Campania (Italian pronunciation: [kamˈpaːnja]) is a region in
Southern Italy. As of 2014, the region had a population of around
5,869,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of
Italy; its total area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi)
makes it the most densely populated region in the country. Located
on the Italian Peninsula, with the
Mediterranean Sea to the west, it
includes the small
Phlegraean Islands and
Capri for administration as
part of the region.
Campania was colonised by
Ancient Greeks and was part of Magna
Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman
culture. The capital city of
Campania is Naples.
Campania is rich in
culture, especially in regard to gastronomy, music, architecture,
archeological and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Paestum
and Velia. The name of
Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the
Romans knew the region as
Campania felix, which translates into
English as "fertile countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania
make it highly important in the tourism industry, especially along the
Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri.
1.1 Ancient tribes and Samnite Wars
1.2 Roman period
1.3 Feudalism in the Middle Ages
1.4 The Kingdom
1.4.1 Norman to Angevin
1.4.2 Aragonese to Bourbon
1.5 World War II, "
5 Government and politics
5.1 Administrative divisions
6.2 Ancient, medieval, and early arts
6.3 Contemporary and modern arts
8 External links
Ancient tribes and Samnite Wars
Samnite Wars and Magna Græcia
Temple of Hera, Paestum, built 550 BC
The original inhabitants of
Campania were three defined groups of the
Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, which is
part of the Italic family; their names were the Osci, the
the Ausones. During the 8th century BC, people from
Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area
roughly around the modern day province of Naples. Another Oscan
tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central
Italy into Campania.
Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they easily
took over the cities of
Capua and Cumae, in an area which was one of
the most prosperous and fertile in the
Italian Peninsula at the
time. During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with
Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the
Romans securing rich pastures of northern
Campania during the First
The major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, and
when the town was eventually captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans
were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom
they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War.
The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC
and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas
foederata while strongly aligned with Rome. The Second Samnite War
ended with the Romans controlling southern
Campania and additional
regions further to the south.
See also: Roman Republic, Roman Empire, and Italia (Roman Empire)
Campania was a full-fledged part of the
Roman Republic by the end of
the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside. Its
Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic
civilization, creating the first traces of
Pyrrhic War the battle took place in
Campania at Maleventum
in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious.
They renamed the city Beneventum (modern day Benevento), which grew in
stature until it was second only to
Capua in southern Italy.
Second Punic War
Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality
with Rome, allied with Carthage. The rebellious Capuans were
isolated from the rest of Campania, which remained allies of Rome.
Hannibal due to the imposing walls.
eventually starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC,
and the Romans were victorious.
The Last Day of
Pompeii – Karl Briullov
The rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin
language as official and was Romanised. As part of the Roman
Empire, Campania, with Latium, formed the most important region of the
Augustan divisions of Italia;
Campania was one of the main areas for
granary. In ancient times Misenum (modern 'Miseno'), at the
extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the
Roman navy, since its port (Portus Julius) was the base of the Classis
Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet. It was first established
as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the
emperor Augustus.Roman Emperors chose
Campania as a holiday
destination, among them
Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is
infamously linked to the island of Capri. It was also during this
Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St.
Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples,
and there were also several martyrs during this time.
Unfortunately, the period of relative calm was violently interrupted
by the epic eruption of
Mount Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities
Pompeii and Herculaneum. With the Decline of the Roman Empire,
its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison
near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the
Middle Ages and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the
Feudalism in the Middle Ages
See also: Byzantine Empire,
Duchy of Naples,
Duchy of Benevento,
Principality of Capua, Principality of Salerno,
Duchy of Amalfi, Duchy
of Sorrento, and
Apulia and Calabria
The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages,
in the hands of the
Byzantine Empire and the Lombards. Under the
Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part
of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the
Kingdom of Naples. It was during this period that elements of Spanish,
French and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania.
Norman to Angevin
See also: Kingdom of Sicily, Kingdom of Naples, and List of monarchs
Early kings ruled from Castel Nuovo
After a period as a Norman kingdom, the
Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily passed to
the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian
origins. The University of
Naples Federico II was founded by
Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world,
Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict
between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope
Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king.
Charles officially moved the capital from
Naples where he
resided at the Castel Nuovo. During this period, much Gothic
architecture sprang up around Naples, including the
the main church of the city.
In 1281, with the advent of the Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom split in
half. The Angevin Kingdom of
Naples included the southern part of the
Italian peninsula, while the island of
Sicily became the Aragonese
Kingdom of Sicily. The wars continued until the peace of
Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Frederick III recognised as king of
the Isle of Sicily, while Charles II was recognised as the king of
Naples by Pope Boniface VIII. Despite the split,
Naples grew in
importance, attracting Pisan and Genoese merchants, Tuscan
bankers, and with them some of the most championed Renaissance artists
of the time, such as Boccaccio,
Petrarch and Giotto. Alfonso I
Naples after his victory against the last Angevin king,
Naples was unified for a brief period with Sicily
Aragonese to Bourbon
See also: Kingdom of Naples, Parthenopaean Republic, Two Sicilies, and
List of monarchs of the Two Sicilies
Naples were separated in 1458 but remained as dependencies
Aragon under Ferrante. The new dynasty enhanced Naples'
commerce by establishing relations with the Iberian peninsula. Naples
also became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as Laurana,
da Messina, Sannazzaro and
Poliziano arriving in the city. During
Naples came under direct rule from
France at the time of Louis
XII, as Neapolitan king Frederick was taken as a prisoner to France;
this lasted four years.
Naples at the Battle of
Garigliano and, as a result,
Naples then became part of the Spanish
Empire throughout the entire Habsburg
Spain period. The Spanish
sent viceroys to
Naples to directly deal with local issues: the most
important of which was Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, who was responsible
for considerable social, economic and urban progress in the city; he
also supported the Inquisition.
Caserta Palace, inside
During this period
Naples became Europe's second largest city after
Paris. During the
Baroque era it was home to artists including
Caravaggio, Rosa and Bernini; philosophers such as Telesio, Bruno,
Campanella and Vico; and writers such as Battista Marino. A revolution
led by local fisherman
Masaniello saw the creation of a brief
independent Neapolitan Republic, though this lasted only a few months
before Spanish rule was regained. Finally, by 1714, the Spanish
ceased to rule
Naples as a result of the War of the Spanish
Succession; it was the Austrian Charles VI who ruled from Vienna,
similarly, with viceroys. However, the War of the Polish
Succession saw the Spanish regain
Naples as part of a
personal union, which in the Treaty of
Vienna were recognised as
independent under a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons in 1738 under
Ferdinand, Bourbon king.
During the time of Ferdinand IV, the
French Revolution made its way to
Naples: Horatio Nelson, an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the
city in 1798 to warn against it. However, Ferdinand was forced to
retreat and fled to Palermo, where he was protected by a British
fleet. Naples' lower classes (the lazzaroni) were pious and
Royalist, favouring the Bourbons; in the mêlée that followed, they
fought the Neapolitan pro-Republican aristocracy, causing a civil
war. The Republicans conquered
Castel Sant'Elmo and proclaimed a
Parthenopaean Republic, secured by the French Army. A
counter-revolutionary religious army of lazzaroni under Fabrizio Ruffo
was raised; they had great success and the French surrendered the
Neapolitan castles and were allowed to sail back to Toulon.
Ferdinand IV was restored as king; however, after only seven years
Napoleon conquered the kingdom and instated Bonapartist kings
including his brother Joseph Bonaparte. With the help of the
Austrian Empire and allies, the Bonapartists were defeated in the
Neapolitan War and Bourbon Ferdinand IV once again regained the throne
and the kingdom. The Congress of
Vienna in 1815 saw the kingdoms
Sicily combined to form the Two Sicilies, with
Naples as the capital city.
Naples became the first city on the
Italian peninsula to have a railway in 1839, there were many
factories throughout the kingdom making it a highly important trade
World War II, "
In September 1943,
Salerno was the scene of the Operation Avalanche
and suffered a great deal of damage. From February 12 to July 17,
1944, it hosted the Government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio. In those
Salerno was the temporary "Capital of the Kingdom of Italy",
and the King
Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III lived in a mansion in its outskirts.
Salerno received the first "Tricolore" in an official ceremony on 7
January 2012 from the premier Mario Monti, to celebrate the glorious
Italy and its old capitals.
Mount Vesuvius erupting in 1944
Campania has an area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) and a
coastline of 350 km (217 mi) on the Tyrrhenian Sea. Campania
is famous for its gulfs (Naples,
Salerno and Policastro) as well as
for three islands (Capri,
Ischia and Procida).
Four other regions border Campania;
Lazio to the northwest,
Apulia (Puglia) to the northeast and
Basilicata to the
The mountainous interior is fragmented into several massifs, rarely
reaching 2,000 metres (Miletto of 2,050 m), whereas close to the
coast there are volcanic massifs:
Vesuvio (1,277 m) and Campi
The climate is typically Mediterranean along the coast, whereas in the
inner zones it is more continental, with low temperatures in winter.
51% of the total area is hilly, 34% mountainous and the remaining 15%
is made up of plains. There is a high seismic risk in the area of the
The agro-food industry is one of the main pillars of industry of
Campania. The organisation of the sector is improving and leading to
higher levels of quality and salaries.
Campania mainly produces fruit
and vegetables, but has also expanded its production of flowers grown
in greenhouses, becoming one of the leading regions of the sector in
Italy. The value added of this sector represents around 6.5% of the
total value added of the region, equalling €213.7 million. Campania
produces over 50% of Italy's nuts and is also the leader in the
production of tomatoes, which reaches 1.5 million tonnes a year. A
weak point, however, for the region's agriculture is the very reduced
size of farms, equal to 3.53 hectares. Animal breeding is widespread
(it was done in 70,278 farms in 2000) and the milk produced is used to
process typical products, such as mozzarella.
Olive trees cover over
74,604 hectares of the agricultural land and contribute by €620.6
million to the value added of agriculture, together with the
production of fruit. Wine production has increased, together with the
quality of the wine.
The region has a dense network of road and motorways, a system of
maritime connections and an airport (
Naples Airport), which connect it
rapidly to the rest of the Country.
Campania has a series of
historical problems and internal contrasts, although they are
improving. The regional capital, Naples, one of the most populated and
interesting cities in Italy, rich in history and natural beauty, both
artistic and archaeological, still represents the centre of regional
life. The port connects the region with the whole Mediterranean basin,
and brings tourists to the archaeological sites, the cities of art
Naples and Caserta), to the beautiful coastal areas and to the
islands. The services sector makes up for 78% of the region's gross
The GDP pro-capita of
Campania is the highest among the regions of
South Italy, yet it is only 66.7% of the Italian average, which
highlights the steep economic gap between the North and the South of
Italy. The situation of Campania's economy is considered "anomalous",
as it is believed to have a large potential not properly exploited, as
well as high rates of unemployment and of submerged economy. It was
speculated that one factor could have been a failure of
connect with the economy of the unitary Italian state, while another
factor is its peripheral position too distant from the developed
central areas of Europe.
Heavy industry used to be concentrated in the
area, in which the largest industrial area was Bagnoli, a suburb
located North of the city.
Bagnoli enjoyed a favourable logistic
position due its proximity to the sea and to an industrial harbour,
and included Steel factories that were among the largest in Europe.
The steel factories operated since 1905 for about 80 years, but by the
end of the sixties, all industries of
Bagnoli area gradually started
to lose competitiveness, and the steel factories were definitively
closed in 1991. At the beginning of the 70s, plans for the
de-industrialization of the area were presented, as it was perceived
that the causes of competitiveness loss were impossible to remove. In
1970 the City Council decided that 30% of space of the industrial
should be dismantled and turned into public parks. In 1976, a
definitive report concluded that the lack of competitiveness was due
to "impossibility to expand the facilities because of lack of
space". The metropolitan area of
Naples is limited by two
dangerous areas, the
Mount Vesuvius on the South, and supervolcano
Campi Flegrei on the North, leaving little space in proximity of the
Some factors may contribute in keeping the economy less competitive or
less flexible compared to Northern Italian and European regions, among
them, a larger public administration sector (which accounted for 20.4%
of the whole economy in 2013, while in
Italy the figure is 13.6)
suggesting a too large number of public employees or white
collars. The number of lawyers is 5.7 every 1000, by comparison in
Trentino-Alto Adige the number is 1.7. Because of
a less developed economy,
Campania may have suffered less the negative
effects of recent economic cycles.
Sea-based activity accounts about 3.9% of the economy, that includes
port movements of goods and passengers and sea transportation, as well
as a sizable seaside tourism economy. There is a massive automotive
industrial production, focused on high-quality models of brands Alfa
Romeo, in facilities located in
Pomigliano d'Arco in the Naples
metropolitan area and in Cassino. There is also a significant
aerospace industry. A
Mars mission named Exo
Mars in 2016 had a major
part of its technology designed in Naples.
Source: ISTAT 2001, 2011, 2014
The region, with a population of over 5.8 million inhabitants, is
divided into five provinces: Naples, Benevento, Avellino,
Salerno. Over half of the population is resident in the province of
Naples, where there is a population density of 2,626 inhabitants per
km2. Within the province, the highest density can be found along the
coast, where it reaches 13,000 inhabitants per km2 in the city of
Portici. The region, which was characterised until recently by an
acute economic contrast between internal and coastal areas, has shown
an improvement in the last decade thanks to the development of the
Benevento and Avellino. At the same time, the provinces
Caserta and in part Salerno, have developed a variety of
activities connected to advanced types of services.
Unlike central and northern Italy, in the last decade the region of
Campania has not attracted large numbers of immigrants. The Italian
national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated in January 2007 that
98,052 foreign-born immigrants live in Campania, equal to 1.7% of the
total regional population. Part of the reason for this is in
recent times, there have been more employment opportunities in
northern regions than in the Southern Italian regions.
Government and politics
Politics of Campania
Politics of Campania, takes place in a framework of a presidential
representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government
is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government. Legislative
power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council.
The Regional Council of
Campania (Consiglio Regionale della Campania)
is composed of 60 members, of which 47 are elected in provincial
constituencies with proportional representation, 12 from the so-called
"regional list" of the elected President and the last one is for the
candidate for President who comes second, who usually becomes the
leader of the opposition in the Council. If a coalition wins more than
55% of the vote, only 6 candidates from the "regional list" will be
elected and the number of those elected in provincial constituencies
will be 53.
Campania is divided into four provinces and one metropolitan city:
Province of Avellino
Province of Benevento
Province of Caserta
Province of Salerno
Metropolitan City of Naples
Main article: Neapolitan cuisine
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An authentic Neapolitan pizza
Campanian cuisine varies within the region. While Neapolitan dishes
centre on seafood, Casertan and Aversan ones rely more on fresh
vegetables and cheeses. The cuisine from
Sorrento combines the
culinary traditions from both
Naples and Salerno.
Pizza was conceived in Naples.
Spaghetti is also a well-known dish from southern
Italy and Campania.
Spaghetti alla puttanesca, a spicy pasta dish topped with a sauce made
of tomatoes, olives, anchovies and capers
Campania produces wines including Lacryma Christi, Fiano, Aglianico,
Greco di Tufo, Pere 'e palomma, Ischitano, Taburno, Solopaca, and
Taurasi. The cheeses of
Campania consist of
Mozzarella di Bufala
(buffalo mozzarella) (mozzarella made from buffalo milk), fiordilatte
("flower of milk") a mozzarella made from cow's milk, ricotta from
sheep or buffalo milk, provolone from cow milk, and caciotta made from
goat milk. Buffalo are bred in
Salerno and Caserta.
Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania.
Pastiera pie is
made during Easter. Casatiello and tortano are
Easter bread-cakes made
by adding lard or oil and various types of cheese to bread dough and
garnishing it with slices of salami. Babà cake is a well known
Neapolitan delicacy, best served with
Rum or limoncello (a liqueur
invented in the
Sorrento peninsula). It is an old Austrian cake, which
Campania during the Austrian domination of the Kingdom of
Two Sicilies and was modified there to become a "walking cake" for
citizens always in a hurry for work and other pursuits. Sfogliatella
is another cake from the Amalfi Coast, as is Zeppole, traditionally
eaten on Saint Joseph's day. Struffoli, little balls fried dough
dipped in honey, are enjoyed during the Christmas holidays.
Dried red peppers and lemons hanging from a shop in Amalfi.
Another Campanian dish is the so-called
Russian salad (which is based
on similar dishes from France), made of potatoes in mayonnaise
garnished with shrimp and vegetables in vinegar. Russians call this
same dish Olivier Salad, and Germans call it Italian salad. Another
French-derived dish is "gattò" or "gâteau di patate" (oven-baked pie
made of boiled potatoes). As with the Russian salad,
Campania is home
to popular seafood-based dishes, such as "insalata di mare" (seafood
salad), "zuppa di polpo" (octopus soup), and "zuppa di cozze" (mussel
soup). Other regional seafood dishes include "frittelle di mare"
(fritters with seaweed), made with edible poseidonia algae, "triglie
al cartoccio" (red mullet in the bag), and "alici marinate" (fresh
anchovies in olive oil). The island of
Ischia is famous for its fish
dishes, as well as for cooked rabbit.
Campania is also home to the
lemons of Sorrento.
Rapini (or Broccoli rabe), known locally as
friarielli, are often used in the regional cooking.
produces many nuts, especially in the area of Avellino,
Benevento. Hazelnut production is especially relevant in the province
of Avellino – in Spanish, in Portuguese and in Occitan the hazelnut
is respectively called avellana, avelã and avelano,
after the city of Avella. That is also the case of ancient Italian
avellana, which is however not in use anymore.
Ancient, medieval, and early arts
The grand gardens of the baroque Palace of Caserta
The region of
Campania is rich with a vast array of culture and
history. Since the Greek colony of Elea, now Velia,
Campania was home
to philosophers of the
Pre-Socratic philosophy school, such as
Parmenides and Zeno of Elea, who came to prominence around 490–480
Vergil (70 BC–19 BC) settled in
Naples in his
late life: parts of his epic poem
Aeneid are located in Campania. The
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder studied Mount Vesuvius, and died
after being poisoned and killed by gas emitted from the volcano during
the 79 AD eruption.
Romulus Augustus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, died
as a prisoner of the German general
Naples around 500. In
the Middle Ages, the artist
Giotto made some frescoes in Castel Nuovo.
These works of art were subsequently destroyed by an earthquake.
By the end of the Middle Ages, the medical school of Salerno, which
combined ancient Roman and Greek medicine with Arab medicine, was
known throughout Europe and its methods were adopted across the
continent. Some have suggested that this may have been one of the
first universities in Europe. Boccaccio, the Tuscan poet, visited
Naples on various occasions, and in the Decameron described it as a
dissolute city. He also wrote a love story involving a noble woman
close to the King of Naples.
Pulcinella with a guitar
In 1570, the Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes, who wrote the romance
novel Don Quixote, served as a Spanish soldier for a period in Naples.
Torquato Tasso was born in
Sorrento in 1575. Years earlier in
1558, the first modern description and studies of the "camera obscura"
("dark chamber"), were established in
Italy by Giovanni Battista della
Porta in his Magiae Naturalis.
Giordano Bruno was born in Nola. He was the first to
theorize infinite suns and infinite worlds in the universe. He was
Rome by the
Spanish Inquisition in 1600. Later, in c. 1606,
Caravaggio established his studio in Naples.
Cosimo Fanzago from
Bergamo also decided to
move to Naples.
In the 18th century,
Naples was the last city to be visited by
philosophers who created the "Grand Tour" which was the big touring
voyage to visit all the important cultural sites of the European
continent. Italian architect
Luigi Vanvitelli son of Dutch architect
Kaspar van Wittel built the Kingdom Palace in
Caserta in c. 1750. He
contributed to the construction of many neoclassic-style palaces in
which the nobles of
Naples spent their holidays. These palaces are now
known worldwide as "Ville Vesuviane".
The island of Capri, often seen as a cultural symbol of Campania.
Raimondo di Sangro, prince of Sansevero, was a scientist and one of
the last alchemists. Around this time, in 1786, German writer Goethe
Campania and Naples. German archaeologist Johann Joachim
Winckelmann also visited Naples, Paestum,
1748 and later, studying how archaeological surveys were conducted in
the kingdom of Naples. He was one of the first to study drawings,
statues, stones, and ancient burned scrolls made of papyrus found in
the excavations of the city of Herculaneum. Archaeological excavations
Pompeii were initiated by King Charles III of
Naples in 1748. He
issued the first modern laws in Europe to protect, defend and preserve
archaeological sites. Neapolitan musicians of that period include
Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli
Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli and Giovanni Paisiello.
Gioachino Rossini lived for several years in Naples, where he
wrote numerous compositions. Italian poet and writer Giacomo Leopardi
established his home in
Naples and Torre del Greco, remaining there at
the end of his brief young life. He died at
Naples in 1837. The first
volcano observatory, the
Vesuvius Observatory, was founded in Naples
in 1841. Geologist Giuseppe Mercalli, born in
Milan in 1850, was a
director of the
In February 1851, British statesman
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone was
allowed to visit the prison where Giacomo Lacaita, legal adviser to
the British embassy, was imprisoned by the Neapolitan government,
along with other political dissidents. He deplored their
condition, and in April and July published two Letters to the Earl of
Aberdeen against the Neapolitan government, followed by An Examination
of the Official Reply of the Neapolitan Government in 1852. His
pamphlets may have contributed to the cause of the unification of
Italy in 1861.
Alexandre Dumas, père
Alexandre Dumas, père was directly involved in the
process of the Unification of Italy, and sojourned two or three years
in Naples, where he wrote several historical novels regarding that
city. He was also a known newspaper correspondent. Francesco de
Sanctis, writer, politician and twice Minister of Instruction after
the re-unification of
Italy in 1861, was born in
Morra De Sanctis
Morra De Sanctis near
Anton Dohrn founded in
Naples the first public
aquarium in the world and laboratory for the study of the sea, known
as Maritime Zoological Station. The Astronomic Observatory of
Capodimonte was founded by King Joachim Murat, in 1816. The
observatory now hosts the Italian Laboratory of Astrophysics. Doctors
Antonio Cardarelli and
Giuseppe Moscati were
representatives of medical studies in Naples.
Contemporary and modern arts
The so-called "School of Posillipo" and "School of Resina", dating
from the late 19th to early 20th centuries, included painters such as
Giacinto Gigante, Federico Cortese, Domenico Morelli, Saverio
Altamura, Giuseppe De Nittis, Vincenzo Gemito, Antonio Mancini,
Amongst the painters who inspired directly these schools, are Salvator
Rosa, Pierre Jacques-Antoine Volaire, Anton Sminck van Pitloo who
spent his last years in Naples. Opera singer
Enrico Caruso was also a
native of Naples. Russian revolutionary leader
Vladimir Lenin lived
for a period in Capri. In the 20th century, the music genre called
Neapolitan song became popular worldwide, with songs such as "O sole
mio", "Funiculì, funiculà", "O surdato nnamurato", "Torna a
Surriento", "Guapparia, "Santa Lucia", "Reginella", "Marechiaro",
Mathematician Renato Caccioppoli, nephew of the Russian anarchic
revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin, was born in Naples. The first President
of the Italian Republic in 1946 (with a pro-tempore mandate of six
Enrico De Nicola
Enrico De Nicola from Torre del Greco.
Campania is also
home to the former Prime Minister and 6th President of the Republic
Giovanni Leone, as well as the 11th President, Giorgio Napolitano.
Baroque art inside the Palace of Caserta.
The 20th century's best known philosopher and literate in
Benedetto Croce, famous for his studies in aesthetics, ethics, logic,
economy, history, politics.
Famous Neapolitan artists, actors, playwrights, and showmen were
Eduardo De Filippo
Eduardo De Filippo and Peppino De Filippo, and their sister Titina De
Totò (byname of Antonio de Curtis) was one of the most
important comedians in
Naples in the 20th century. He is also known
for the song "Malafemmena".
Andy Warhol created two famous paintings of the 1980
Irpinia earthquake: Fate presto and Vesuvius. Both originals are
hosted in the exhibit Terrae Motus in the Palace of Caserta.
Sophia Loren grew up in Pozzuoli.
Oscar and David-winning film producer
Dino De Laurentiis
Dino De Laurentiis was born
in Torre Annunziata. One of his grandchildren is Food Network
personality Giada De Laurentiis.
Contemporary Campanian writers include
Curzio Malaparte and Domenico
20th- and 21st-century Campanian actors and directors include
Francesco Rosi, Iaia Forte, Pappi Corsicato, Teresa De Sio, Lello
Massimo Troisi and director Gabriele Salvatores.
Modern Italian singers and musicians from
Campania include Peppino di
Capri, Renato Carosone, Edoardo Bennato, Eugenio Bennato, Mario
Merola, Sergio Bruni, Aurelio Fierro, Roberto Murolo, Tony Tammaro,
Teresa De Sio, Eduardo De Crescenzo, Alan Sorrenti, Toni Esposito,
Tullio De Piscopo, Massimo Ranieri, Pino Daniele,
James Senese and his
group Napoli Centrale, Enzo Avitabile, Enzo Gragnaniello, Nino
D'Angelo, Gigi D'Alessio, 99 Posse, Almamegretta, Bisca, 24 Grana.
Artists who directed movies about
Naples or actors who played in
movies in Campania, or interpreted Neapolitans on-screen, include
Vittorio De Sica, Nanni Loi, Domenico Modugno, Renzo Arbore, Lina
Mario Lanza as Caruso,
Clark Gable in "It Started in
Jack Lemmon in the movies "Maccheroni" (which co-starred
Marcello Mastroianni) and "Avanti!".
The international Giffoni Film Festival, established in 1971, is the
first and most important festival for a young public.
Stadio San Paolo
Stadio San Paolo is the home ground of
SSC Napoli of Serie A
Campania is home to several national football, water polo, volleyball,
basketball and tennis clubs.
The fencing school in
Naples is the oldest in the country and the only
Italy in which a swordsman can acquire the title "master of
swords", which allows him or her to teach the art of fencing.
The "Circolo Savoia" and "Canottieri Napoli" sailing clubs are among
the oldest in
Italy and are famous for their regattas. These are also
home of the main water polo teams in the city. Many sailors from
Campania participate as crew in the
America's Cup sailing
Giuseppe Abbagnale and
Carmine Abbagnale were born in
Castellammare di Stabia: they were four times rowing world champions
and Olympic gold medalists.
The football teams in
S.S.C. Napoli playing in Serie A, and the only team in the south of
Italy to have won the
Serie A title
Benevento Calcio playing in Serie A
U.S. Avellino 1912
U.S. Avellino 1912 playing in Serie B
U.S. Salernitana 1919
U.S. Salernitana 1919 playing in Serie B
Casertana F.C. playing in Serie C
S.S. Juve Stabia
S.S. Juve Stabia playing in Serie C
Paganese Calcio 1926
Paganese Calcio 1926 playing in Serie C
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Campania.
Campania Photo Gallery
Map of Campania
Terra di Lavoro
Vallo di Diano
Cities, towns and villages
Kingdom of Naples
Duchy of Naples
Duchy of Benevento
Principality of Capua
Principality of Salerno
Duchy of Amalfi
Duchy of Sorrento
Apulia and Calabria
Elections in Campania
List of Presidents of Campania
Regions of Italy
Ancient Italian peoples
Phoenician / Carthaginian colonies
Italy under Odoacer
Guelphs and Ghibellines
Early Modern period
Revolutions of 1820
Revolutions of 1830
Revolutions of 1848
Sicilian revolution of 1848
First War of Independence
Second War of Independence
Expedition of the Thousand
Third War of Independence
Capture of Rome
Monarchy and the World Wars
Kingdom of Italy
World War I
World War II
Years of Lead
Years of Mud
Chamber of Deputies
Council of Ministers
Regions by GDP
Science and technology
Fathers' rights movement
Festa della Repubblica
World Heritage Sites
Coordinates: 40°49′34″N 14°15′23″E / 40.82611°N
14.25639°E / 40.82611; 14.25639
ISNI: 0000 0001 2180 5631