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The CAMBRIAN MOUNTAINS (Welsh : 'MYNYDDOEDD CAMBRIA\', in a narrower sense: Elenydd) are a series of mountain ranges in Wales
Wales
.

Originally the term " Cambrian
Cambrian
Mountains" was applied in a general sense to most of upland Wales
Wales
. Since the 1950s, its application has become increasingly localised to the geographically homogeneous Mid Wales
Wales
uplands, known in Welsh as the Elenydd , which extend from Pumlumon to Mynydd Mallaen . This barren and sparsely populated 'wilderness' is often referred to as the Desert of Wales
Wales
. The area includes the sources of the River Severn
River Severn
and River Wye
River Wye
, and was unsuccessfully proposed as a National Park
National Park
in the 1960s and 1970s. The highest point of the range is Plynlimon , at 2,467 feet (752 m).

The wider, more historic, use of the term also includes Snowdonia
Snowdonia
in North Wales
Wales
, and the Brecon Beacons
Brecon Beacons
and Black Mountains in South Wales
Wales
. They range in height up to 3,558 feet (1,084 m) in Snowdonia.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geology and topography * 2 Dams and wind farms * 3 National Park
National Park
proposal * 4 Principal summits * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY

Cefn Croes wind farm

While Snowdonia
Snowdonia
contains a mix of volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of Cambrian
Cambrian
and Ordovician
Ordovician
age, the mountains of South Wales
Wales
are mainly Devonian
Devonian
age Old Red Sandstone
Old Red Sandstone
and Carboniferous Limestone and similarly aged sandstones . The ranges of mid- Wales
Wales
on the other hand are predominantly formed from Ordovician
Ordovician
and Silurian
Silurian
sandstones and mudstones which in many areas outcrop only infrequently so resulting in more rounded grassy hills. The Cambrian
Cambrian
Mountains (in the modern sense of the term) are generally less popular with hillwalkers and scramblers than the ranges to their north and south. Since all of Wales' ranges face the predominant westerly air stream coming in from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, they enjoy high levels of rainfall and are the source of numerous rivers, among which the rivers Severn
Severn
and Wye , which rise on the eastern slopes of Pumlumon , are the largest.

DAMS AND WIND FARMS

The Cambrian
Cambrian
Mountains host the Elan Valley Reservoirs and Llyn Brianne reservoir, which provide water for the English West Midlands and for South Wales
Wales
respectively. They include the Clywedog Reservoir and Nant y Moch Reservoir. Cefn Croes , the site of a controversial wind farm project, is in the Cambrian
Cambrian
Mountains, just south of the A44 road between Aberystwyth
Aberystwyth
and Llangurig .

NATIONAL PARK PROPOSAL

The area was proposed as a National Park
National Park
in 1965 by the National Parks Commission , a precursor body of the Countryside Commission . However, the proposal was opposed by many farmers and local authorities in the area. Formal consultations on the proposal began in 1970, and in 1971 the Countryside Commission proposed a revised boundary for the designation. The proposed area, of 467 square miles (1,210 km2), covered the area of Pumlumon and Elenydd, within an area bounded by the settlements of Machynlleth
Machynlleth
, Llangurig , Rhayader
Rhayader
, Newbridge-on-Wye , Llanwrtyd Wells , Llandovery
Llandovery
, Pumsaint , Tregaron , and Devil\'s Bridge . Despite continuing local opposition, the Countryside Commission published the order designating the area on 15 August 1972, and submitted it to the Secretary of State for Wales
Wales
, Peter Thomas , for confirmation.

Objections to the proposed designation were then made by all five county councils, 5 of the 7 district councils, 5 parish councils, the National Farmers Union , the Country Landowners Association , Plaid Cymru , the Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales
Wales
and others. Support for the designation was expressed by the Ramblers Association , Youth Hostels Association , and Cyclists\' Touring Club . In July 1973, the Secretary of State announced the decision not to proceed with the designation because of "massive evidence of objections", and also rejected a call to hold a public inquiry. This was the first time such a recommendation on national park designation had not been accepted.

PRINCIPAL SUMMITS

* Pen Pumlumon Fawr 2,467 ft (752 m) * Pen Pumlumon Arwystli 2,431 ft (741 m) * Pen Pumlumon Llygad-bychan 2,385 ft (727 m) * Y Garn 2,244 ft (684 m) * Pumlumon Fach 2,179 ft (664 m) * Great Rhos 2,165 ft (660 m) * Black Mixen 2,130 ft (650 m) * Drygarn Fawr 2,116 ft (645 m) * Gorllwyn 2,011 ft (613 m) * Bache Hill 2,000 ft (610 m) * Pen y Garn 2,004 ft (611 m) * Y GAMRIW 1,982 ft (604 m) * WHIMBLE 1,965 ft (599 m) * Llan Ddu Fawr 1,948 ft (594 m) * Pegwn Mawr 1,923 ft (586 m) * Clipyn Du 1,909 ft (582 m) * Y Glog (Draws Drum) 1,883 ft (574 m) * Cefn Croes 1,879 ft (573 m)

GALLERY

*

The Nant Rhuddnant gorge looking north to Cefn Coch from the summit of Pen y Garn . In the background are Y Garn(left), Pen Pumlumon Fawr and Pen Pumlumon Arwystli (right) *

The Desert of