Cambridge Scientific Center was a company research laboratory
established in February 1964 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Situated at
545 Technology Square (Tech Square), in the same building as MIT's
Project MAC, it was later renamed the
IBM Scientific Center. It
is most notable for creating the
CP-40 and the control program
portions of CP/CMS, a virtual machine operating system developed for
2 Selected publications
3 See also
IBM Data Processing Division (DPD) sponsored five Scientific
Center research groups in the United States and some others around the
world to work with selected universities on a variety of
IBM Research Division in Yorktown Heights, NY was a separate
laboratory organization at the
Thomas J. Watson Research Center
Thomas J. Watson Research Center that
tended more to "pure" research topics. The DPD Scientific Centers in
the late 1960s were located in Palo Alto, California, Houston, Texas,
Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, and Grenoble, France. The
IBM Time-Life Programming
Center in Manhattan, New York worked with the scientific centers but
had a slightly different reporting line.
Established by Norm Rasmussen, the
Cambridge Scientific Center worked
with computing groups at both MIT and Harvard, in the same building as
Project MAC and the
IBM Boston Programming Center (BPC). Additional
joint projects involved the MIT Lincoln Laboratory on the outskirts of
Boston and Brown University in Providence, RI.
The scientific center in 1969 had three main departments: Computer
Graphics under Craig Johnson, Operations Research under John Harmon,
and Operating Systems under Richard (Rip) Parmelee.
In December 1975 Richard MacKinnon became director of the center,
succeeding Dr. William Timlake who, in turn, had succeeded Rasmussen.
As the third director, MacKinnon was to serve as its longest-tenured
director. During his tenure
Cambridge Scientific Center was
responsible for a number of enhancements to the VM/370 operating
system which became IBM's most popular interactive computing system.
These included: an enhanced scheduler for the operating system based
on the work of Lynn Wheeler; the so-called VNET networking capability
based upon the work of Edson Hendrick and Tim Hartman; multiprocessor
support for the
IBM asymmetric MPs, led by Howard Holley; IBM's first
UNIX system under VM for the National Security Agency; a remote
operations capability for VM led by Love Seawright and David Boloker
and done in conjunction with the University of Maine, Orono and which
spread throughout IBM's processor lines ; a special controller which
allowed ASCII terminals to access VM done in conjunction with Yale
university Comp Center and its director, Greydon Freeman ; and
the ASCII software support for the
IBM PC which allowed PCs to access
IBM and many other non-
IBM mainframes the work of Jim Perchik . The
VNET networking software became the basis for IBM's internal corporate
data network which had over 3,000
IBM processor nodes and the
university BITNET network which was facilitated by Cambridge in
conjunction with Yale Computer Center Grey Freeman and CUNY computer
center Ira Fuchs . MacKinnon served at Cambridge for 18 years and in
July 1992 had the unenviable responsibility of closing CSC when IBM
decided to close all its scientific centers worldwide.
IBM closed the center on July 31, 1992.
R. J. Adair, R. U. Bayles, L. W. Comeau, and R. J. Creasy, "A Virtual
Machine System for the 360/40,"
IBM Corporation, Cambridge Scientific
Center, Report No. 320-2007 (May 1966).
R. A. Meyer and L. H. Seawright, "A Virtual Machine Timesharing
IBM Systems Journal 9, No.3, 199-218 (1970).
R. P. Parmelee, T. L. Peterson, C. C. Tillman, and D. J. Hatfield,
"Virtual Storage and Virtual Machine Concepts,"
IBM Systems Journal
11, No.2, 99-130 (1972).
E. C. Hendricks and T. C. Hartmann, "Evolution of a Virtual Machine
IBM Systems Journal 18, No.1, 111-142 (1979).
L. H. Holley, R. P. Parmelee, C. A. Salisbury, and D. N. Saul, "VM/370
IBM Systems Journal 18, No.1, 47-70
L. H. Seawright and R. A. MacKinnon, "VM/370 - A Study of Multiplicity
IBM Systems Journal 18, No. 1, 4-17 (1979).
R. J. Creasy, "The Origin of the VM/370 Time-Sharing System," IBM
Journal of Research and Development 25, No.5, 483-490 (September
F. T. Kozuh, D. L. Livingston, and T. C. Spillman, "System/370
Capability in a Desktop Computer,"
IBM Systems Journal 23, No.3,
Y. Bard, "The VM Performance Planning Facility (VMPPF),"Computer
Measurement Group (CMG) Transactions 53, 53- 59 (Summer 1986).
^ Tech Square
^ cf. R. J. Creasy, "The origin of the VM/370 time-sharing system",
IBM Journal of Research & Development, Vol. 25, No. 5 (September
1981), pp. 483-490: "It was later renamed the
IBM Scientific Center"
^ Melinda Varian, "VM and the VM Community: Past, Present, and
Future", Princeton University Office of Computing and Information
Technology, April 1991, pp. 22-50: "The Births of System/360, Project
MAC, and the Cambridge Scientific Center"
^ Melinda Varian, VM and the VM Community: Past, Present, and Future,
April 1991, page 50
History of IBM
Mergers and acquisitions
IBM Power Systems
Information Management Software
Tivoli Software: Service Automation Manager
Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History
Center for The Business of Government
The Weather Company
The Weather Company (Weather Underground)
1250 René-Lévesque, Montreal, QC
One Atlantic Center, Atlanta, GA
Rome Software Lab
Toronto Software Lab
330 North Wabash, Chicago, IL
Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson Center, New York
Cambridge Scientific Center
Canada Head Office Building
Somers Office Complex
Academy of Technology
Centers for Advanced Studies: CASCON
The Great Mind Challenge
Linux Technology Center
IBM Virtual Universe Community
World Community Grid
Automated teller machine
Hard disk drive
Universal Product Code
Magnetic stripe card
Sabre airline reservation system
Scanning tunneling microscope
Globally Integrated Enterprise
Commercial Processing Workload
Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson (1914–1956)
Thomas Watson Jr.
Thomas Watson Jr. (1956–1971)
T. Vincent Learson
T. Vincent Learson (1971–1973)
Frank T. Cary (1973–1981)
John R. Opel (1981–1985)
John Fellows Akers (1985–1993)
Louis V. Gerstner Jr.
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. (1993–2002)
Samuel J. Palmisano
Samuel J. Palmisano (2002–2011)
Ginni Rometty (2012–present)
Board of directors
William R. Brody
Michael L. Eskew
Shirley Ann Jackson
Andrew N. Liveris
James W. Owens
Samuel J. Palmisano
Virginia M. Rometty
Joan E. Spero
A Boy and His Atom
Common Public License/
IBM Public License
IBM and the Holocaust
IBM international chess tournament