The Info List - Cambrian Mountains

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The Cambrian
Mountains (Welsh: Mynyddoedd Cambria, in a narrower sense: Elenydd) are a series of mountain ranges in Wales. Originally the term " Cambrian
Mountains" was applied in a general sense to most of upland Wales. Since the 1950s, its application has become increasingly localised to the geographically homogeneous Mid Wales
uplands, known in Welsh as the Elenydd, which extend from Pumlumon
to Mynydd Mallaen. This barren and sparsely populated 'wilderness' is often referred to as the Desert of Wales. The area includes the sources of the River Severn
River Severn
and River Wye, and was unsuccessfully proposed as a national park in the 1960s and 1970s. The highest point of the range is Plynlimon, at 2,467 feet (752 m). The wider, more historic, use of the term also includes Snowdonia
in North Wales, and the Brecon Beacons
Brecon Beacons
and Black Mountains in South Wales. They range in height up to 3,558 feet (1,084 m) in Snowdonia.


1 Geology and topography 2 Dams and wind farms 3 National park proposal 4 Principal summits 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Geology and topography[edit]

Cefn Croes
Cefn Croes
wind farm

While Snowdonia
contains a mix of volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of Cambrian
and Ordovician
age, the mountains of South Wales
are mainly Devonian
age Old Red Sandstone
Old Red Sandstone
and Carboniferous Limestone
Carboniferous Limestone
and similarly aged sandstones. The ranges of mid- Wales
on the other hand are predominantly formed from Ordovician
and Silurian
sandstones and mudstones which in many areas outcrop only infrequently so resulting in more rounded grassy hills. The Cambrian
Mountains (in the modern sense of the term) are generally less popular with hillwalkers and scramblers than the ranges to their north and south. Since all of Wales' ranges face the predominant westerly air stream coming in from the Atlantic Ocean, they enjoy high levels of rainfall and are the source of numerous rivers, among which the rivers Severn
and Wye, which rise on the eastern slopes of Pumlumon, are the largest. Dams and wind farms[edit] The Cambrian
Mountains host the Elan Valley Reservoirs
Elan Valley Reservoirs
and Llyn Brianne reservoir, which provide water for the English West Midlands and for South Wales
respectively. They include the Clywedog Reservoir and Nant y Moch
Nant y Moch
Reservoir. Cefn Croes, the site of a controversial wind farm project, is in the Cambrian
Mountains, just south of the A44 road between Aberystwyth
and Llangurig.[1][2][3] National park proposal[edit] The area was proposed as a national park in 1965 by the National Parks Commission, a precursor body of the Countryside Commission. However, the proposal was opposed by many farmers and local authorities in the area. Formal consultations on the proposal began in 1970, and in 1971 the Countryside Commission
Countryside Commission
proposed a revised boundary for the designation. The proposed area, of 467 square miles (1,210 km2), covered the area of Pumlumon
and Elenydd, within an area bounded by the settlements of Machynlleth, Llangurig, Rhayader, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llanwrtyd Wells, Llandovery, Pumsaint, Tregaron, and Devil's Bridge. Despite continuing local opposition, the Countryside Commission published the order designating the area on 15 August 1972, and submitted it to the Secretary of State for Wales, Peter Thomas, for confirmation.[4][5] Objections to the proposed designation were then made by all five county councils, 5 of the 7 district councils, 5 parish councils, the National Farmers Union, the Country Landowners Association, Plaid Cymru, the Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales
and others. Support for the designation was expressed by the Ramblers Association, Youth Hostels Association, and Cyclists' Touring Club. In July 1973, the Secretary of State announced the decision not to proceed with the designation because of "massive evidence of objections", and also rejected a call to hold a public inquiry. This was the first time such a recommendation on national park designation had not been accepted.[5] Principal summits[edit]

Pen Pumlumon
Fawr [Plynlimon] 2,467 ft (752 m) Pen Pumlumon
Arwystli 2,431 ft (741 m) Pen Pumlumon
Llygad-bychan 2,385 ft (727 m) Y Garn 2,244 ft (684 m) Pumlumon
Fach 2,179 ft (664 m) Great Rhos
Great Rhos
2,165 ft (660 m) Black Mixen
Black Mixen
2,130 ft (650 m) Drygarn Fawr
Drygarn Fawr
2,116 ft (645 m) Gorllwyn
2,011 ft (613 m) Bache Hill
Bache Hill
2,000 ft (610 m) Pen y Garn
Pen y Garn
2,004 ft (611 m) Y Gamriw 1,982 ft (604 m) Whimble 1,965 ft (599 m) Llan Ddu Fawr 1,948 ft (594 m) Pegwn Mawr
Pegwn Mawr
1,923 ft (586 m) Clipyn Du 1,909 ft (582 m) Y Glog (Draws Drum) 1,883 ft (574 m) Cefn Croes
Cefn Croes
1,879 ft (573 m)


The Nant Rhuddnant gorge looking north to Cefn Coch from the summit of Pen y Garn. In the background are Y Garn(left), Pen Pumlumon
Fawr and Pen Pumlumon
Arwystli (right)

The Desert of Wales
seen from Drygarn Fawr

Panorama of some of the Snowdon Massif
Snowdon Massif
including Snowdon (centre right) taken from Mynydd Mawr. The Glyderau
are visible in the distance

The Llyn Brianne
Llyn Brianne
spillway spilling immediately after its first fill at commissioning

See also[edit]

The Cambrian
Way high level long-distance footpath Exercise Cambrian


^ " Cefn Croes
Cefn Croes
Wind Project". Power Technology. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2012-03-28.  ^ " Cefn Croes
Cefn Croes
is close to Aberystwyth. - Image". Power Technology. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2012-03-28.  ^ " Cefn Croes
Cefn Croes
Wind Farm - Official Campaign website". Users.globalnet.co.uk. 2003-09-20. Retrieved 2012-03-28.  ^ " Cambrian
Mountains National Park story". Cambrian-mountains.co.uk. 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2012-03-28.  ^ a b Cambrian
Mountains Society: National Park Timeline 1872-1973. Accessed 29 March 2012

External links[edit]

The Cambrian
Mountains Society The Cambrian
Mountains Initiative Cambrian
Mountains tourism guide Cambrian
Mountains walking guide

Coordinates: 52°25′N 3°30′W / 52.417°N 3.500°W / 52.417; -3.500

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 241254350 GN