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Camellia
Camellia
sinensis is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. It is of the genus Camellia
Camellia
(Chinese: 茶花; pinyin: Cháhuā, literally: "tea flower") of flowering plants in the family Theaceae. Common names include "tea plant", "tea shrub", and "tea tree" (not to be confused with Melaleuca alternifolia, the source of tea tree oil, or Leptospermum scoparium, the Mānuka or New Zealand Teatree from which bees produce the highly antibiotic Mānuka Honey used on wounds). Camellia
Camellia
sinensis var. sinensis and its subspecies, Camellia
Camellia
sinensis var. assamica, are two major varieties grown today.[2] White tea, yellow tea, green tea, oolong, pu-erh tea and black tea are all harvested from one or the other, but are processed differently to attain varying levels of oxidation. Kukicha
Kukicha
(twig tea) is also harvested from Camellia
Camellia
sinensis, but uses twigs and stems rather than leaves.

Contents

1 Nomenclature and taxonomy 2 Cultivars 3 Description 4 Cultivation

4.1 Chinese teas 4.2 Indian teas 4.3 Pests and diseases

5 Health effects 6 See also 7 Primary green tea catechins 8 References 9 External links

Nomenclature and taxonomy[edit] The name Camellia
Camellia
is taken from the Latinized name
Latinized name
of Rev. Georg Kamel,[3] SJ (1661–1706), a Moravian-born Jesuit
Jesuit
lay brother, pharmacist, and missionary to the Philippines. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
chose his name in 1753 for the genus to honor Kamel's contributions to botany[4] (although Kamel did not discover or name this plant, or any Camellia,[5] and Linnaeus did not consider this plant a Camellia
Camellia
but a Thea).[6] Robert Sweet shifted all formerly Thea species to the Camellia
Camellia
genus in 1818.[7] The name sinensis means "from China" in Latin. Four varieties of Camellia
Camellia
sinensis are recognized.[1] Of these, C. sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica (JW Masters) Kitamura are most commonly used for tea, and C. sinensis var. pubilimba Hung T. Chang and C. sinensis var. dehungensis (Hung T. Chang & BH Chen) TL Ming are sometimes used locally.[1] Cultivars[edit] There are hundreds,[8] if not thousands of cultivars of C. sinensis. Some Japanese cultivars include:

Benifuuki[9] Fushun[10] Kanayamidori[9] Meiryoku[10] Saemidori[10] Okumidori[10] Yabukita[10]

Description[edit] Camellia
Camellia
sinensis is native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
and Southeast Asia, but it is today cultivated across the world in tropical and subtropical regions. Camellia
Camellia
sinensis is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is usually trimmed to below 2 m (6.6 ft) when cultivated for its leaves. It has a strong taproot. The flowers are yellow-white, 2.5–4 cm (0.98–1.57 in) in diameter, with 7 to 8 petals.

Flower of tea plant

The seeds of Camellia
Camellia
sinensis and Camellia
Camellia
oleifera can be pressed to yield tea oil, a sweetish seasoning and cooking oil that should not be confused with tea tree oil, an essential oil that is used for medical and cosmetic purposes, and originates from the leaves of a different plant.

Camellia
Camellia
sinensis plant, with cross-section of the flower (lower left) and seeds (lower right)

Camellia
Camellia
sinensis - MHNT

The leaves are 4–15 cm (1.6–5.9 in) long and 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) broad. Fresh leaves contain about 4% caffeine, as well as related compounds including theobromine.[11] The young, light green leaves are preferably harvested for tea production; they have short white hairs on the underside. Older leaves are deeper green. Different leaf ages produce differing tea qualities, since their chemical compositions are different. Usually, the tip (bud) and the first two to three leaves are harvested for processing. This hand picking is repeated every one to two weeks. In 2017 Chinese scientists sequenced the genome of Camellia
Camellia
sinensis var. assamica .[12] It contains about three billion base pairs which was larger than most plants previously sequenced.[13] Cultivation[edit] Main article: Tea
Tea
cultivation Camellia
Camellia
sinensis is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates, in areas with at least 127 cm (50 inches) of rainfall a year. Tea
Tea
plants prefer a rich and moist growing location in full to part sun, and can be grown in hardiness zones 7 – 9. However, the clonal one is commercially cultivated from the equator to as far north as Cornwall
Cornwall
and Scotland
Scotland
on the UK mainland.[14][15] Many high quality teas are grown at high elevations, up to 1,500 meters (4,900 feet), as the plants grow more slowly and acquire more flavour. Tea
Tea
plants will grow into a tree if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking. Two principal varieties are used, the small-leaved Chinese variety plant (C. sinensis sinensis) and the large-leaved Assamese plant (C. sinensis assamica), used mainly for black tea. Chinese teas[edit] The Chinese plant (sometimes called C. sinensis var. sinensis) is a small-leafed bush with multiple stems that reaches a height of some 3 meters. It is native to southeast China. The first tea plant to be discovered, recorded and used to produce tea 3,000 years ago, it yields some of the most popular teas. C. sinensis var. waldenae was considered a different species, Camellia waldenae by SY Hu,[16] but it was later identified as a variety of C. sinensis.[17] This variety is commonly called Waldenae Camellia. It is seen on Sunset Peak and Tai Mo Shan
Tai Mo Shan
in Hong Kong. It is also distributed in Guangxi
Guangxi
province, China.[16] Indian teas[edit] Three main kinds of tea are produced in India:

Assam comes from the northeastern section of the country. This heavily forested region is home to much wildlife, including the rhinoceros. Tea
Tea
from here is rich and full-bodied. It was in Assam that the first tea estate was established, in 1837. Darjeeling, from the cool and wet Darjeeling
Darjeeling
region, tucked in the foothills of the Himalayas. Tea
Tea
plantations reach 2,200 metres. The tea is delicately flavoured, and considered to be one of the finest teas in the world. The Darjeeling
Darjeeling
plantations have 3 distinct harvests, termed 'flushes', and the tea produced from each flush has a unique flavour. First (spring) flush teas are light and aromatic, while the second (summer) flush produces tea with a bit more bite. The third, or autumn flush gives a tea that is lesser in quality. Nilgiri, from a southern region of India almost as high as Darjeeling. Grown at elevations between 1,000 and 2,500 metres, Nilgiri teas are subtle and rather gentle, and are frequently blended with other, more robust teas.[citation needed]

Seed-bearing fruit of Camellia
Camellia
sinensis

Pests and diseases[edit] Main article: List of tea diseases See also: List of Lepidoptera that feed on Camellia Tea
Tea
leaves are eaten by some herbivores, like the caterpillars of the willow beauty (Peribatodes rhomboidaria), a geometer moth. Health effects[edit] Main article: Health effects of tea Although health benefits have been assumed throughout the history of using Camellia
Camellia
sinensis as a common beverage, there is no high-quality evidence that tea confers significant benefits.[18][19] In clinical research over the early 21st century, tea has been studied extensively for its potential to lower the risk of human diseases, but none of this research is conclusive as of 2017.[18] See also[edit]

Chinese herbology Green tea
Green tea
extract International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants ISO 3103, a method of brewing tea according to the ISO Kaempferol, a flavanoid found in tea and associated with reduced risk of heart disease List of tea companies Tasseography, a method of divination by reading tea leaves. Tea
Tea
classics Tea
Tea
production in Sri Lanka Turkish tea Tea
Tea
production in Kenya Nepali tea Tea
Tea
leaf grading Camellia
Camellia
taliensis

Primary green tea catechins[edit]

(–) -Epigallocatechin

(–) - Epigallocatechin
Epigallocatechin
gallate

(–) - Epicatechin
Epicatechin
gallate.

(–) -Epicatechin

[20] References[edit]

^ a b c Min, Tianlu; Bartholomew, Bruce. "18. Theaceae". Flora of China. 12.  ^ ITIS Standard Report Page Camellia
Camellia
Sinensis retrieved 2009-03-28. ^ Stafleu, FA; Cowan, RS (1976–88). Taxonomic literature: A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (2nd ed.). Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema and Holkema.  ^ "Botanics", History of Tea, 10 August 2003, Georg Jeoseph Kamel, whose name in Latin
Latin
was Camellus was missionary to the Philippines, died in Manilla in 1706. […] Camellias were named in posthumous honor of George Joseph Kamel by Carolus Linnæus . ^ "Botanics", History of Tea, 10 August 2003, It is speculated that he never saw a camellia . ^ Golender, Leonid (10 August 2003), "Botanics", History of Tea, The first edition of Linnaeus's Species
Species
Plantarum published in 1753 suggested calling the tea plant Thea sinensis...  ^ International Association for Plant
Plant
Taxonomy (2006), "Article 13, example 3", International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) (electronic ed.), The generic names Thea L. (Sp. Pl.: 515. 24 Mai 1753), and Camellia
Camellia
L. (Sp. Pl.: 698. 16 August 1753; Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 311. 1754), are treated as having been published simultaneously on 1 May 1753. … the combined genus bears the name Camellia, since Sweet (Hort. Suburb. Lond.: 157. 1818), who was the first to unite the two genera, chose that name, and cited Thea as a synonym . ^ " Tea
Tea
Cultivar
Cultivar
Database - World of Tea". World of Tea. Retrieved 2017-05-09.  ^ a b "Identification of Japanese tea ( Camellia
Camellia
sinensis) cultivars using SSR marker". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 5 June 2009.  ^ a b c d e "Varietal differences in the adaptability of tea [Camellia sinensis] cultivars to light nitrogen application". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 5 June 2009.  ^ " Camellia
Camellia
sinensis". Purdue. Retrieved 18 February 2008.  ^ Xia, En-Hua; et al. (2017-05-01). "The Tea
Tea
Tree
Tree
Genome Provides Insights into Tea
Tea
Flavor and Independent Evolution of Caffeine Biosynthesis". Molecular Plant. doi:10.1016/j.molp.2017.04.002. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Briggs, Helen (2017-05-02). "Secrets of tea plant revealed by science". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-05-02.  ^ "Tea", Gardening, Telegraph Online, 17 September 2005 . ^ "Tea", The world's first Scottish tea, The Independent, 17 November 2014 . ^ a b The International Camellia
Camellia
Society (ICS), DE: Uniklinik Sårland, archived from the original on 21 August 2006  ^ Ming, TL (1992), "A revision of Camellia
Camellia
sect. Thea", Acta Botanica Yunnanica (in Chinese), 14 (2): 115–32 . ^ a b "Black tea". MedlinePlus, US National Library of Medicine. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ "Green tea". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. 30 November 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ Murray, edited by Joseph E. Pizzorno, Jr., Michael T. (2012). Textbook of natural medicine (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 628. ISBN 978-1-4377-2333-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Camellia
Camellia
sinensis.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Camellia
Camellia
sinensis

" Camellia
Camellia
sinensis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 16 February 2006.  Camellia
Camellia
sinensis from Purdue University The International Camellia
Camellia
Society Plant
Plant
Cultures: botany and history of the tea plant Antibacterial Activity of Green Tea
Tea
Extracts against Streptococcus anginosus group CI.NII.AC.jp Jac.OxfordJournals.org, The effect of a component of tea (Camellia sinensis) on methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus. Suns.Ars-Grin.gov, List of Chemicals in Camellia
Camellia
sinensis (Dr. Duke's Databases)

v t e

Tea
Tea
( Camellia
Camellia
sinensis)

Common varieties

Black tea

Assam Bohea Ceylon Congou Darjeeling Dianhong Kangra Keemun Lapsang souchong
Lapsang souchong
(Jin Jun Mei) Nilgiri Tibeti Rize Yingdehong

Oolong
Oolong
tea

Bai Jiguan Ban Tian Yao Bu Zhi Chun Da Hong Pao Darjeeling
Darjeeling
oolong Dong ding Dongfang Meiren Gaoshan Huangjin Gui Huang Meigui Qilan Pouchong Rougui Ruanzhi Shui Jin Gui Shui Hsien Tieluohan Tieguanyin

Green tea

Anji bai cha Aracha Baimao Hou Bancha Biluochun Chun Mee Dafang Genmaicha Lu'an Melon Seed Gunpowder Gyokuro Hojicha Taiping houkui Huangshan Maofeng Hyson Kabusecha Kamairicha Konacha Kukicha Longjing Matcha Maojian Mecha Mengding Ganlu Sencha Shincha Tamaryokucha

White tea

Bai Mudan Baihao Yinzhen Darjeeling
Darjeeling
White Shoumei

Yellow tea

Junshan Yinzhen Huoshan Huangya

Fermented tea

Pu-erh Lahpet

Blended or flavoured teas

Earl Grey (Lady Grey) Breakfast tea (English, Irish) Jasmine tea Lapsang souchong Masala chai Moroccan mint tea Prince of Wales Russian Caravan

By country

Australian Chinese British Korean Nepali Taiwanese Turkish Vietnamese

Culture

Customs

Afternoon/High tea/Evening meal Tea
Tea
party Tasseography Tea
Tea
ceremonies

Japanese Chinese Korean

Yum cha

Associated places

Chashitsu
Chashitsu
(tea room) Mizuya
Mizuya
(prep room) Sukiya-zukuri
Sukiya-zukuri
(style) Roji
Roji
(garden) Teahouse
Teahouse
circuit or trek (Himalayas)

By country

American Argentine Azerbaijani Brazilian Chinese Dominican Hong Kong Indian Mexican Pakistani Russian Senegalese Taiwanese

History

China India Japan

Production and distribution

Tea
Tea
processing ( Tea
Tea
leaf grading) Tea
Tea
tasting Decaffeination Cultivation: Tea
Tea
plant diseases and Tea
Tea
plant predation Tea
Tea
companies

By country

Bangladesh Kenya Sri Lanka United States

Auctions

London Chittagong Guwahati

Preparation

Flowering teas Infusion Decoction ISO Procedure Steeping Ground or pressed ( Tea
Tea
bag, Tea
Tea
brick)

Tea
Tea
and health

Health effects Phenolic content Caffeine Compounds: Theanine, Flavan-3-ol
Flavan-3-ol
(Catechin), Epigallocatechin
Epigallocatechin
gallate (EGCG), Theaflavin

Sale

Pleasure garden Teahouse Consumption by country

Tea-based drinks

Bubble tea Builder's tea Butter tea Doodh pati chai Ginger tea Hong Kong-style milk tea Iced tea

Arnold Palmer

Jagertee Kahwah Lei cha Milk tea Noon chai 7 layered Tea Shahi haleeb Suutei tsai Sweet tea Teh botol Teh tarik Thai tea Troq chai Yuenyeung

See also

Teaware
Teaware
( Tea
Tea
chest, Tea
Tea
caddy) Tea
Tea
set (Brewing: Strainer or Infuser, Utensils: Teacup
Teacup
or Teapot) Coffee Herbal tea Bak kut teh Mate Guayusa Kuding Kombucha List of Chinese teas Lipton Institute of Tea Teas of related species

Camellia
Camellia
japonica Camellia
Camellia
sasanqua Camellia
Camellia
taliensis

Tea
Tea
seed oil

Category:Tea Drink Portal Coffee
Coffee
& Tea
Tea
Task Force

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q101815 APDB: 12243 EoL: 482447 EPPO: CAHSI FoC: 200014043 GBIF: 3189635 GRIN: 8732 iNaturalist: 123005 IPNI: 828548-1 ITIS: 506801 NCBI: 4442 PalDat: Camellia_sinensis Plant
Plant
List: kew-2694880 PLANTS: CASI16 Tropicos: 31600230

Authority control

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