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Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world (after Oxford University Press).[2][3] It also holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer.[4] The press's mission is "To further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence."[5] Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries. Its publishing includes academic journals, monographs, reference works, textbooks, and English-language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university.

Contents

1 History 2 Governance 3 Structure

3.1 Academic publishing 3.2 Cambridge
Cambridge
English Language Teaching 3.3 Education

4 Electronic and digital developments 5 Controversies

5.1 Alms for Jihad 5.2 Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press v. Patton 5.3 Censorship of academic material

6 Community work 7 Open access 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

10 External links

History[edit] Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press. It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
by Henry VIII in 1534, and has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge
Cambridge
is one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). Authors published by Cambridge
Cambridge
have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, and Stephen Hawking.[6] University printing began in Cambridge
Cambridge
when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which partly explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible. The London Stationers objected strenuously, claiming that they had the monopoly on Bible printing. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books". Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, and continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge
Cambridge
by the dispute with the London Stationers did not really come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a 'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose.[7] It was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars ('the Curators', known from 1733 as 'the Syndics') was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets regularly (eighteen times a year), and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville
John Baskerville
became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century. Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques.

The University Printing
Printing
House, on the main site of the press

Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention; not only for my own (eternal) reputation; but (I hope) also to convince the world, that the University in the honour done me has not entirely misplaced their favours." Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand; wooden presses, capable of producing only 1,000 sheets a day at best, were still in use; and books were still being individually bound by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, and it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates. This involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and then casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, and in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge
Cambridge
Stereotype Bible.

The letters patent of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press by Henry VIII allow the press to print "all manner of books". The fine initial with the king's portrait inside it and the large first line of script are still discernible.

By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, and occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building (1833), which was built specifically for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger. Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, who was University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks (including what came to be known as the 'Pitt Press Series'). During Clay's administration, the press also undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version
Revised Version
of the Bible, which was begun in 1870 and completed in 1885. It was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what later became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for which was brought to Cambridge
Cambridge
by James Murray (lexicographer) before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a clearly defined editorial policy and administrative structure. It was Wright (with two great historians, Lord Acton
Lord Acton
and F. W. Maitland) who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge
Cambridge
contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge
Cambridge
Modern History was published between 1902 and 1912. Nine years later the press issued the first volumes of the freshly edited complete works of Shakespeare, a project of nearly equal scope that was not finished until 1966. The press's list in science and mathematics began to thrive, with men of the stature of Albert Einstein and Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
subsequently becoming Press authors. The press's impressive contribution to journal publishing began in 1893, and today it publishes over 300 journals. In 1992 the press opened its own bookshop at 1 Trinity Street, in the centre of Cambridge. Books have been sold continuously on this site since at least 1581, perhaps even as early as 1505, making it the oldest known bookshop site in Britain.[8] In 2008 the shop expanded into 27 Market Hill where their specialist Education and English Language Teaching shop opened the following year. In 2012 the press decided to end the tradition of printing after 428 years and now uses third parties to provide all of its print publications. Governance[edit]

The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which used to be the headquarters of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, and now serves as a conference centre for the Press

The Press has, since 1698, been governed by the Press 'Syndics' (originally known as the 'Curators'),[9] made up of 18 senior members of the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
who represent a wide variety of subjects and areas of expertise.[10] The Syndicate has delegated its powers to a Press & Assessment Board, which has an Audit Committee, Remuneration Committee and Nominations Committee (all shared with Cambridge
Cambridge
Assessment); and to an Academic Publishing Committee and an English Language Teaching & Education Publishing Committee. The Press & Assessment Board oversees the Press's financial, strategic and operational affairs, while the two Publishing Committees provide quality assurance and formal approval of the publishing strategy.[11] The Chair of the Syndicate is currently Professor Stephen Toope
Stephen Toope
(Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge). The operational responsibility of the Press is delegated by the Syndics to the Press's Chief Executive, Peter Phillips, and the Press Board. Structure[edit] Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press is a global organization with three market facing publishing groups. These are: Academic publishing[edit] This group publishes academic books and journals across science, technology, medicine, humanities, and social sciences.[12] The group also publishes bibles, and the press is one of only two publishers entitled to publish the Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
and the King James Version of the Bible in England.[13] Cambridge
Cambridge
English Language Teaching[edit] The Cambridge
Cambridge
English group publishes English language
English language
teaching courses and resources for all ages around the world.[12] The group works closely with Cambridge
Cambridge
English Language Assessment to provide solutions that improve language proficiency, aligned to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, or CEFR. Education[edit] The Education group delivers educational products and solutions for primary, secondary and international schools, and Education Ministries worldwide. Electronic and digital developments[edit]

On the main site of the press

Owing to the changes taking place in the way that books and content are bought and accessed, Cambridge
Cambridge
believes that digital products, services and solutions could account for two-thirds of its sales by 2020.[14] Since 2010, Cambridge
Cambridge
has provided electronic book content through the website Cambridge
Cambridge
Books Online.[15] For many years, all of Cambridge's journals have been published in both hard copy format and online. Other recent ventures include Race to Learn, curriculum software that uses Formula One
Formula One
to encourage group working in primary school children,[16] published through Cambridge–Hitachi, a joint venture between Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press and Hitachi Software Engineering that produces software for teaching on interactive whiteboards in schools. Controversies[edit] Alms for Jihad[edit] Main article: Alms for Jihad In 2007, controversy arose over CUP's decision to destroy all remaining copies of its 2006 book, Alms for Jihad: Charity and Terrorism in the Islamic World, by Burr and Collins, as part of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by Saudi billionaire Khalid bin Mahfouz.[17] Within hours, Alms for Jihad became one of the 100 most sought after titles on Amazon.com
Amazon.com
and eBay in the United States. CUP sent a letter to libraries asking them to remove copies from circulation. CUP subsequently sent out copies of an "errata" sheet for the book. The American Library Association
American Library Association
issued a recommendation to libraries still holding Alms for Jihad: "Given the intense interest in the book, and the desire of readers to learn about the controversy first hand, we recommend that U.S. libraries keep the book available for their users." The publisher's decision did not have the support of the book's authors and was criticized by some who claimed it was incompatible with freedom of speech and with freedom of the press and that it indicated that English libel laws were excessively strict.[18][19] In a New York Times Book Review
New York Times Book Review
(7 October 2007), United States
United States
Congressman Frank R. Wolf described Cambridge's settlement as "basically a book burning".[20] CUP pointed out that, at that time, it had already sold most of its copies of the book. Cambridge
Cambridge
defended its actions, saying it had acted responsibly and that it is a global publisher with a duty to observe the laws of many different countries.[21] Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press v. Patton[edit] Main article: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press v. Patton In this ongoing case,[when?] begun in 2008, CUP et al. accused Georgia State University of infringement of copyright. Censorship of academic material[edit] On 18 August 2017, Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press has deleted over 300 politically-sensitive articles from the China Quarterly on its Chinese website. The articles focus on topics China regards as taboo, including the 1989 Tiananmen massacre, Mao Zedong’s catastrophic Cultural Revolution, Hong Kong’s fight for democracy and ethnic tensions in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and Tibet[22][23][24][25] However on 21 August 2017, the press announced it has backed down and will immediately re-post journal articles, in the face of growing international protests.[26][27] Prior to this controversy, in 2012, University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
has received £3.7 million from the daughter of the former President of China Wen Jiabao. The donation was used to create Chong Hua Chair in Chinese Development studies whose inaugural appointee was her former professor at Cambridge, Peter Nolan.[28][29][30] Community work[edit]

2008 conference booth

The press has been recognized on several occasions for its commitment to community involvement and social responsibility, and it has stated that public engagement is an important part of the press's role, by undertaking educational projects and fundraising.[31] The press partnered with Bookshare in 2010 to make their books accessible to people with qualified print disabilities. Under the terms of the digital rights licence agreement, the press delivers academic and scholarly books from all of its regional publishing centres on the world to Bookshare for conversion into accessible formats. People with qualified print disabilities around the world can download the books for a nominal Bookshare membership fee and read them using a computer or other assistive technology, with voice generated by text-to-speech technology, as well as options for digital Braille.[32] Open access[edit] CUP is one of thirteen publishers to participate in the Knowledge Unlatched pilot, a global library consortium approach to funding open access books.[33] CUP is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. See also[edit]

List of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press journals

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ " Cambridge
Cambridge
announces tenth successive year of growth". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2018-02-06.  ^ "Oldest printing and publishing house". Guinnessworldrecords.com. 2002-01-22. Retrieved 2012-03-28.  ^ Black, Michael (1984). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1583–1984. pp. 328–9. ISBN 978-0-521-66497-4.  ^ "The Queen's Printer's Patent". Cambridge
Cambridge
UNiversity Press. Retrieved 20 March 2016.  ^ " Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press at a Glance". Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press.  ^ Black, Michael (2000). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1584–1984. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66497-4.  ^ The Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press 1696—1712 (CUP, 1966), p. 78 ^ "History of the Bookshop". Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press Bookshop. 2009. Retrieved 16 Jan 2018.  ^ McKitterick, David (1998). A History of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, Volume 2: Scholarship and Commerce, 1698–1872. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-521-30802-1.  ^ "Statutes J – The University Press" (PDF). University of Cambridge. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ "The Press Syndicate". Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press.  ^ a b Black, Michael (2000). A Short History of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-0-521-77572-4.  ^ "The Queen's Printers Patent". Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press Website. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.  ^ Neill, Graeme (1 November 2010). "CUP looks to digital". The Bookseller. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ Neilan, Catherine (7 December 2009). "CUP launches online books platform". The Bookseller. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ "BETT award winners 2010". The Guardian. 14 January 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ Steyn, Mark (6 August 2007). "One Way Multiculturalism". The New York Sun. Ronald Weintraub. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ Richardson, Anna (3 August 2007). "Bonus Books criticises CUP". Thebookseller.com. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ Jaschick, Scott (16 August 2007). "A University Press stands up – and wins". Insidehighered.com. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ Danadio, Rachel (7 October 2007). "Libel Without Borders". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ Taylor, Kevin (9 August 2007). "Why CUP acted responsibly". The Bookseller. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ "《中國季刊》:對中國刪300多篇文章深表關注". 18 August 2017 – via www.bbc.com.  ^ " Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press statement regarding content in The China Quarterly". Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. Retrieved 2017-08-20.  ^ Millward, James A. (2017-08-19). "Open Letter to Cambridge University Press about its censorship of the China Quarterly". Medium. Retrieved 2017-08-20.  ^ Phillips, Tom (2017-08-20). " Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press censorship 'exposes Xi Jinping's authoritarian shift'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-20.  ^ Kennedy, Maev; Phillips, Tom (2017-08-21). " Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press backs down over China censorship". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-22.  ^ " Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press reverses China censorship move". BBC News. 2017-08-21. Retrieved 2017-08-22.  ^ "Mystery of Cambridge
Cambridge
University's £3.7 million Chinese benefactors". The Telegraph. 30 January 2012.  ^ " Cambridge
Cambridge
University under fresh scrutiny over Chinese government-linked donation". The Telegraph. 8 October 2014.  ^ "劍橋大學曾收溫家寶家族基金會巨額捐款 - 即時新聞 - 20170819 - 蘋果日報".  ^ "Annual Report and Accounts for the year that ended 30 April 2009" (PDF). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. 2009. p. 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ "CUP grants worldwide digital rights to Bookshare". Research Information. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ "Good for publishers". knowledgeunlatched.org. 

Sources[edit]

Anonymous; The Student's Guide to the University of Cambridge. Third Edition, Revised and Partly Re-written; Deighton Bell, 1874 (reissued by Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00491-6) Anonymous; War Record of the Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press 1914–1919; Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1920; (reissued by Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00294-3) A History of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, Volume 1: Printing
Printing
and the Book Trade in Cambridge, 1534–1698; McKitterick, David; 1992; ISBN 978-0-521-30801-4 A History of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, Volume 2: Scholarship and Commerce, 1698–1872; McKitterick, David; 1998; ISBN 978-0-521-30802-1 A History of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, Volume 3: New Worlds for Learning, 1873–1972; McKitterick, David; 1998; ISBN 978-0-521-30803-8 A Short History of Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press; Black, Michael; 2000; ISBN 978-0-521-77572-4 Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press 1584–1984; Black, Michael, Foreword by Gordon Johnson; 2000; ISBN 978-0-521-66497-4, Hardback ISBN 978-0-521-26473-0

External links[edit]

Wikisource
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has original works published by or about: Cambridge
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127979069 LCCN: n50059133 ISNI: 0000 0001 1088 0337 GND: 1008744-8 SUDOC: 027499812 BNF: cb13887458q (data) BIBSYS: 90735085 NLA: 35025041 NKC: ko2002102052 CiNii: DA01165695

Coordinates: 52°11′18″N 0°07′55″E / 52.1882°N 0.1320°E

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