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The IBM
IBM
CAMBRIDGE SCIENTIFIC CENTER was a company research laboratory established in February 1964 in Cambridge, Massachusetts . Situated at 545 Technology Square (Tech Square), in the same building as MIT 's Project MAC
Project MAC
, it was later renamed the IBM
IBM
SCIENTIFIC CENTER. It is most notable for creating the CP-40 and the control program portions of CP/CMS , a virtual machine operating system developed for the IBM System/360-67 .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Selected publications * 3 See also * 4 References

HISTORY

The IBM
IBM
Data Processing Division (DPD) sponsored five Scientific Center research groups in the United States and some others around the world to work with selected universities on a variety of customer-related projects.

The IBM
IBM
Research Division in Yorktown Heights, NY was a separate laboratory organization at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center
Thomas J. Watson Research Center
that tended more to "pure" research topics. The DPD Scientific Centers in the late 1960s were located in Palo Alto, California, Houston, Texas, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Grenoble, France. The IBM
IBM
Time-Life Programming Center in Manhattan, New York worked with the scientific centers but had a slightly different reporting line.

Established by Norm Rasmussen , the Cambridge Scientific Center worked with computing groups at both MIT and Harvard, in the same building as Project MAC
Project MAC
and the IBM
IBM
Boston Programming Center (BPC). Additional joint projects involved the MIT Lincoln Laboratory on the outskirts of Boston and Brown University in Providence, RI.

The scientific center in 1969 had three main departments: Computer Graphics under Craig Johnson, Operations Research under John Harmon, and Operating Systems under Richard (Rip) Parmelee.

In December 1975 Richard MacKinnon became director of the center, succeeding Dr. William Timlake who, in turn, had succeeded Rasmussen. As the third director, MacKinnon was to serve as its longest-tenured director. During his tenure Cambridge Scientific Center was responsible for a number of enhancements to the VM/370 operating system which became IBM's most popular interactive computing system. These included: an enhanced scheduler for the operating system based on the work of Lynn Wheeler; the so-called VNET networking capability based upon the work of Edson Hendrick and Tim Hartman; multiprocessor support for the IBM
IBM
asymmetric MPs, led by Howard Holley; IBM's first UNIX system under VM for the National Security Agency; a remote operations capability for VM led by Love Seawright and David Boloker and done in conjunction with the University of Maine, Orono {and which spread throughout IBM's processor lines}; a special controller which allowed ASCII terminals to access VM {done in conjunction with Yale university Comp Center and its director, Greydon Freeman} ; and the ASCII software support for the IBM
IBM
PC which allowed PCs to access IBM and many other non- IBM
IBM
mainframes {the work of Jim Perchik}. The VNET networking software became the basis for IBM's internal corporate data network {which had over 3,000 IBM
IBM
processor nodes} and the university BITNET network which was facilitated by Cambridge in conjunction with Yale Computer Center {Grey Freeman}and CUNY computer center {Ira Fuchs}. MacKinnon served at Cambridge for 18 years and in July 1992 had the unenviable responsibility of closing CSC when IBM
IBM
decided to close all its scientific centers worldwide.

IBM
IBM
closed the center on July 31, 1992.

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

R. J. Adair, R. U. Bayles, L. W. Comeau, and R. J. Creasy, "A Virtual Machine System for the 360/40," IBM
IBM
Corporation, Cambridge Scientific Center, Report No. 320-2007 (May 1966).

R. A. Meyer and L. H. Seawright, "A Virtual Machine Timesharing System," IBM
IBM
Systems Journal 9, No.3, 199-218 (1970).

R. P. Parmelee, T. L. Peterson, C. C. Tillman, and D. J. Hatfield, "Virtual Storage and Virtual Machine Concepts," IBM
IBM
Systems Journal 11, No.2, 99-130 (1972).

E. C. Hendricks and T. C. Hartmann, "Evolution of a Virtual Machine Subsystem," IBM
IBM
Systems Journal 18, No.1, 111-142 (1979).

L. H. Holley, R. P. Parmelee, C. A. Salisbury, and D. N. Saul, "VM/370 Asymmetric Multiprocessing," IBM
IBM
Systems Journal 18, No.1, 47-70 (1979).

L. H. Seawright and R. A. MacKinnon, "VM/370 - A Study of Multiplicity and Usefulness," IBM
IBM
Systems Journal 18, No. 1, 4-17 (1979).

R. J. Creasy, "The Origin of the VM/370 Time-Sharing System," IBM Journal of Research and Development 25, No.5, 483-490 (September 1981).

F. T. Kozuh, D. L. Livingston, and T. C. Spillman, "System/370 Capability in a Desktop Computer," IBM
IBM
Systems Journal 23, No.3, 245-254 (1984).

Y. Bard, "The VM Performance Planning Facility (VMPPF),"Computer Measurement Group (CMG) Transactions 53, 53- 59 (Summer 1986).

SEE ALSO

* IBM
IBM
Research

REFERENCES

* ^ Tech Square * ^ cf. R. J. Creasy, "The origin of the VM/370 time-sharing system", IBM
IBM
Journal of Research ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

IBM
IBM

HISTORY

* History of IBM
IBM
* Mergers and acquisitions * Think (motto) * Operating Systems

PRODUCTS

* Cell microprocessor * Mainframe * Personal Computer * IBM
IBM
Power Systems * Information Management Software * Lotus Software * Rational Software
Rational Software
* SPSS * ILOG * Tivoli Software
Tivoli Software
: Service Automation Manager * WebSphere * alphaWorks * Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History * Mashup Center * PureQuery * Redbooks * FlashSystem * Fortran * Connections

BUSINESS ENTITIES

* Center for The Business of Government * Cloud computing * Global Services * International subsidiaries * jStart * Kenexa * Research * The Weather Company
The Weather Company
(Weather Underground )

FACILITIES

* Towers

* 1250 René-Lévesque, Montreal, QC * One Atlantic Center, Atlanta, GA

* Software Labs

* Rome Software Lab * Toronto Software Lab

* IBM
IBM
Buildings

* 330 North Wabash, Chicago, IL * Johannesburg * Seattle

* Research Labs

* Africa * Almaden * Austin Laboratory * Australia * Brazil * China Laboratory * Haifa Laboratory * India Laboratory * Ireland * Thomas J. Watson Center, New York * Tokyo * Zurich Laboratory

* Facilities

* Hakozaki Facility * Yamato Facility

* Cambridge Scientific Center * IBM
IBM
Hursley * Canada Head Office Building * IBM
IBM
Rochester * Somers Office Complex

INITIATIVES

* Academy of Technology * Centers for Advanced Studies : CASCON * Deep Thunder * IBM
IBM
Fellow * Pulse conference * The Great Mind Challenge * DeveloperWorks : Develothon * Linux Technology Center * IBM
IBM
Virtual Universe Community * Smarter Planet
Smarter Planet
* World Community Grid

INVENTIONS

* Automated teller machine * Electronic keypunch * Hard disk drive * Floppy disk
Floppy disk
* DRAM
DRAM
* Relational model * Selectric typewriter * Financial swaps * Universal Product Code
Universal Product Code
* Magnetic stripe card
Magnetic stripe card
* Sabre airline reservation system * Scanning tunneling microscope

TERMINOLOGY

* Globally Integrated Enterprise * Commercial Processing Workload * Consumability * Technology dividend * e-business

CEOS

* Thomas J. Watson (1914–1956) * Thomas Watson Jr.
Thomas Watson Jr.
(1956–1971) * T. Vincent Learson (1971–1973) * Frank T. Cary (1973–1981) * John R. Opel (1981–1985) * John Fellows Akers (1985–1993) * Louis V. Gerstner Jr.
Louis V. Gerstner Jr.
(1993–2002) * Samuel J. Palmisano (2002–2011) * Ginni Rometty (2012–present)

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

* Alain Belda
Alain Belda
* William R. Brody * Kenneth Chenault * Michael L. Eskew * David Farr
David Farr
* Shirley Ann Jackson
Shirley Ann Jackson
* Andrew N. Liveris
Andrew N. Liveris
* James McNerney * James W. Owens
James W. Owens
* Samuel J. Palmisano * Virginia M. Rometty * Joan E. Spero * Sidney Taurel * Lorenzo Zambrano

OTHER

* A Boy and His Atom * Common Public License / IBM
IBM
Public License * Customer engineer * Deep Blue * Deep Thought * Dynamic infrastructure * GUIDE International * IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust * IBM
IBM
international chess tournament * Lucifer cipher * Mathematica
Mathematica
* SHARE computing * ScicomP * Watson * Quantum Experience

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