections_. 1 (1). Retrieved 12 September 2011. * ^ Drews 1998 , p. 49a:"In the Papyrus Harris, from the middle of the twelfth century, the late Ramesses III claims to have built for Amon a temple in 'the Canaan' of Djahi. More than three centuries later comes the next—and very last—Egyptian reference to 'Canaan' or 'the Canaan': a basalt statuette, usually assigned to the Twenty-Second Dynasty, is labeled, 'Envoy of the Canaan
Canaan
and of Palestine, Pa-di-Eset, the son of Apy'." * ^ Drews 1998 , p. 49b:"Although New Assyrian inscriptions frequently refer to the Levant, they make no mention of ‘Canaan’. Nor do Persian and Greek sources refer to it." * ^ _A_ _B_ Cohen, Getzel (2006), _The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa_, University of California Press, p. 205, ISBN 978-0-520-93102-2 , Berytos, being part of Phoenicia, was under Ptolemaic control until 200 B.C. After the battle of Panion Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and southern Syria
Syria
passed to the Seleucids. In the second century B.C. Laodikeia issued both autonomous as well as quasi-autonomous coins. The autonomous bronze coins had a Tyche on the obverse. The reverse often had Poseidon or Astarte standing on the prow of a ship, the letters BH or and the monogram , that is, the initials of Berytos/Laodikeia and Phoenicia, and, on a few coins, the Phoenician legend LL'DK' 'S BKN 'N or LL'DK' 'M BKN ’N, which has been read as "Of Laodikcia which is in Canaan" or "Of Laodikcia Mother in Canaan." The quasi-municipal coins—issued under Antiochos IV Epiphanes (175–164 B.c.) and continuing with Alexander I Balas (150–145 B.c.), Demetrios II Nikator (146–138 B.C.), and Alexander II Zabinas (128–123 n.c.)—contained the king's head on the obverse, and on the reverse the name of the king in Greek, the city name in Phoenician (LL'DK' 'S BKN ’N or LL'DK’ 'M BKN 'N), the Greek letters , and the monogram . After c.123 B.C. the Phoenician "Of Laodikcia which is in Canaan" / "Of Laodikcia Mother in Canaan" is no longer attested * ^ The Popular and Critical Bible
Bible
Encyclopaedia, The three occasions are Acts 11:19, Acts 15:3 and Acts 21:2 * ^ _Epistulae ad Romanos expositio inchoate expositio,_ 13 (Migne, Patrologia Latina , vol.35 p.2096):'Interrogati rustici nostri quid sint, punice respondents chanani.' * ^ Brent D. Shaw, Cambridge University Press, 2011 p.431 * ^ Mark Ellingsen, _The Richness of Augustine: His Contextual and Pastoral Theology,_ Westminster John Knox Press, 2005 p.9. * ^ "Cambridge History of Judaism". Cambridge.org. p. 210. Retrieved 16 August 2011. "In both the Idumaean and the Ituraean alliances, and in the annexation of Samaria, the Judaeans had taken the leading role. They retained it. The whole political–military–religious league that now united the hill country of Palestine from Dan to Beersheba, whatever it called itself, was directed by, and soon came to be called by others, 'the Ioudaioi'" * ^ A History of the Jewish People, edited by Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, page 226, "The name Judea no longer referred only to...." * ^ _A_ _B_ Feldman, Louis (1990). "Some Observations on the Name of Palestine". _ Hebrew
Hebrew
Union College, Cincinnati, OH_. 61: 1–23. Retrieved 12 Feb 2011. * ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria
Syria
Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". _The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces_. University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2008-07-06. * ^ Sharon , 1998, p. 4. According to Moshe Sharon , "Eager to obliterate the name of the rebellious Judaea
Judaea
", the Roman authorities (General Hadrian) renamed it _Palaestina_ or _ Syria
Syria
Palaestina_. * ^ Jacobson, David (1999). "Palestine and Israel". _Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research_: 65–74. JSTOR 1357617 . * ^ Noll 2001 , p. 26 * ^ Woodard. _The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-139-46934-0 . Retrieved 5 May 2013. * ^ See Archived 2015-05-10 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Golden 2009 , p. 5 * ^ _A_ _B_ Golden 2009 , pp. 5–6 * ^ Golden 2009 , pp. 6–7 * ^ F Leo Oppenheim – _Ancient Mesopotamia_ * ^ El Amarna letter, EA 189. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Georges Roux – _Ancient Iraq_ * ^ Killebrew Ann E. "Biblical Jerusalem: An Archaeological Assessment" in Andrew G. Vaughn and Ann E. Killebrew, eds., "Jerusalem in Bible
Bible
and Archaeology: The First Temple Period" (SBL Symposium Series 18; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003) * ^ Wolfe, Robert. "From Habiru
Habiru
to Hebrews: The Roots of the Jewish Tradition". Retrieved 2013. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ Tubb 1998 , p. 13 * ^ Tubb 1998 , pp. 13–14 * ^ Seters John van, (1987), _ Abraham
Abraham
in Myth and Tradition_ (Yale University Press) * ^ Thompson, Thomas L. (2000), _Early History of the Israelite People: From the Written Book of Joshua 5:12). "Canaan" article in the International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia online * ^ _The Land of Israel: National Home Or Land of Destiny_, By Eliezer Schweid, Translated by Deborah Greniman, Published 1985 Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, ISBN 0-8386-3234-3 , pp. 16–17: _... let us begin by examining the kinds of assertions about the land of Israel
Israel
that we encounter in persuing_ _the books of the Bible. ... A third kind of assertion deals with the history of the Land of Israel. Before its settlement by the Israelite tribes, it is called The Land of Canaan_ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Killebrew 2005 , p. 96 * ^ Figures based purely upon scientific dating and the proclivity among some scholars to bypass Jewish sources. However, Jewish tradition avers that the Second Temple stood for only four-hundred and twenty years, i.e. from 352 BCE – 68 CE. See: Maimondes' Questions font-family: Alef, 'SBL BibLit', 'SBL Hebrew', 'David CLM', 'Frenk Ruehl CLM', 'Hadasim CLM', Cardo, Shofar, David, 'Ezra SIL', 'Ezra SIL SR', 'Noto Sans Hebrew', FreeSerif, 'Times New Roman', FreeSans, Arial;" dir="rtl">כנען‎," in R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer and Bruce K. Waltke (eds.), _Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament_ (Chicago: Moody, 1980) 445–446. * ^ The Making of the Old Testament
Old Testament
Canon. by Lou H. Silberman, The Interpreter’s One-Volume Commentary on the Bible. Abingdon Press – Nashville 1971–1991, p1209 * ^ Malamat, Abraham
Abraham
(1968). "The Last Kings of Judah and the Fall of Jerusalem: An Historical—Chronological Study". _Israel Exploration Journal_. 18 (3): 137–156. JSTOR 27925138 . The discrepancy between the length of the siege according to the regnal years of Zedekiah (years 9-11), on the one hand, and its length according to Jehoiachin's exile (years 9-12), on the other, can be cancelled out only by supposing the former to have been reckoned on a Tishri basis, and the latter on a Nisan basis. The difference of one year between the two is accounted for by the fact that the termination of the siege fell in the summer, between Nisan and Tishri, already in the 12th year according to the reckoning in Ezekiel, but still in Zedekiah's 11th year which was to end only in Tishri. * ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). _A History of the Jews
Jews
and Judaism in the Second Temple Period_. T&T Clark International. p. 28. ISBN 0-567-08998-3 . * ^ by Michael Coogan A brief Introduction to the Old Testament, Oxford University Press New York, 2009, p4

* ^ Mark Smith in _The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel_ states,

Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites
Israelites
and Canaanites in the Iron I period (ca. 1200–1000 BC). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites
Israelites
for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7).Smith, Mark (2002) _The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel,_ (Eerdman's) * ^ Acts 7:11 and Acts 13:19 * ^ NT 5478 * ^ Benjamin Braude, "The Sons of Noah
Noah
and the Construction of Ethnic and Geographical Identities in the Medieval and Early Modern Periods, "William and Mary Quarterly LIV (January 1997): 103–142. See also William McKee Evans, "From the Land of Canaan to the Land of Guinea: The Strange Odyssey
Odyssey
of the Sons of Ham,"American Historical Review 85 (February 1980): 15–43 * ^ John N. Swift and Gigen Mammoser, "Out of the Realm of Superstition: Chesnutt's 'Dave's Neckliss' and the Curse of Ham", _American Literary Realism_, vol. 42 no. 1, Fall 2009, 3 * ^ Smith, Joseph (1836). _ Latter Day Saints\' Messenger and Advocate/Volume 2/Number 7/Letter to Oliver Cowdery from Joseph Smith, Jr. (Apr. 1836)_. Wikisource . pp. 290. "As the fact is uncontrovertable, that the first mention we have of slavery is found in the holy bible...'And he said cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren'...the people who interfere the least with the decrees and purposes of God in this matter, will come under the least condemnation before him; and those who are determined to pursue a course which shows an opposition and a feverish restlessness against the designs of the Lord, will learn, when perhaps it is too late for their own good, that God can do his own work without the aid of those who are not dictate by his counsel." * ^ Young, Brigham (1863). _ Journal of Discourses/Volume 10/Necessity for Watchfulness, etc._. Wikisource . pp. 248–250. * ^ "Race and the Priesthood". Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints . Retrieved 2016-12-17. * ^ Van-Seters, John. The Hyksos: A New Investigation. Yale University Press. 1966.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bishop Moore, Megan; Kelle, Brad E. (2011). _Biblical History and Israel\'s Past: The Changing Study of the Bible
Bible
and History_. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-6260-0 . * Day, John (2002). _Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan_. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-6830-7 . * Coogan, Michael D. (1978). _Stories from Ancient Canaan_. Westminster Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X . * Finkelstein, Israel
Israel
(1996). "Towards a new periodization and nomenclature of the archaeology of the southern Levant". In Cooper, Jerrold S.; Schwartz, Glenn M. _The study of the ancient Near East
Near East
in the twenty-first century_. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-96-6 . * Golden, Jonathan M. (2009). _Ancient Canaan
Canaan
and Israel: An Introduction_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537985-3 . * Killebrew, Ann E. (2005). _Biblical peoples and ethnicity_. SBL. ISBN 978-1-58983-097-4 . * Na'aman, Nadav (2005). _ Canaan
Canaan
in the 2nd millennium B.C.E._ Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-113-9 . * Lemche, Niels-Peter (1991). _The Canaanites and their land: the tradition of the Canaanites_. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-567-45111-8 . * Noll, K.L. (2001). _ Canaan
Canaan
and Israel
Israel
in antiquity: an introduction_. Continuum. ISBN 978-1-84127-318-1 . * Smith, Mark S. (2002). _The early history of God_. Eerdmans. ISBN 9004119434 . * Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). _Canaanites_. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X . * Drews, Robert (1998), "Canaanites and Philistines", _Journal for the Study of the Old Testament_, 81: 39–61

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