The Info List - Campania

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(Italian pronunciation: [kamˈpaːnja]) is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2014, the region had a population of around 5,869,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy;[2] its total area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) makes it the most densely populated region in the country.[3] Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands
Phlegraean Islands
and Capri
for administration as part of the region. Campania
was colonised by Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
and was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture. The capital city of Campania
is Naples. Campania
is rich in culture, especially in regard to gastronomy, music, architecture, archeological and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Paestum and Velia. The name of Campania
itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania
felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it highly important in the tourism industry, especially along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
and the island of Capri.[4]


1 History

1.1 Ancient tribes and Samnite Wars 1.2 Roman period 1.3 Feudalism in the Middle Ages 1.4 The Kingdom

1.4.1 Norman to Angevin 1.4.2 Aragonese to Bourbon

1.5 World War II, " Salerno

2 Geography 3 Economy 4 Demographics 5 Government and politics

5.1 Administrative divisions

6 Culture

6.1 Cuisine 6.2 Ancient, medieval, and early arts 6.3 Contemporary and modern arts 6.4 Sports

7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Ancient tribes and Samnite Wars[edit] See also: Samnite Wars
Samnite Wars
and Magna Græcia

Temple of Hera, Paestum, built 550 BC

The original inhabitants of Campania
were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, which is part of the Italic family; their names were the Osci, the Aurunci
and the Ausones.[5] During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea
in Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area roughly around the modern day province of Naples.[6] Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central Italy
into Campania. Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they easily took over the cities of Capua
and Cumae, in an area which was one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
at the time.[7] During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania
during the First Samnite War.[8] The major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, and when the town was eventually captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War.[7] The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while strongly aligned with Rome.[9] The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania
and additional regions further to the south.[8] Roman period[edit] See also: Roman Republic, Roman Empire, and Italia (Roman Empire) Campania
was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside. Its Greek language
Greek language
and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman
culture.[10] During the Pyrrhic War
Pyrrhic War
the battle took place in Campania
at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious. They renamed the city Beneventum (modern day Benevento), which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua
in southern Italy.[11] During the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage.[12] The rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania, which remained allies of Rome. Naples
resisted Hannibal
due to the imposing walls.[10] Capua
was eventually starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, and the Romans were victorious.[12]

The Last Day of Pompeii
– Karl Briullov

The rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.[13] As part of the Roman Empire, Campania, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia; Campania
was one of the main areas for granary.[13] In ancient times Misenum (modern 'Miseno'), at the extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port (Portus Julius) was the base of the Classis Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet. It was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus.Roman Emperors chose Campania
as a holiday destination, among them Claudius
and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri.[10] It was also during this period that Christianity
came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, and there were also several martyrs during this time.[14] Unfortunately, the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
in 79 which buried the cities of Pompeii
and Herculaneum.[15] With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.[10] Feudalism in the Middle Ages[edit] See also: Byzantine Empire, Duchy of Naples, Duchy of Benevento, Principality of Capua, Principality of Salerno, Duchy of Amalfi, Duchy of Sorrento, and Duchy of Apulia
and Calabria The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Lombards. Under the Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples. It was during this period that elements of Spanish, French and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania. The Kingdom[edit] Norman to Angevin[edit] See also: Kingdom of Sicily, Kingdom of Naples, and List of monarchs of Naples

Early kings ruled from Castel Nuovo

After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
passed to the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins.[16] The University of Naples
Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples
the intellectual centre of the kingdom.[17] Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king.[18] Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo
to Naples
where he resided at the Castel Nuovo.[19] During this period, much Gothic architecture sprang up around Naples, including the Naples
Cathedral, the main church of the city.[20] In 1281, with the advent of the Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom split in half. The Angevin Kingdom of Naples
included the southern part of the Italian peninsula, while the island of Sicily
became the Aragonese Kingdom of Sicily.[18] The wars continued until the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Frederick III recognised as king of the Isle of Sicily, while Charles II was recognised as the king of Naples
by Pope Boniface VIII.[18] Despite the split, Naples
grew in importance, attracting Pisan and Genoese merchants,[21] Tuscan bankers, and with them some of the most championed Renaissance artists of the time, such as Boccaccio, Petrarch
and Giotto.[22] Alfonso I conquered Naples
after his victory against the last Angevin king, René, and Naples
was unified for a brief period with Sicily again.[23] Aragonese to Bourbon[edit] See also: Kingdom of Naples, Parthenopaean Republic, Two Sicilies, and List of monarchs of the Two Sicilies

Revolutionary Masaniello

and Naples
were separated in 1458 but remained as dependencies of Aragon
under Ferrante.[24] The new dynasty enhanced Naples' commerce by establishing relations with the Iberian peninsula. Naples also became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as Laurana, da Messina, Sannazzaro and Poliziano
arriving in the city.[25] During 1501 Naples
came under direct rule from France
at the time of Louis XII, as Neapolitan king Frederick was taken as a prisoner to France; this lasted four years.[26] Spain
won Naples
at the Battle of Garigliano and, as a result, Naples
then became part of the Spanish Empire throughout the entire Habsburg Spain
period.[26] The Spanish sent viceroys to Naples
to directly deal with local issues: the most important of which was Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, who was responsible for considerable social, economic and urban progress in the city; he also supported the Inquisition.[27]

Palace, inside

During this period Naples
became Europe's second largest city after Paris.[28] During the Baroque
era it was home to artists including Caravaggio, Rosa and Bernini; philosophers such as Telesio, Bruno, Campanella and Vico; and writers such as Battista Marino. A revolution led by local fisherman Masaniello
saw the creation of a brief independent Neapolitan Republic, though this lasted only a few months before Spanish rule was regained.[26] Finally, by 1714, the Spanish ceased to rule Naples
as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession; it was the Austrian Charles VI who ruled from Vienna, similarly, with viceroys.[29] However, the War of the Polish Succession saw the Spanish regain Sicily
and Naples
as part of a personal union, which in the Treaty of Vienna
were recognised as independent under a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons in 1738 under Charles VII.[30]

Ferdinand, Bourbon king.

During the time of Ferdinand IV, the French Revolution
French Revolution
made its way to Naples: Horatio Nelson, an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in 1798 to warn against it. However, Ferdinand was forced to retreat and fled to Palermo, where he was protected by a British fleet.[31] Naples' lower classes (the lazzaroni) were pious and Royalist, favouring the Bourbons; in the mêlée that followed, they fought the Neapolitan pro-Republican aristocracy, causing a civil war.[31] The Republicans conquered Castel Sant'Elmo
Castel Sant'Elmo
and proclaimed a Parthenopaean Republic, secured by the French Army.[31] A counter-revolutionary religious army of lazzaroni under Fabrizio Ruffo was raised; they had great success and the French surrendered the Neapolitan castles and were allowed to sail back to Toulon.[31] Ferdinand IV was restored as king; however, after only seven years Napoleon conquered the kingdom and instated Bonapartist kings including his brother Joseph Bonaparte.[32] With the help of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and allies, the Bonapartists were defeated in the Neapolitan War
Neapolitan War
and Bourbon Ferdinand IV once again regained the throne and the kingdom.[32] The Congress of Vienna
in 1815 saw the kingdoms of Naples
and Sicily
combined to form the Two Sicilies,[32] with Naples
as the capital city. Naples
became the first city on the Italian peninsula to have a railway in 1839,[33] there were many factories throughout the kingdom making it a highly important trade centre.[34] World War II, " Salerno
Capital"[edit] In September 1943, Salerno
was the scene of the Operation Avalanche and suffered a great deal of damage. From February 12 to July 17, 1944, it hosted the Government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio. In those months Salerno
was the temporary "Capital of the Kingdom of Italy", and the King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
lived in a mansion in its outskirts. Salerno
received the first "Tricolore" in an official ceremony on 7 January 2012 from the premier Mario Monti, to celebrate the glorious story of Italy
and its old capitals. Geography[edit]

Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
erupting in 1944

has an area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) and a coastline of 350 km (217 mi) on the Tyrrhenian Sea. Campania is famous for its gulfs (Naples, Salerno
and Policastro) as well as for three islands (Capri, Ischia
and Procida). Four other regions border Campania; Lazio
to the northwest, Molise
to the north, Apulia
(Puglia) to the northeast and Basilicata
to the east. The mountainous interior is fragmented into several massifs, rarely reaching 2,000 metres (Miletto of 2,050 m), whereas close to the coast there are volcanic massifs: Vesuvio
(1,277 m) and Campi Flegrei. The climate is typically Mediterranean along the coast, whereas in the inner zones it is more continental, with low temperatures in winter. 51% of the total area is hilly, 34% mountainous and the remaining 15% is made up of plains. There is a high seismic risk in the area of the region. Economy[edit] The agro-food industry is one of the main pillars of industry of Campania. The organisation of the sector is improving and leading to higher levels of quality and salaries. Campania
mainly produces fruit and vegetables, but has also expanded its production of flowers grown in greenhouses, becoming one of the leading regions of the sector in Italy. The value added of this sector represents around 6.5% of the total value added of the region, equalling €213.7 million. Campania produces over 50% of Italy's nuts and is also the leader in the production of tomatoes, which reaches 1.5 million tonnes a year. A weak point, however, for the region's agriculture is the very reduced size of farms, equal to 3.53 hectares. Animal breeding is widespread (it was done in 70,278 farms in 2000) and the milk produced is used to process typical products, such as mozzarella. Olive
trees cover over 74,604 hectares of the agricultural land and contribute by €620.6 million to the value added of agriculture, together with the production of fruit. Wine production has increased, together with the quality of the wine.[35] The region has a dense network of road and motorways, a system of maritime connections and an airport ( Naples
Airport), which connect it rapidly to the rest of the Country. Campania
has a series of historical problems and internal contrasts, although they are improving. The regional capital, Naples, one of the most populated and interesting cities in Italy, rich in history and natural beauty, both artistic and archaeological, still represents the centre of regional life. The port connects the region with the whole Mediterranean basin, and brings tourists to the archaeological sites, the cities of art ( Naples
and Caserta), to the beautiful coastal areas and to the islands. The services sector makes up for 78% of the region's gross domestic product.[35] The GDP pro-capita of Campania
is the highest among the regions of South Italy, yet it is only 66.7% of the Italian average, which highlights the steep economic gap between the North and the South of Italy. The situation of Campania's economy is considered "anomalous", as it is believed to have a large potential not properly exploited, as well as high rates of unemployment and of submerged economy. It was speculated that one factor could have been a failure of Campania
to connect with the economy of the unitary Italian state, while another factor is its peripheral position too distant from the developed central areas of Europe.[36] Heavy industry used to be concentrated in the Naples
metropolitan area, in which the largest industrial area was Bagnoli, a suburb located North of the city. Bagnoli
enjoyed a favourable logistic position due its proximity to the sea and to an industrial harbour, and included Steel factories that were among the largest in Europe. The steel factories operated since 1905 for about 80 years, but by the end of the sixties, all industries of Bagnoli
area gradually started to lose competitiveness, and the steel factories were definitively closed in 1991. At the beginning of the 70s, plans for the de-industrialization of the area were presented, as it was perceived that the causes of competitiveness loss were impossible to remove. In 1970 the City Council decided that 30% of space of the industrial should be dismantled and turned into public parks. In 1976, a definitive report concluded that the lack of competitiveness was due to "impossibility to expand the facilities because of lack of space".[37][38] The metropolitan area of Naples
is limited by two dangerous areas, the Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
on the South, and supervolcano Campi Flegrei
Campi Flegrei
on the North, leaving little space in proximity of the sea. Some factors may contribute in keeping the economy less competitive or less flexible compared to Northern Italian and European regions, among them, a larger public administration sector (which accounted for 20.4% of the whole economy in 2013, while in Italy
the figure is 13.6) suggesting a too large number of public employees or white collars.[39] The number of lawyers is 5.7 every 1000, by comparison in Northern region Trentino-Alto Adige
Trentino-Alto Adige
the number is 1.7.[40] Because of a less developed economy, Campania
may have suffered less the negative effects of recent economic cycles.[41] Sea-based activity accounts about 3.9% of the economy, that includes port movements of goods and passengers and sea transportation, as well as a sizable seaside tourism economy. There is a massive automotive industrial production, focused on high-quality models of brands Alfa Romeo, in facilities located in Pomigliano d'Arco
Pomigliano d'Arco
in the Naples metropolitan area and in Cassino. There is also a significant aerospace industry. A Mars
mission named Exo Mars
in 2016 had a major part of its technology designed in Naples.[42] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1861 2,402,000 —    

1871 2,520,000 +4.9%

1881 2,660,000 +5.6%

1901 2,914,000 +9.5%

1911 3,102,000 +6.5%

1921 3,343,000 +7.8%

1931 3,509,000 +5.0%

1936 3,697,000 +5.4%

1951 4,346,000 +17.6%

1961 4,761,000 +9.5%

1971 5,059,000 +6.3%

1981 5,463,000 +8.0%

1991 5,630,000 +3.1%

2001 5,702,000 +1.3%

2011 5,834,000 +2.3%

2017 5,839,084 +0.1%

Source: ISTAT 2001, 2011, 2014

The region, with a population of over 5.8 million inhabitants, is divided into five provinces: Naples, Benevento, Avellino, Caserta
and Salerno. Over half of the population is resident in the province of Naples, where there is a population density of 2,626 inhabitants per km2. Within the province, the highest density can be found along the coast, where it reaches 13,000 inhabitants per km2 in the city of Portici. The region, which was characterised until recently by an acute economic contrast between internal and coastal areas, has shown an improvement in the last decade thanks to the development of the provinces of Benevento
and Avellino. At the same time, the provinces of Naples, Caserta
and in part Salerno, have developed a variety of activities connected to advanced types of services.[43] Unlike central and northern Italy, in the last decade the region of Campania
has not attracted large numbers of immigrants. The Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated in January 2007 that 98,052 foreign-born immigrants live in Campania, equal to 1.7% of the total regional population.[44] Part of the reason for this is in recent times, there have been more employment opportunities in northern regions than in the Southern Italian regions. Government and politics[edit] Main article: Politics
of Campania The Politics
of Campania, takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council. The Regional Council of Campania
(Consiglio Regionale della Campania) is composed of 60 members, of which 47 are elected in provincial constituencies with proportional representation, 12 from the so-called "regional list" of the elected President and the last one is for the candidate for President who comes second, who usually becomes the leader of the opposition in the Council. If a coalition wins more than 55% of the vote, only 6 candidates from the "regional list" will be elected and the number of those elected in provincial constituencies will be 53.[45]

Administrative divisions[edit] Campania
is divided into four provinces and one metropolitan city:

Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)

Province of Avellino 2,792 427,310 153

Province of Benevento 2,071 283,393 136.83

Province of Caserta 2,639 906,596 343.54

Province of Salerno 4,923 1,092,349 222.11

Metropolitan City of Naples 1,171 3,052,763 2,606.97

Culture[edit] Cuisine[edit] Main article: Neapolitan cuisine

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An authentic Neapolitan pizza

Campanian cuisine varies within the region. While Neapolitan dishes centre on seafood, Casertan and Aversan ones rely more on fresh vegetables and cheeses. The cuisine from Sorrento
combines the culinary traditions from both Naples
and Salerno. Pizza
was conceived in Naples.[46] Spaghetti
is also a well-known dish from southern Italy
and Campania.

alla puttanesca, a spicy pasta dish topped with a sauce made of tomatoes, olives, anchovies and capers

produces wines including Lacryma Christi, Fiano, Aglianico, Greco di Tufo, Pere 'e palomma, Ischitano, Taburno, Solopaca, and Taurasi. The cheeses of Campania
consist of Mozzarella
di Bufala (buffalo mozzarella) (mozzarella made from buffalo milk), fiordilatte ("flower of milk") a mozzarella made from cow's milk, ricotta from sheep or buffalo milk, provolone from cow milk, and caciotta made from goat milk. Buffalo are bred in Salerno
and Caserta. Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania. Pastiera
pie is made during Easter. Casatiello and tortano are Easter
bread-cakes made by adding lard or oil and various types of cheese to bread dough and garnishing it with slices of salami. Babà cake is a well known Neapolitan delicacy, best served with Rum
or limoncello (a liqueur invented in the Sorrento
peninsula). It is an old Austrian cake, which arrived in Campania
during the Austrian domination of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies
Two Sicilies
and was modified there to become a "walking cake" for citizens always in a hurry for work and other pursuits. Sfogliatella is another cake from the Amalfi Coast, as is Zeppole, traditionally eaten on Saint Joseph's day. Struffoli, little balls fried dough dipped in honey, are enjoyed during the Christmas holidays.

Dried red peppers and lemons hanging from a shop in Amalfi.

Another Campanian dish is the so-called Russian salad
Russian salad
(which is based on similar dishes from France), made of potatoes in mayonnaise garnished with shrimp and vegetables in vinegar. Russians call this same dish Olivier Salad, and Germans call it Italian salad. Another French-derived dish is "gattò" or "gâteau di patate" (oven-baked pie made of boiled potatoes). As with the Russian salad, Campania
is home to popular seafood-based dishes, such as "insalata di mare" (seafood salad), "zuppa di polpo" (octopus soup), and "zuppa di cozze" (mussel soup). Other regional seafood dishes include "frittelle di mare" (fritters with seaweed), made with edible poseidonia algae, "triglie al cartoccio" (red mullet in the bag), and "alici marinate" (fresh anchovies in olive oil). The island of Ischia
is famous for its fish dishes, as well as for cooked rabbit. Campania
is also home to the lemons of Sorrento. Rapini
(or Broccoli rabe), known locally as friarielli, are often used in the regional cooking. Campania
also produces many nuts, especially in the area of Avellino, Salerno
and Benevento. Hazelnut production is especially relevant in the province of Avellino – in Spanish, in Portuguese and in Occitan the hazelnut is respectively called avellana, avelã and avelano,[citation needed] after the city of Avella. That is also the case of ancient Italian avellana, which is however not in use anymore. Ancient, medieval, and early arts[edit]

The grand gardens of the baroque Palace of Caserta

The region of Campania
is rich with a vast array of culture and history. Since the Greek colony of Elea, now Velia, Campania
was home to philosophers of the Pre-Socratic philosophy
Pre-Socratic philosophy
school, such as Parmenides
and Zeno of Elea, who came to prominence around 490–480 BC. The Latin
poet Vergil
(70 BC–19 BC) settled in Naples
in his late life: parts of his epic poem Aeneid
are located in Campania. The ancient scientist Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
studied Mount Vesuvius, and died after being poisoned and killed by gas emitted from the volcano during the 79 AD eruption. Romulus Augustus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, died as a prisoner of the German general Odoacer
at Naples
around 500. In the Middle Ages, the artist Giotto
made some frescoes in Castel Nuovo. These works of art were subsequently destroyed by an earthquake. By the end of the Middle Ages, the medical school of Salerno, which combined ancient Roman and Greek medicine with Arab medicine, was known throughout Europe and its methods were adopted across the continent. Some have suggested that this may have been one of the first universities in Europe. Boccaccio, the Tuscan poet, visited Naples
on various occasions, and in the Decameron described it as a dissolute city. He also wrote a love story involving a noble woman close to the King of Naples.

with a guitar

In 1570, the Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes, who wrote the romance novel Don Quixote, served as a Spanish soldier for a period in Naples. Poet Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso
was born in Sorrento
in 1575. Years earlier in 1558, the first modern description and studies of the "camera obscura" ("dark chamber"), were established in Italy
by Giovanni Battista della Porta in his Magiae Naturalis. Philosopher Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno
was born in Nola. He was the first to theorize infinite suns and infinite worlds in the universe. He was burnt in Rome
by the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
in 1600. Later, in c. 1606, the Baroque
painter Caravaggio
established his studio in Naples. Italian Baroque
architect Cosimo Fanzago
Cosimo Fanzago
from Bergamo
also decided to move to Naples. In the 18th century, Naples
was the last city to be visited by philosophers who created the "Grand Tour" which was the big touring voyage to visit all the important cultural sites of the European continent. Italian architect Luigi Vanvitelli
Luigi Vanvitelli
son of Dutch architect Kaspar van Wittel built the Kingdom Palace in Caserta
in c. 1750. He contributed to the construction of many neoclassic-style palaces in which the nobles of Naples
spent their holidays. These palaces are now known worldwide as "Ville Vesuviane".

The island of Capri, often seen as a cultural symbol of Campania.

Raimondo di Sangro, prince of Sansevero, was a scientist and one of the last alchemists. Around this time, in 1786, German writer Goethe visited Campania
and Naples. German archaeologist Johann Joachim Winckelmann also visited Naples, Paestum, Herculaneum
and Pompeii
in 1748 and later, studying how archaeological surveys were conducted in the kingdom of Naples. He was one of the first to study drawings, statues, stones, and ancient burned scrolls made of papyrus found in the excavations of the city of Herculaneum. Archaeological excavations in Pompeii
were initiated by King Charles III of Naples
in 1748. He issued the first modern laws in Europe to protect, defend and preserve archaeological sites. Neapolitan musicians of that period include Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli
Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli
and Giovanni Paisiello. Musician Gioachino Rossini
Gioachino Rossini
lived for several years in Naples, where he wrote numerous compositions. Italian poet and writer Giacomo Leopardi established his home in Naples
and Torre del Greco, remaining there at the end of his brief young life. He died at Naples
in 1837. The first volcano observatory, the Vesuvius
Observatory, was founded in Naples in 1841. Geologist Giuseppe Mercalli, born in Milan
in 1850, was a director of the Vesuvius
Observatory. In February 1851, British statesman William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
was allowed to visit the prison where Giacomo Lacaita, legal adviser to the British embassy, was imprisoned by the Neapolitan government, along with other political dissidents.[47] He deplored their condition, and in April and July published two Letters to the Earl of Aberdeen against the Neapolitan government, followed by An Examination of the Official Reply of the Neapolitan Government in 1852.[48] His pamphlets may have contributed to the cause of the unification of Italy
in 1861. French writer Alexandre Dumas, père
Alexandre Dumas, père
was directly involved in the process of the Unification of Italy, and sojourned two or three years in Naples, where he wrote several historical novels regarding that city. He was also a known newspaper correspondent. Francesco de Sanctis, writer, politician and twice Minister of Instruction after the re-unification of Italy
in 1861, was born in Morra De Sanctis
Morra De Sanctis
near Avellino. German scientist Anton Dohrn
Anton Dohrn
founded in Naples
the first public aquarium in the world and laboratory for the study of the sea, known as Maritime Zoological Station. The Astronomic Observatory of Capodimonte was founded by King Joachim Murat, in 1816. The observatory now hosts the Italian Laboratory of Astrophysics. Doctors and surgeons Antonio Cardarelli and Giuseppe Moscati
Giuseppe Moscati
were representatives of medical studies in Naples. Contemporary and modern arts[edit] The so-called "School of Posillipo" and "School of Resina", dating from the late 19th to early 20th centuries, included painters such as Giacinto Gigante, Federico Cortese, Domenico Morelli, Saverio Altamura, Giuseppe De Nittis, Vincenzo Gemito, Antonio Mancini, Raffaello Pagliaccetti. Amongst the painters who inspired directly these schools, are Salvator Rosa, Pierre Jacques-Antoine Volaire, Anton Sminck van Pitloo who spent his last years in Naples. Opera singer Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
was also a native of Naples. Russian revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
lived for a period in Capri. In the 20th century, the music genre called Neapolitan song became popular worldwide, with songs such as "O sole mio", "Funiculì, funiculà", "O surdato nnamurato", "Torna a Surriento", "Guapparia, "Santa Lucia", "Reginella", "Marechiaro", "Spingule Francese". Mathematician Renato Caccioppoli, nephew of the Russian anarchic revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin, was born in Naples. The first President of the Italian Republic in 1946 (with a pro-tempore mandate of six months) was Enrico De Nicola
Enrico De Nicola
from Torre del Greco. Campania
is also home to the former Prime Minister and 6th President of the Republic Giovanni Leone, as well as the 11th President, Giorgio Napolitano.

Late Baroque
art inside the Palace of Caserta.

The 20th century's best known philosopher and literate in Naples
was Benedetto Croce, famous for his studies in aesthetics, ethics, logic, economy, history, politics. Famous Neapolitan artists, actors, playwrights, and showmen were Eduardo De Filippo
Eduardo De Filippo
and Peppino De Filippo, and their sister Titina De Filippo. Totò
(byname of Antonio de Curtis) was one of the most important comedians in Naples
in the 20th century. He is also known for the song "Malafemmena". Pop artist Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
created two famous paintings of the 1980 Irpinia
earthquake: Fate presto and Vesuvius. Both originals are hosted in the exhibit Terrae Motus in the Palace of Caserta. Oscar–winning actress Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
grew up in Pozzuoli. Oscar and David-winning[49] film producer Dino De Laurentiis
Dino De Laurentiis
was born in Torre Annunziata. One of his grandchildren is Food Network personality Giada De Laurentiis. Contemporary Campanian writers include Curzio Malaparte
Curzio Malaparte
and Domenico Rea. 20th- and 21st-century Campanian actors and directors include Francesco Rosi, Iaia Forte, Pappi Corsicato, Teresa De Sio, Lello Arena, Massimo Troisi
Massimo Troisi
and director Gabriele Salvatores. Modern Italian singers and musicians from Campania
include Peppino di Capri, Renato Carosone, Edoardo Bennato, Eugenio Bennato, Mario Merola, Sergio Bruni, Aurelio Fierro, Roberto Murolo, Tony Tammaro, Teresa De Sio, Eduardo De Crescenzo, Alan Sorrenti, Toni Esposito, Tullio De Piscopo, Massimo Ranieri, Pino Daniele, James Senese
James Senese
and his group Napoli Centrale, Enzo Avitabile, Enzo Gragnaniello, Nino D'Angelo, Gigi D'Alessio, 99 Posse, Almamegretta, Bisca, 24 Grana. Artists who directed movies about Naples
or actors who played in movies in Campania, or interpreted Neapolitans on-screen, include Vittorio De Sica, Nanni Loi, Domenico Modugno, Renzo Arbore, Lina Wertmüller, Mario Lanza
Mario Lanza
as Caruso, Clark Gable
Clark Gable
in "It Started in Naples", Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
in the movies "Maccheroni" (which co-starred Marcello Mastroianni) and "Avanti!". The international Giffoni Film Festival, established in 1971, is the first and most important festival for a young public. Sports[edit]

The Stadio San Paolo
Stadio San Paolo
is the home ground of SSC Napoli
SSC Napoli
of Serie A

is home to several national football, water polo, volleyball, basketball and tennis clubs. The fencing school in Naples
is the oldest in the country and the only school in Italy
in which a swordsman can acquire the title "master of swords", which allows him or her to teach the art of fencing. The "Circolo Savoia" and "Canottieri Napoli" sailing clubs are among the oldest in Italy
and are famous for their regattas. These are also home of the main water polo teams in the city. Many sailors from Naples
and Campania
participate as crew in the America's Cup
America's Cup
sailing competition. Rowers Giuseppe Abbagnale and Carmine Abbagnale were born in Castellammare di Stabia: they were four times rowing world champions and Olympic gold medalists. The football teams in Campania

S.S.C. Napoli
S.S.C. Napoli
playing in Serie A, and the only team in the south of Italy
to have won the Serie A
Serie A
title Benevento
Calcio playing in Serie A U.S. Avellino 1912
U.S. Avellino 1912
playing in Serie B U.S. Salernitana 1919
U.S. Salernitana 1919
playing in Serie B Casertana F.C.
Casertana F.C.
playing in Serie C S.S. Juve Stabia
S.S. Juve Stabia
playing in Serie C Paganese Calcio 1926
Paganese Calcio 1926
playing in Serie C


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Middle-Ages". Naples.Rome-in-Italy.com. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-22.  ^ a b c "Spanish acquisition of Naples". Britannica.com. 7 October 2007.  ^ "Don Pedro de Toledo". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-22.  ^ " Naples
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External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Campania.

Official website Campania
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Coordinates: 40°49′34″N 14°15′23″E / 40.82611°N 14.25639°E / 40.82611; 14.25639

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148325709 ISNI: 0000 0001 2180 5631 GND: 4029437-7 BNF: