Island is an island located at the entrance to
Passamaquoddy Bay, adjacent to the entrance to Cobscook Bay, and
within the Bay of Fundy. The island is one of the
Fundy Islands and is
part of Charlotte County, New Brunswick, Canada. Campobello
also the name of a rural community including the entire Parish of
The island has no road connection to the rest of Canada; it is
connected by the
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge to nearby Lubec,
Maine in the United States. Reaching mainland
Canada by car without
crossing an international border is possible only during the summer
season and requires two separate ferry trips, the first to nearby Deer
Island, then from Deer
Island to L'Etete.
Measuring 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) long and about 5 kilometres
(3.1 mi) wide, it has an area of 39.6 square kilometres
(15.3 sq mi). The island's permanent population in 2011 was
4.1 French exploration
4.2 British settlement
4.3 Fenian raid
4.4 Franklin D. Roosevelt
4.5 Modern history
5 Notable people
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
The majority of residents are employed in the fishing/aquaculture or
tourism industries. The two major tourist attractions on the island
Herring Cove Provincial Park
Herring Cove Provincial Park and Roosevelt Campobello
International Park. The latter was created in 1964 and was officially
opened by U.S. President
Lyndon Johnson and Canadian Prime Minister
Lester Pearson in 1966.
See also: List of schools in New Brunswick
The island has one school, Campobello
Island Consolidated School, for
all school grades.
The island's only highway, Route 774, is connected by the Franklin
Delano Roosevelt Bridge to
Lubec, Maine — the easternmost town in
the continental United States. The only transportation link with the
Canada is a seasonal ferry service to Cummings Cove on Deer
History of New Brunswick
History of New Brunswick and List of historic places in
Charlotte County, New Brunswick
Captain William Owen.
The island was originally settled by the
Passamaquoddy Nation, who
called it Ebaghuit.
The first Europeans were reportedly from the French expedition of
Pierre Dugua de Mons (Sieur de Mons) and Samuel de Champlain, who
founded the short-lived nearby St. Croix
Island settlement in 1604.
France named the island Port aux Coquilles ("Seashell Harbour").
Following the War of the Spanish Succession, under terms of the Treaty
of Utrecht (1713), the island came under British control and was
placed in the colony of Nova Scotia, having ceased to be included in
the French colony of Acadia.
Island fisherman in 1973
In 1770, a grant of the island was made to Captain William Owen
(1737–1778) of the Royal Navy, who renamed it Campobello. The
island's name was derived from Britain's Governor of Nova Scotia, Lord
William Campbell, by Italianizing/Hispanicizing his name Campbell
(which is really of
Scottish Gaelic origin meaning 'crooked mouth'),
alluding to campo bello, which in Italian means "beautiful field" and
in Spanish "beautiful country(side)".
The creation of the colony of
New Brunswick in 1784 saw the island
transferred to the new jurisdiction, and by the end of the 18th
century the small island had a thriving community and economy, partly
aided by Loyalist refugees fleeing the American Revolutionary War.
Smuggling was a major part of the island's prosperity after the
Revolution, a custom to which local officials largely turned a blind
eye. During the
War of 1812
War of 1812 the
Royal Navy seized coastal lands of
Maine as far south as the
Penobscot River but returned them following
the war, except for offshore islands.
In 1817 the U.S. relinquished its claim to the Fundy Isles
(Campobello, Deer Island, and Grand Manan), and the British returned
Cobscook Bay including Moose
Island but notably did not
return Machias Seal Island.
By the mid-19th century, Campobello
Island had a population in excess
of 1,000. In 1910, 1,230 people lived there.
In 1866, a band of more than 700 members of the Fenian Brotherhood
arrived at the
Maine shore opposite the island with the intention of
seizing Campobello from the British. British warships from Halifax,
Nova Scotia were quickly on the scene and a military force dispersed
the Fenians. This action served to reinforce the idea of protection
New Brunswick by joining with the British North American colonies
of Nova Scotia,
Canada East, and
Canada West in Confederation to form
the Dominion of Canada.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
See also: Roosevelt Campobello International Park
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt on Campobello
Campobello has always relied heavily on fishing as the mainstay of the
island economy; however, the
Passamaquoddy Bay region's potential for
tourism was discovered during the 1880s at about the same time as The
Algonquin resort was built at nearby St. Andrews and the resort
community of Bar Harbor was beginning to develop. Campobello Island
became home to a similar, although much smaller and more exclusive,
development following the acquisition of some island properties by
several private American investors. A luxurious resort hotel was built
and the island became a popular summer colony for wealthy Canadians
and Americans, many of whom built grand estates there.
Among those with estates were Sara Delano and her husband James
Roosevelt Sr. from New York City. Sara Delano had a number of Delano
cousins living in Maine, and Campobello offered a beautiful summer
retreat where their family members could easily visit. From 1883
onward, the Roosevelt family made Campobello
Island their summer home.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt would spend his summers on Campobello
from the age of one until, as an adult, he acquired a larger property
— a 34-room "cottage" — which he used as a summer retreat until
1939. It was at Campobello, in August 1921, that the future president
fell ill and was diagnosed with polio, which resulted in his total and
permanent paralysis from the waist down. Roosevelt did strive to
regain use of his legs but never again stood or walked
His visits were mostly as a child, only staying overnight once while
During the 20th century, the island's prosperity from its wealthy
visitors declined with the change in lifestyles brought on by a new
mobility afforded by automobiles, airplanes, and air conditioning in
large inland cities. Nonetheless, for President Roosevelt, the
tranquility was exactly what he and his family cherished, and the
property remained in their hands until 1952 when it was sold by
Elliott Roosevelt (Franklin and Eleanor's fourth child). Elliott
decided to sell the house after his mother, Eleanor, had sold it to
him. Elliott sold it to Victor Hammer and his brother
Armand Hammer of
Boston and they owned it up until 1963. However, they said Eleanor was
always welcome to come whenever she pleased, and her last visit was in
1962 to attend the opening of the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge
Island to Lubec, Maine. In 1962 the brothers
tried to sell it but got no takers; they subsequently donated the
cottage to the U.S. and Canadian governments in 1963 as an
international park. The
Roosevelt Campobello International Park
Roosevelt Campobello International Park is the
only one of its kind because it is run by both the Canadian and
American governments, the park being located in Canadian territory.
The park is now equally staffed by both
Americans and Canadians.
In 1960, motion-picture producer
Dore Schary and director Vincent J.
Donehue made the film Sunrise at Campobello, based on Schary's Tony
Award winning Broadway play of the same name. Starring Ralph Bellamy
as Franklin D. Roosevelt, the film covered the years 1921 to 1924 at
Island and events leading up to Roosevelt's nomination as
the Democratic Party's candidate for president.
Main article: List of people from Charlotte County, New Brunswick
William Owen (
Royal Navy officer),
Royal Navy Officer, proprietor
William Fitzwilliam Owen,
Royal Navy Officer, explorer, political
John James Robinson-Owen,
Royal Navy Officer, political figure
List of communities in New Brunswick
List of islands of New Brunswick
^ Census Profile: Campobello Island,
New Brunswick (Rural
community)[permanent dead link]
^ New International Encyclopedia[page needed]
^ Buescher, John. "What Happened to the Fenians After 1866?"
Teachinghistory.org, accessed 8 October 2011
^ "F. D. Roosevelt Ill of Poliomyelitis". The New York Times.
September 16, 1921. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
^ Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (2014). The Roosevelts: An Intimate
History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780307700230.
^ "Chapter 1: Eastern Maine". United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the
Canada Border. The Center for Land Use Interpretation. Winter
Community Profile: Campobello Parish, Charlotte County, New Brunswick;
Charlotte County Guide
Joshua M. Smith, Borderland Smuggling: Patriots, Loyalists and Illicit
Trade in the Northeast, 1783-1820 Gainesville, University Press of
Tourism New Brunswick, Canada
Campobello Island, in the international Quoddy Loop
East Coast Ferries Ltd., running seasonally between Deer Island, NB,
and Campobello Island, NB
Passamaquoddy Bay 3-Nation Alliance includes Campobello Island
The Canadian Encyclopedia Campobello Island
Coordinates: 44°53′N 66°56′W / 44.883°N 66.933°W /
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Campobello Island.
Subdivisions of New Brunswick
Local service districts
Islands of New Brunswick
Bay Du Vin