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The Camargue
Camargue
(French pronunciation: ​[kaˈmaʁɡ]) (Provençal Camarga) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the two arms of the Rhône
Rhône
delta. The eastern arm is called the Grand Rhône; the western one is the Petit Rhône.[1] Administratively it lies within the département of Bouches-du-Rhône, the appropriately named "Mouths of the Rhône", and covers parts of the territory of the communes of Arles
Arles
– the largest commune in Metropolitan France, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer
Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer
– the second largest – and Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône. A further expanse of marshy plain, the Petite Camargue
Camargue
(little Camargue), just to the west of the Petit Rhône, is in the département of Gard. Camargue
Camargue
was designated a Ramsar site
Ramsar site
as a " Wetland
Wetland
of International Importance" on 1 December 1986.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Flora and fauna 3 Regional park 4 Human Influence 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

Geography[edit]

Map of the Camargue

With an area of over 930 km2 (360 sq mi), the Camargue is western Europe's largest river delta. It is a vast plain comprising large brine lagoons or étangs, cut off from the sea by sandbars and encircled by reed-covered marshes. These are in turn surrounded by a large cultivated area. Approximately a third of the Camargue
Camargue
is either lakes or marshland. The central area around the shoreline of the Étang de Vaccarès
Étang de Vaccarès
has been protected as a regional park since 1927, in recognition of its great importance as a haven for wild birds. In 2008, it was incorporated into the larger Parc naturel régional de Camargue. Flora and fauna[edit]

Flamingos in the Camargue

Horses and cattle in the Camargue

The Camargue
Camargue
is home to more than 400 species of birds and has been identified as an Important Bird Area
Important Bird Area
(IBA) by BirdLife International.[2] Its brine ponds provide one of the few European habitats for the greater flamingo. The marshes are also a prime habitat for many species of insects, notably (and notoriously) some of the most ferocious mosquitos to be found anywhere in France. Camargue horses (Camarguais) roam the extensive marshlands, along with Camargue cattle (see below). The native flora of the Camargue
Camargue
have adapted to the saline conditions. Sea lavender
Sea lavender
and glasswort flourish, along with tamarisks and reeds. Regional park[edit] Main article: Parc naturel régional de Camargue Officially established as a regional park and nature reserve in 1970, the Parc Naturel Régional de Camargue
Camargue
covers 820 km². This territory is some of the most natural and most protected in all of Europe. A roadside museum provides background on flora, fauna, and the history of the area. Human Influence[edit] Humans have lived in the Camargue
Camargue
for millennia, greatly affecting it with drainage schemes, dykes, rice paddies and salt pans. Much of the outer Camargue
Camargue
has been drained for agricultural purposes. The Camargue
Camargue
has an eponymous horse breed, the famous white Camarguais. Camargue
Camargue
horses are ridden by the gardians (cowboys), who rear the region's cattle for fighting bulls for export to Spain, as well as sheep. Many of these animals are raised in semi-feral conditions, allowed to roam through the Camargue
Camargue
within a manade, or free-running herd. They are periodically rounded up for culling, medical treatment, or other events.

A 20th-century "gardian" home. The pole is used to climb up and oversee the animals

Few towns of any size have developed in the Camargue. Its "capital" is Arles, located at the extreme north of the delta where the Rhône forks into its two principal branches. The only other towns of note are along the sea front or near it: Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, about 45 km to the southwest and the medieval fortress-town of Aigues-Mortes
Aigues-Mortes
on the far western edge, in the Petite Camargue. Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer
Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer
is the destination of the annual Romani pilgrimage for the veneration of Saint Sarah. The Camargue
Camargue
was exploited in the Middle Ages by Cistercian and Benedictine
Benedictine
monks. In the 16th-17th centuries, big estates, known locally as mas, were founded by rich landlords from Arles. At the end of the 18th century, they had the Rhône
Rhône
diked to protect the town and their properties from flooding. In 1858, the building of the digue à la mer (dyke to the sea) achieved temporary protection of the delta from erosion, but it is a changing landform, always affected by waters and weather. The north of the Camargue
Camargue
is agricultural land. The main crops are cereals, grapevine and rice. Near the seashore, prehistoric man started extracting salt, a practice that continues today. Salt was a source of wealth for the Cistercian "salt abbeys" of Ulmet, Franquevaux and Psalmody in the Middle Ages. Industrial salt collection started in the 19th century, and big chemical companies such as Péchiney and Solvay founded the 'mining' city of Salin-de-Giraud. The boundaries of the Camargue
Camargue
are constantly revised by the Rhône
Rhône
as it transports huge quantities of mud downstream – as much as 20 million m³ annually. Some of the étangs are the remnants of old arms and legs of the river. The general trend is for the coastline to move outwards as new earth is deposited in the delta at the river's mouth. Aigues-Mortes, originally built as a port on the coast, is now some 5 km (3.1 mi) inland. The pace of change has been modified in recent years by man-made barriers, such as dams on the Rhône
Rhône
and sea dykes, but flooding remains a problem across the region. See also[edit]

Bac du Sauvage Folco de Baroncelli-Javon Camargue
Camargue
cattle Camargue
Camargue
equitation Camargue
Camargue
horse Camargue
Camargue
red rice Gardian Manade

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Camargue.

^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Camargue". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ "Camargue". Important Bird Areas factsheet. BirdLife International. 2013. Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 

Further reading[edit]

Russell, Richard Joel (1942). "Geomorphology of the Rhone Delta". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 32 (2): 149–255. doi:10.2307/2561087. Retrieved 2011-10-09.  – also in jstor (paywall)

Coordinates: 43°32′N 04°30′E / 43.533°N 4.500°E / 4

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