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Caligula
Caligula
(/kəˈlɪɡjʊlə/;[1] Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD), was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from AD 37 to AD 41. The son of Germanicus, a popular Roman general, and Agrippina the Elder, the granddaughter of Augustus, Caligula
Caligula
was born into the first ruling family of the Roman Empire, conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Two years after Caligula's birth, Germanicus' uncle and adoptive father, Tiberius, succeeded Augustus
Augustus
as emperor of Rome
Rome
in AD 14. Although he was born Gaius Caesar, after Julius
Julius
Caesar, he acquired the nickname "Caligula" (meaning "little soldier's boot", the diminutive form of caliga) from his father's soldiers during their campaign in Germania. When Germanicus
Germanicus
died at Antioch
Antioch
in AD 19, Agrippina returned with her six children to Rome, where she became entangled in a bitter feud with Tiberius. The conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula
Caligula
as the sole male survivor. Untouched by the deadly intrigues, Caligula
Caligula
accepted an invitation in AD 31 to join the emperor on the island of Capri, where Tiberius
Tiberius
had withdrawn five years earlier. Following the death of Tiberius, Caligula
Caligula
succeeded his adoptive grandfather as emperor in AD 37. There are few surviving sources about the reign of Caligula, although he is described as a noble and moderate emperor during the first six months of his rule. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, extravagance, and sexual perversion, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources is questionable, it is known that during his brief reign, Caligula
Caligula
worked to increase the unconstrained personal power of the emperor, as opposed to countervailing powers within the principate. He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects and luxurious dwellings for himself, and initiated the construction of two aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia
Aqua Claudia
and the Anio Novus. During his reign, the empire annexed the client kingdom of Mauretania
Mauretania
as a province. In early AD 41, Caligula
Caligula
was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by officers of the Praetorian Guard, senators, and courtiers. The conspirators' attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted, however. On the day of the assassination of Caligula, the Praetorians declared Caligula's uncle, Claudius, the next Roman emperor. Although the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Julio-Claudian dynasty
continued to rule the empire until the fall of Nero
Nero
in AD 68, Caligula's death marked the official end of the Julii Caesares
Julii Caesares
in the male line.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Family 1.2 Youth and early career

2 Emperor

2.1 Early reign 2.2 Public reform 2.3 Financial crisis and famine 2.4 Construction 2.5 Feud with the senate 2.6 Western expansion

2.6.1 Mauretania 2.6.2 Britannia

2.7 Claims of divinity 2.8 Eastern policy 2.9 Scandals 2.10 Assassination and aftermath

3 Legacy

3.1 Historiography 3.2 Health 3.3 Possible rediscovery of burial site

4 Ancestry 5 Gallery 6 In popular culture

6.1 In film 6.2 In literature and theatre 6.3 In television 6.4 On radio

7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography

8 External links

Early life[edit] Family[edit]

Roman imperial dynasties

Julio-Claudian dynasty

Chronology

Augustus 27 BC – 14 AD

Tiberius 14–37 AD

Caligula 37–41 AD

Claudius 41–54 AD

Nero 54–68 AD

Family

Gens Julia Gens Claudia Julio-Claudian family tree Category:Julio-Claudian dynasty

Succession

Preceded by Roman Republic Followed by Year of the Four Emperors

See Julio-Claudian family tree.

Gaius Julius Caesar (named in honor of his famous relative) was born in Antium
Antium
(modern Anzio
Anzio
and Nettuno[2]) on 31 August 12 AD, the third of six surviving children born to Germanicus
Germanicus
and his second cousin Agrippina the Elder.[3] Gaius had two older brothers, Nero
Nero
and Drusus,[3] as well as three younger sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla
Julia Drusilla
and Julia Livilla.[3][4] He was also a nephew of Claudius, Germanicus' younger brother and the future emperor.[5] Agrippina the Elder
Agrippina the Elder
was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
and Julia the Elder.[3] She was a granddaughter of Augustus
Augustus
and Scribonia on her mother's side. Through Agrippina, Augustus
Augustus
was the maternal great-grandfather of Gaius.[3] Youth and early career[edit]

A caliga.

A marble bust of Caligula
Caligula
restored to its original colours. The colours were identified from particles trapped in the marble.

Julia Drusilla, sister of Caligula

As a boy of just two or three, Gaius accompanied his father, Germanicus, on campaigns in the north of Germania.[6] The soldiers were amused that Gaius was dressed in a miniature soldier's outfit, including boots and armour.[6] He was soon given his nickname Caligula, meaning "little (soldier's) boot" in Latin, after the small boots (caligae) he wore.[7] Gaius, though, reportedly grew to dislike this nickname.[8] Suetonius
Suetonius
claims that Germanicus
Germanicus
was poisoned in Syria by an agent of Tiberius, who viewed Germanicus
Germanicus
as a political rival.[9] After the death of his father, Caligula
Caligula
lived with his mother until her relations with Tiberius
Tiberius
deteriorated.[10] Tiberius
Tiberius
would not allow Agrippina to remarry for fear her husband would be a rival.[11] Agrippina and Caligula's brother, Nero, were banished in 29 AD on charges of treason.[12][13] The adolescent Caligula
Caligula
was then sent to live with his great-grandmother (and Tiberius's mother) Livia.[10] After her death, he was sent to live with his grandmother Antonia Minor.[10] In 30 AD, his brother, Drusus Caesar, was imprisoned on charges of treason and his brother Nero
Nero
died in exile from either starvation or suicide.[13][14] Suetonius
Suetonius
writes that after the banishment of his mother and brothers, Caligula
Caligula
and his sisters were nothing more than prisoners of Tiberius
Tiberius
under the close watch of soldiers.[15] In 31 AD, Caligula
Caligula
was remanded to the personal care of Tiberius
Tiberius
on Capri, where he lived for six years.[10] To the surprise of many, Caligula
Caligula
was spared by Tiberius.[16] According to historians, Caligula was an excellent natural actor and, recognizing danger, hid all his resentment towards Tiberius.[10][17] An observer said of Caligula, "Never was there a better servant or a worse master!"[10][17] Caligula
Caligula
claimed to have planned to kill Tiberius
Tiberius
with a dagger in order to avenge his mother and brother: however, having brought the weapon into Tiberius's bedroom he did not kill the Emperor but instead threw the dagger down on the floor. Supposedly Tiberius
Tiberius
knew of this but never dared to do anything about it.[18] Suetonius
Suetonius
claims that Caligula
Caligula
was already cruel and vicious: he writes that, when Tiberius brought Caligula
Caligula
to Capri, his purpose was to allow Caligula
Caligula
to live in order that he "... prove the ruin of himself and of all men, and that he was rearing a viper for the Roman people and a Phaethon for the world."[19] In 33 AD, Tiberius
Tiberius
gave Caligula
Caligula
an honorary quaestorship, a position he held until his rise to emperor.[20] Meanwhile, both Caligula's mother and his brother Drusus died in prison.[21][22] Caligula
Caligula
was briefly married to Junia Claudilla, in 33, though she died in childbirth the following year.[23] Caligula
Caligula
spent time befriending the Praetorian prefect, Naevius Sutorius Macro, an important ally.[23] Macro spoke well of Caligula
Caligula
to Tiberius, attempting to quell any ill will or suspicion the Emperor felt towards Caligula.[24] In 35 AD, Caligula
Caligula
was named joint heir to Tiberius's estate along with Tiberius
Tiberius
Gemellus.[25] Emperor[edit] Early reign[edit] When Tiberius
Tiberius
died on 16 March 37 AD, his estate and the titles of the principate were left to Caligula
Caligula
and Tiberius's own grandson, Gemellus, who were to serve as joint heirs. Although Tiberius
Tiberius
was 77 and on his death bed, some ancient historians still conjecture that he was murdered.[23][26] Tacitus
Tacitus
writes that the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, smothered Tiberius
Tiberius
with a pillow to hasten Caligula's accession, much to the joy of the Roman people,[26] while Suetonius writes that Caligula
Caligula
may have carried out the killing, though this is not recorded by any other ancient historian.[23] Seneca the Elder and Philo, who both wrote during Tiberius's reign, as well as Josephus record Tiberius
Tiberius
as dying a natural death.[27] Backed by Macro, Caligula
Caligula
had Tiberius's will nullified with regard to Gemellus on grounds of insanity, but otherwise carried out Tiberius's wishes.[28]

Caligula
Caligula
Depositing the Ashes of his Mother and Brother in the Tomb of his Ancestors, by Eustache Le Sueur, 1647

Caligula
Caligula
accepted the powers of the principate as conferred by the senate and entered Rome
Rome
on 28 March amid a crowd that hailed him as "our baby" and "our star", among other nicknames.[29] Caligula
Caligula
is described as the first emperor who was admired by everyone in "all the world, from the rising to the setting sun."[30] Caligula
Caligula
was loved by many for being the beloved son of the popular Germanicus,[29] and because he was not Tiberius.[31] Suetonius
Suetonius
said that over 160,000 animals were sacrificed during three months of public rejoicing to usher in the new reign.[32][33] Philo
Philo
describes the first seven months of Caligula's reign as completely blissful.[34] Caligula's first acts were said to be generous in spirit, though many were political in nature.[28] To gain support, he granted bonuses to the military, including the Praetorian Guard, city troops and the army outside Italy.[28] He destroyed Tiberius's treason papers, declared that treason trials were a thing of the past, and recalled those who had been sent into exile.[35] He helped those who had been harmed by the imperial tax system, banished certain sexual deviants, and put on lavish spectacles for the public, including gladiatorial games.[36][37] Caligula
Caligula
collected and brought back the bones of his mother and of his brothers and deposited their remains in the tomb of Augustus.[38]

A denarius of Gaius Caligula

In October 37 AD, Caligula
Caligula
fell seriously ill, or perhaps was poisoned. He soon recovered from his illness, but many believed that the illness turned the young emperor toward the diabolical: he started to kill off or exile those who were close to him or whom he saw as a serious threat. Perhaps his illness reminded him of his mortality and of the desire of others to advance into his place.[39] He had his cousin and adopted son Tiberius
Tiberius
Gemellus executed – an act that outraged Caligula's and Gemellus's mutual grandmother Antonia Minor. She is said to have committed suicide, although Suetonius
Suetonius
hints that Caligula
Caligula
actually poisoned her. He had his father-in-law Marcus Junius Silanus and his brother-in-law Marcus Lepidus executed as well. His uncle Claudius
Claudius
was spared only because Caligula
Caligula
preferred to keep him as a laughing stock. His favourite sister Julia Drusilla
Julia Drusilla
died in 38 AD of a fever: his other two sisters, Livilla and Agrippina the Younger, were exiled. He hated being the grandson of Agrippa and slandered Augustus
Augustus
by repeating a falsehood that his mother was actually conceived as the result of an incestuous relationship between Augustus and his daughter Julia the Elder.[40] Public reform[edit] In AD 38, Caligula
Caligula
focused his attention on political and public reform. He published the accounts of public funds, which had not been made public during the reign of Tiberius. He aided those who lost property in fires, abolished certain taxes, and gave out prizes to the public at gymnastic events. He allowed new members into the equestrian and senatorial orders.[41] Perhaps most significantly, he restored the practice of democratic elections.[42] Cassius Dio said that this act "though delighting the rabble, grieved the sensible, who stopped to reflect, that if the offices should fall once more into the hands of the many ... many disasters would result".[43] During the same year, though, Caligula
Caligula
was criticized for executing people without full trials and for forcing his supporter Macro to commit suicide.[44] Financial crisis and famine[edit] According to Cassius Dio, a financial crisis emerged in AD 39.[44] Suetonius
Suetonius
places the beginning of this crisis in 38.[45] Caligula's political payments for support, generosity and extravagance had exhausted the state's treasury. Ancient historians state that Caligula began falsely accusing, fining and even killing individuals for the purpose of seizing their estates.[46] Historians describe a number of Caligula's other desperate measures. In order to gain funds, Caligula
Caligula
asked the public to lend the state money.[47] He levied taxes on lawsuits, weddings and prostitution.[48] Caligula
Caligula
began auctioning the lives of the gladiators at shows.[46][49] Wills that left items to Tiberius
Tiberius
were reinterpreted to leave the items instead to Caligula.[50] Centurions who had acquired property by plunder were forced to turn over spoils to the state.[50] The current and past highway commissioners were accused of incompetence and embezzlement and forced to repay money.[50] According to Suetonius, in the first year of Caligula's reign he squandered 2.7 billion sesterces that Tiberius
Tiberius
had amassed.[51] His nephew Nero Caesar both envied and admired the fact that Gaius had run through the vast wealth Tiberius
Tiberius
had left him in so short a time.[52] However, some historians have shown skepticism towards the large number of sesterces quoted by Suetonius
Suetonius
and Dio. According to Wilkinson, Caligula's use of precious metals to mint coins throughout his principate indicates that the treasury most likely never fell into bankruptcy.[53] He does point out, however, that it is difficult to ascertain whether the purported 'squandered wealth' was from the treasury alone due to the blurring of "the division between the private wealth of the emperor and his income as head of state." Furthermore, Alston points out that Caligula's successor, Claudius, was able to donate 15,000 sesterces to each member of the praetorian guard in AD 41;[26] indicative of solvency within the Roman treasury.[54]

The Vatican Obelisk
Vatican Obelisk
was first brought from Egypt to Rome
Rome
by Caligula. It was the centerpiece of a large racetrack he built.

A brief famine of unknown extent occurred, perhaps caused by this financial crisis, but Suetonius
Suetonius
claims it resulted from Caligula's seizure of public carriages;[46] according to Seneca, grain imports were disturbed because Caligula
Caligula
repurposed grain boats for a pontoon bridge.[55] Construction[edit] See also: Caligula's Giant Ship Despite financial difficulties, Caligula
Caligula
embarked on a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good, though others were for himself. Josephus
Josephus
describes Caligula's improvements to the harbours at Rhegium and Sicily, allowing increased grain imports from Egypt, as his greatest contributions.[56] These improvements may have been in response to the famine.[citation needed] Caligula
Caligula
completed the temple of Augustus
Augustus
and the theatre of Pompey and began an amphitheatre beside the Saepta.[57] He expanded the imperial palace.[58] He began the aqueducts Aqua Claudia
Aqua Claudia
and Anio Novus, which Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
considered engineering marvels.[59] He built a large racetrack known as the circus of Gaius and Nero
Nero
and had an Egyptian obelisk (now known as the "Vatican Obelisk") transported by sea and erected in the middle of Rome.[60] At Syracuse, he repaired the city walls and the temples of the gods.[57] He had new roads built and pushed to keep roads in good condition.[61] He had planned to rebuild the palace of Polycrates
Polycrates
at Samos, to finish the temple of Didymaean Apollo
Apollo
at Ephesus
Ephesus
and to found a city high up in the Alps.[57] He planned to dig a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth
Isthmus of Corinth
in Greece and sent a chief centurion to survey the work.[57]

The hull of one of two ships recovered from Lake Nemi
Lake Nemi
during the 1930s. This massive vessel served as an elaborate floating palace to the Emperor.

In 39, Caligula
Caligula
performed a spectacular stunt by ordering a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships as pontoons, stretching for over two miles from the resort of Baiae
Baiae
to the neighbouring port of Puteoli.[62][63] It was said that the bridge was to rival the Persian king Xerxes' pontoon bridge crossing of the Hellespont.[63] Caligula, who could not swim,[64] then proceeded to ride his favourite horse, Incitatus, across wearing the breastplate of Alexander the Great.[63] This act was in defiance of a prediction by Tiberius's soothsayer Thrasyllus of Mendes that Caligula
Caligula
had "no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae".[63] Caligula
Caligula
had two large ships constructed for himself (which were recovered from the bottom of Lake Nemi
Lake Nemi
around 1930). The ships were among the largest vessels in the ancient world. The smaller ship was designed as a temple dedicated to Diana. The larger ship was essentially an elaborate floating palace with marble floors and plumbing.[65] Thirteen years after being raised, the ships were burned during an attack in the Second World War, and almost nothing remains of their hulls, though many archaeological treasures remain intact in the museum at Lake Nemi
Lake Nemi
and in the Museo Nazionale Romano (Palazzo Massimo) at Rome.[citation needed] Feud with the senate[edit] In AD 39, relations between Caligula
Caligula
and the Roman Senate deteriorated.[66] The subject of their disagreement is unknown. A number of factors, though, aggravated this feud. The Senate had become accustomed to ruling without an emperor between the departure of Tiberius
Tiberius
for Capri
Capri
in AD 26 and Caligula's accession.[67] Additionally, Tiberius's treason trials had eliminated a number of pro-Julian senators such as Asinius Gallus.[67] Caligula
Caligula
reviewed Tiberius's records of treason trials and decided, based on their actions during these trials, that numerous senators were not trustworthy.[66] He ordered a new set of investigations and trials.[66] He replaced the consul and had several senators put to death.[68] Suetonius
Suetonius
reports that other senators were degraded by being forced to wait on him and run beside his chariot.[68] Soon after his break with the Senate, Caligula
Caligula
faced a number of additional conspiracies against him.[69] A conspiracy involving his brother-in-law was foiled in late 39.[69] Soon afterwards, the Governor of Germany, Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, was executed for connections to a conspiracy.[69] Western expansion[edit]

Map of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and neighboring states during the reign of Gaius Caligula
Caligula
(37-41 AD).   Italy and Roman provinces   Independent countries   Client states (Roman puppets)    Mauretania
Mauretania
seized by Caligula   Former Roman provinces Thrace and Commagena made client states by Caligula .

In AD 40, Caligula
Caligula
expanded the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
into Mauretania
Mauretania
and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia
Britannia
– even challenging Neptune in his campaign. The conquest of Britannia
Britannia
was fully realized by his successors. Mauretania[edit] Mauretania
Mauretania
was a client kingdom of Rome
Rome
ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula
Caligula
invited Ptolemy to Rome
Rome
and then suddenly had him executed.[70] Mauretania
Mauretania
was annexed by Caligula
Caligula
and subsequently divided into two provinces, Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis, separated by the river Malua.[71] Pliny claims that division was the work of Caligula, but Dio states that in AD 42 an uprising took place, which was subdued by Gaius Suetonius
Suetonius
Paulinus and Gnaeus Hosidius Geta, and the division only took place after this.[72] This confusion might mean that Caligula
Caligula
decided to divide the province, but the division was postponed because of the rebellion.[73] The first known equestrian governor of the two provinces was Marcus Fadius Celer Flavianus, in office in AD 44.[73] Details on the Mauretanian events of 39–44 are unclear. Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania
Mauretania
by Caligula, but it is now lost.[74] Caligula's move seemingly had a strictly personal political motive – fear and jealousy of his cousin Ptolemy – and thus the expansion may not have been prompted by pressing military or economic needs.[75] However, the rebellion of Tacfarinas had shown how exposed Africa Proconsularis was to its west and how the Mauretanian client kings were unable to provide protection to the province, and it is thus possible that Caligula's expansion was a prudent response to potential future threats.[73] Britannia[edit] There seems to have been a northern campaign to Britannia
Britannia
that was aborted.[74] This campaign is derided by ancient historians with accounts of Gauls dressed up as Germanic tribesmen at his triumph and Roman troops ordered to collect seashells as "spoils of the sea".[76] The few primary sources disagree on what precisely occurred. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions. This trip to the English Channel
English Channel
could have merely been a training and scouting mission.[77] The mission may have been to accept the surrender of the British chieftain Adminius.[78] "Seashells", or conchae in Latin, may be a metaphor for something else such as female genitalia (perhaps the troops visited brothels) or boats (perhaps they captured several small British boats).[79] Claims of divinity[edit]

Ruins of the temple of Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
in the Forum Romanum. Ancient resources as well as recent archaeological evidence suggest that, at one point, Caligula
Caligula
had the palace extended to annex this structure.

When several client kings came to Rome
Rome
to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he allegedly cried out the Homeric line:[80] "Let there be one lord, one king."[81] In AD 40, Caligula
Caligula
began implementing very controversial policies that introduced religion into his political role. Caligula
Caligula
began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules, Mercury, Venus and Apollo.[82] Reportedly, he began referring to himself as a god when meeting with politicians and he was referred to as "Jupiter" on occasion in public documents.[83][84] A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome.[84] The Temple of Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
on the forum was linked directly to the imperial residence on the Palatine and dedicated to Caligula.[84][85] He would appear there on occasion and present himself as a god to the public. Caligula
Caligula
had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome
Rome
and replaced them with his own.[86] It is said that he wished to be worshipped as "Neos Helios," the "New Sun." Indeed, he was represented as a sun god on Egyptian coins.[87] Caligula's religious policy was a departure from that of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio, living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome.[88] Augustus
Augustus
had the public worship his spirit on occasion, but Dio describes this as an extreme act that emperors generally shied away from.[88] Caligula
Caligula
took things a step further and had those in Rome, including senators, worship him as a tangible, living god.[89] Eastern policy[edit] Caligula
Caligula
needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippa, who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula
Caligula
became emperor in AD 37.[90] The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman Law
Roman Law
and the rights of Jews in the empire. Caligula
Caligula
did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists.[91] In AD 38, Caligula
Caligula
sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus.[92] According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews.[93] Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula
Caligula
by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues.[94] As a result, riots broke out in the city.[95] Caligula
Caligula
responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him.[96] In AD 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee
Galilee
and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas
Herod Antipas
confessed and Caligula
Caligula
exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories.[97] Riots again erupted in Alexandria in AD 40 between Jews and Greeks.[98] Jews were accused of not honouring the emperor.[98] Disputes occurred in the city of Jamnia.[99] Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it.[99] In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem,[100] a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism.[101] In this context, Philo
Philo
wrote that Caligula
Caligula
"regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his".[101] The Governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year.[102] Agrippa finally convinced Caligula
Caligula
to reverse the order.[98] But Caligula
Caligula
issued a second order to have his statue erected in the Temple of Jerusalem. In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for such temple. The Temple of Jerusalem
Temple of Jerusalem
was then transformed into a temple for Caligula, and it was called the Temple of illustrious Gaius the new Jupiter.[103]

Roman sestertius depicting Caligula, c. AD 38. The reverse shows Caligula's three sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia Livilla, with whom Caligula
Caligula
was rumoured to have carried on incestuous relationships.

Scandals[edit]

Cameo depicting Caligula
Caligula
and a personification of Rome

Philo
Philo
of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger
Seneca the Younger
describe Caligula
Caligula
as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, angry, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex.[104] He is accused of sleeping with other men's wives and bragging about it,[105] killing for mere amusement,[106] deliberately wasting money on his bridge, causing starvation,[107] and wanting a statue of himself erected in the Temple of Jerusalem for his worship.[100] Once, at some games at which he was presiding, he ordered his guards to throw an entire section of the audience into the arena during the intermission to be eaten by the wild beasts because there were no prisoners to be used and he was bored.[108][clarification needed] While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio provide additional tales of insanity. They accuse Caligula
Caligula
of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla, and Livilla, and say he prostituted them to other men.[109] They state he sent troops on illogical military exercises,[74][110] turned the palace into a brothel,[47] and, most famously, planned or promised to make his horse, Incitatus, a consul,[111][112] and actually appointed him a priest.[84] The validity of these accounts is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government.[113] Assassination and aftermath[edit] Caligula's actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the senate, to the nobility and to the equestrian order.[114] According to Josephus, these actions led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula.[115] Eventually, officers within the Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
led by Cassius Chaerea succeeded in murdering the emperor.[116] The plot is described as having been planned by three men, but many in the senate, army and equestrian order were said to have been informed of it and involved in it.[117] The situation had escalated when, in 40 AD, Caligula
Caligula
announced to the senate that he planned to leave Rome
Rome
permanently and to move to Alexandria in Egypt, where he hoped to be worshipped as a living god. The prospect of Rome
Rome
losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the senate and the Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery. With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators, who included Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Annius Vinicianus, to put their plot into action quickly.

Portrait of Caligula
Caligula
from Palazzo Massimo in Rome

According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination.[118] Suetonius
Suetonius
sees the motive in Caligula
Caligula
calling Chaerea derogatory names.[119] Caligula
Caligula
considered Chaerea effeminate because of a weak voice and for not being firm with tax collection.[120] Caligula
Caligula
would mock Chaerea with names like "Priapus" and "Venus".[121] On 22 January 41 ( Suetonius
Suetonius
gives the date as 24 January), Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula
Caligula
as he addressed an acting troupe of young men during a series of games and dramatics held for the Divine Augustus.[122] Details recorded on the events vary somewhat from source to source, but they agree that Chaerea stabbed Caligula
Caligula
first, followed by a number of conspirators.[123] Suetonius records that Caligula's death resembled that of Julius
Julius
Caesar. He states that both the elder Gaius Julius Caesar ( Julius
Julius
Caesar) and the younger Gaius Julius Caesar (Caligula) were stabbed 30 times by conspirators led by a man named Cassius (Cassius Longinus and Cassius Chaerea).[124] By the time Caligula's loyal Germanic guard responded, the Emperor was already dead. The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike.[125] These wounded conspirators were treated by the physician Arcyon. The cryptoporticus (underground corridor) beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
where this event took place was discovered by archaeologists in 2008.[126] The senate attempted to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the republic.[127] Chaerea tried to persuade the military to support the senate.[128] The military, though, remained loyal to the idea of imperial monarchy.[128] The grieving Roman people assembled and demanded that Caligula's murderers be brought to justice.[129] Uncomfortable with lingering imperial support, the assassins sought out and stabbed Caligula's wife, Caesonia, and killed their young daughter, Julia Drusilla, by smashing her head against a wall.[130] They were unable to reach Caligula's uncle, Claudius; after a soldier, Gratus, found Claudius
Claudius
hiding behind a palace curtain. He was spirited out of the city by a sympathetic faction of the Praetorian Guard[131] to the nearby Praetorian camp.[132] Claudius
Claudius
became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard. He ordered the execution of Chaerea and of any other known conspirators involved in the death of Caligula.[133] According to Suetonius, Caligula's body was placed under turf until it was burned and entombed by his sisters. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus; in 410, during the Sack of Rome
Rome
ashes in the tomb were scattered. Legacy[edit] Historiography[edit]

Fanciful renaissance depiction of Caligula

The history of Caligula's reign is extremely problematic as only two sources contemporary with Caligula
Caligula
have survived — the works of Philo
Philo
and Seneca. Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus, give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators.[134] At one time, there were detailed contemporaneous histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula.[135] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources, along with the works of Seneca and Philo, were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Caligula
Caligula
written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula
Caligula
that are now lost. Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation.[136] Cluvius Rufus was a senator involved in the assassination of Caligula.[137] Caligula's sister, Agrippina the Younger, wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligula's reign, but it too is lost. Agrippina was banished by Caligula
Caligula
for her connection to Marcus Lepidus, who conspired against him.[69] The inheritance of Nero, Agrippina's son and the future emperor, was seized by Caligula. Gaetulicus, a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they too are lost. The bulk of what is known of Caligula
Caligula
comes from Suetonius
Suetonius
and Cassius Dio. Suetonius
Suetonius
wrote his history on Caligula
Caligula
80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 180 years after Caligula's death. Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign. A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula. Josephus
Josephus
gives a detailed description of Caligula's assassination. Tacitus
Tacitus
provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. In a now lost portion of his Annals, Tacitus
Tacitus
gave a detailed history of Caligula. Pliny the Elder's Natural History has a few brief references to Caligula. There are few surviving sources on Caligula
Caligula
and no surviving source paints Caligula
Caligula
in a favourable light. The paucity of sources has resulted in significant gaps in modern knowledge of the reign of Caligula. Little is written on the first two years of Caligula's reign. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of Mauretania, Caligula's military actions in Britannia, and his feud with the Roman Senate. Health[edit] All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterize Caligula as insane. However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for his behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis.[138] The question of whether or not Caligula was insane (especially after his illness early in his reign) remains unanswered.[138] Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Josephus
Josephus
and Seneca state that Caligula
Caligula
was insane, but describe this madness as a personality trait that came through experience.[97][139][140] Seneca states that Caligula
Caligula
became arrogant, angry and insulting once becoming emperor and uses his personality flaws as examples his readers can learn from.[141] According to Josephus, power made Caligula
Caligula
incredibly conceited and led him to think he was a god.[97] Philo
Philo
of Alexandria reports that Caligula
Caligula
became ruthless after nearly dying of an illness in the eighth month of his reign in AD 37.[142] Juvenal
Juvenal
reports he was given a magic potion that drove him insane. Suetonius
Suetonius
said that Caligula
Caligula
suffered from "falling sickness", or epilepsy, when he was young.[143][144] Modern historians have theorized that Caligula
Caligula
lived with a daily fear of seizures.[145] Despite swimming being a part of imperial education, Caligula
Caligula
could not swim.[146] Epileptics are discouraged from swimming in open waters because unexpected fits in such difficult rescue circumstances can be fatal.[147] Additionally, Caligula
Caligula
reportedly talked to the full moon.[68] Epilepsy
Epilepsy
was long associated with the moon.[148] On physical appearance and health, Suetonius
Suetonius
described Caligula
Caligula
as sickly-looking, skinny and pale: "he was tall, very pale, ill-shaped, his neck and legs very slender, his eyes and temples hollow, his brows broad and knit, his hair thin, and the crown of the head bald... He was crazy both in body and mind, being subject, when a boy, to the falling sickness. When he arrived at the age of man hood he endured fatigue tolerably well; but still, occasionally, he was liable to a faintness, during which he remained incapable of any effort."[149] Based on scientific reconstructions of his official painted busts, Caligula
Caligula
had brown hair, brown eyes, and fair skin.[150] Some modern historians think that Caligula
Caligula
suffered from hyperthyroidism.[151] This diagnosis is mainly attributed to Caligula's irritability and his "stare" as described by Pliny the Elder. Possible rediscovery of burial site[edit] On 17 January 2011, police in Nemi, Italy, announced that they believed they had discovered the site of Caligula's burial, after arresting a thief caught smuggling a statue which they believed to be of the emperor.[152] The claim has been met with scepticism by Cambridge historian Mary Beard.[153] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Caligula[154]

16. Drusus Claudius
Claudius
Nero

8. Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero

17. Claudia

4. Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Drusus

18. Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus

9. Livia
Livia
Drusilla

19. Aufidia

2. Germanicus

20. Marcus Antonius Creticus

10. Mark Antony

21. Julia Antonia

5. Antonia Minor

22. Gaius Octavius (=28)

11. Octavia Minor

23. Atia Balba Caesonia
Atia Balba Caesonia
(=29)

1.Caligula

12. Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa

6. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa

3. Agrippina the Elder

28. Gaius Octavius (=22)

14. Augustus

29. Atia Balba Caesonia
Atia Balba Caesonia
(=23)

7. Julia the Elder

30. Lucius Scribonius Libo

15. Scribonia

31. Sentia

Gallery[edit]

Quadrans
Quadrans
celebrating the abolition of a tax in AD 38 by Caligula.[155] The obverse of the coin contains a picture of a Pileus which symbolizes the liberation of the people from the tax burden.

Roman gold coins excavated in Pudukottai, India, examples of Indo-Roman trade
Indo-Roman trade
during the period. One coin of Caligula
Caligula
(AD 37–41), and two coins of Nero
Nero
(AD 54–68). British Museum.

In popular culture[edit] In film[edit] Welsh actor Emlyn Williams
Emlyn Williams
was cast as Caligula
Caligula
in the never-completed 1937 film I, Claudius.[156] American actor Jay Robinson
Jay Robinson
famously portrayed a sinister and scene-stealing Caligula
Caligula
in two epic films of the 1950s, The Robe (1953) and its sequel Demetrius and the Gladiators
Demetrius and the Gladiators
(1954).[157] A feature-length historical film Caligula
Caligula
was completed in 1979, in which Malcolm McDowell
Malcolm McDowell
played the lead role. The film alienated audiences with explicit sex and violence. Although reviews were overwhelmingly negative (though McDowell's performance as the title character was praised), the film is considered to be a cult classic.[158] David Brandon portrayed Caligula
Caligula
in the 1982 Italian exploitation film ''Emperor Caligula, the Untold Story'' which was directed by Joe D'Amato.[citation needed] Szabolcs Hajdu portrayed Caligula
Caligula
in the 1996 film Caligula.[159] In literature and theatre[edit] Caligula, by French author Albert Camus, is a play in which Caligula returns after deserting the palace for three days and three nights following the death of his beloved sister, Drusilla. The young emperor then uses his unfettered power to "bring the impossible into the realm of the likely".[160] In the 1934 novel I, Claudius
Claudius
by English writer Robert Graves, Caligula
Caligula
is presented as being a murderous sociopath from his childhood, who became clinically insane early in his reign. At the age of only seven, he drove his father Germanicus
Germanicus
to despair and death by secretly terrorising him. Graves's Caligula
Caligula
commits incest with all three of his sisters and is implied to have murdered Drusilla. In the BBC
BBC
series based on Graves' novel (where the role is played by John Hurt), Caligula, although unhinged since early childhood, becomes dangerously psychotic after an apparent epileptic seizure and awakens believing that he has metamorphosed into the god Zeus. He kills Drusilla while trying to re-enact the birth of Athena
Athena
by cutting his child from her womb. In 1941, Edgar Rice Burroughs
Edgar Rice Burroughs
wrote I Am a Barbarian. The story is pitched as a free translation of the memoirs of Britannicus (a fictional character created by Burroughs) who was the slave of Caligula
Caligula
from early childhood till Caligula's death. The character Ellsworth Toohey in Ayn Rand's 1943 novel The Fountainhead references Caligula
Caligula
in his climactic speech to Peter Keating stating, "Remember the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
who said he wished humanity had a single neck so he could cut it? People have laughed at him for centuries. But we'll have the last laugh. We've accomplished what he couldn't accomplish. We've taught men to unite. This makes one neck ready for one leash." The play The Reckoning of Kit and Little Boots, by Nat Cassidy, examines the lives of the Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe and Caligula, with the fictional conceit that Marlowe was working on a play about Caligula
Caligula
around the time of his own murder. It emphasizes the similarities between the two characters—both stabbed to death at 29, both in part as a result of their controversial religious perspectives. The play focuses on Caligula's love for his sister Drusilla and his deep-rooted loathing for Tiberius. It received its world premiere in New York City in June 2008.[161][162] Eugene O'Neill's play Lazarus Laughed features the young Caligula
Caligula
as one of its pinnacle characters, where he is portrayed as a psychopath who believes he will only be happy once Tiberius
Tiberius
is dead and he is the Caesar. In television[edit] Caligula
Caligula
has been portrayed in a number of television series:

Ralph Bates in the 1968 ITV television series The Caesars; John Hurt
John Hurt
in the 1976 BBC
BBC
television series I, Claudius; John McEnery in the 1985 miniseries A.D.; Tony Hawks in the Red Dwarf episode "Meltdown" (1991); Alexis Arquette
Alexis Arquette
in season six of Xena: Warrior Princess (2001); Simon Farnaby
Simon Farnaby
and Jalaal Hartley in "Horrible Histories"; John Simm
John Simm
in the 2004 miniseries Imperium Nerone. Andrew Gower in the 2015 miniseries A.D. The Bible Continues

On radio[edit]

Samuel Barnett portrays Caligula
Caligula
in the 2010 BBC
BBC
radio adaptation of I, Claudius

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Caligula:

GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS IPA: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar au̯ˈgʊs.tʊs gɛr'maː.nɪ.kʊs] CALIGVLA IPA: [ka'lɪ.gʊ.ɫa] or [.la]

^ Paola Brandizzi Vittucci, Antium: Anzio
Anzio
e Nettuno
Nettuno
in epoca romana, Roma, Bardi, 2000 ISBN 88-85699-83-9 ^ a b c d e Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 7. ^ Wood, Susan (1995). "Diva Drusilla Panthea and the Sisters of Caligula". American Journal of Archaeology. 99 (3): 457–482. doi:10.2307/506945. ISSN 0002-9114. JSTOR 506945.  ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.6. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
9. ^ "Caligula" is formed from the Latin word caliga, meaning soldier's boot, and the diminutive infix -ul. ^ Seneca the Younger, On the Firmness of a Wise Person XVIII 2–5. See Malloch, 'Gaius and the nobiles', Athenaeum (2009). ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
2. ^ a b c d e f Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 10. ^ Tacitus, Annals IV.52. ^ Tacitus, Annals V.3. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
54. ^ Tacitus, Annals V.10. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
64. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
62. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals VI.20. ^ The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
12 ^ The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
11 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.23. ^ Tacitus, Annals VI.25. ^ Tacitus, Annals VI.23. ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
12. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius VI.35. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
76. ^ a b c Tacitus, Annals XII.53. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius IV.25; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIII.6.9. ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.1. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
13. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II.10. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
75. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
14. ^ Philo
Philo
mentions widespread sacrifice, but no estimation on the degree, Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II.12. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II.13. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
15. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
16. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
18. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.3. ^ Dunstan, William E., Ancient Rome, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010, ISBN 0-7425-6834-2, p.285. ^ The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
23 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.9–10. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
16.2. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.9.7. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.10. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
37. ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
38. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
41. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
40. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.14. ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.15. ^ The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
37 ^ The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero
Nero
30 ^ Wilkinson, Sam (2003). Caligula. London: Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 0203003721. OCLC 57298122.  ^ Alston, Richard (2002). Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117. London: Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 0203011872. OCLC 648154931.  ^ Seneca the Younger, On the Shortness of Life XVIII.5. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.2.5. ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
21. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
22. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
21, Life of Claudius
Claudius
20; Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXVI.122. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History XVI.76. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.15; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
37. ^ Wardle, David (2007). "Caligula's Bridge of Boats - AD 39 or 40?". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. 56 (1): 118–120. ISSN 0018-2311. JSTOR 25598379.  ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
19. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
54. ^ Kroos, Kenneth A. (1 July 2011). "Central Heating for Caligula's Pleasure Ship". The International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology. 81 (2): 291–299. doi:10.1179/175812111X13033852943471. ISSN 1758-1206.  ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.16; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
30. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals IV.41. ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
26. ^ a b c d Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.22. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
35. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History V.2. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LX.8 ^ a b c Barrett 2002, p. 118 ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.25. ^ Sigman, Marlene C. (1977). "The Romans and the Indigenous Tribes of Mauritania Tingitana". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. Franz Steiner Verlag. 26 (4): 415–439. JSTOR 4435574.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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45–47. ^ P. Bicknell, "The Emperor Gaius' Military Activities in AD 40", Historia 17 (1968), 496–505. ^ R.W. Davies, "The Abortive Invasion of Britain by Gaius", Historia 15 (1966), 124–128; S.J.V.Malloch, 'Gaius on the Channel Coast', Classical Quarterly 51 (2001) 551-56; See Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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44. ^ D. Wardle, Suetonius' Life of Caligula: a Commentary (Brussels, 1994), 313; David Woods "Caligula's Seashells", Greece and Rome (2000), 80–87. ^ Iliad, Book 2, line 204. ^ The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
22 ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XI–XV. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.26. ^ a b c d Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.28. ^ Sanford, J.: "Did Caligula
Caligula
have a God complex?, Stanford Report, 10 September 2003. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p. 209. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-7394-2025-9. ^ Allen Ward, Cedric Yeo, and Fritz Heichelheim, A History of the Roman People: Third Edition, 1999, Prentice-Hall, Inc. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LI.20. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.26–28. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.6.10; Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus V.25. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus III.8, IV.21. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus V.26–28. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus V.29. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus VI.43. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus VII.45. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, Flaccus XXI.185. ^ a b c Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.7.2. ^ a b c Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.8.1. ^ a b Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXX.201. ^ a b Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXX.203. ^ a b Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XVI.115. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXXI.213. ^ Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XLIII.346. ^ Seneca the Younger, On Anger xviii.1, On Anger III.xviii.1; On the Shortness of Life xviii.5; Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius XXIX. ^ Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.1. ^ Seneca the Younger, On Anger III.xviii.1. ^ Seneca the Younger, On the Shortness of Life xviii.5. ^ "Daily life in the Roman City". Aldrete, Gregory. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.11, LIX.22; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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24. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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46–47. ^ Woods, David (2014). "Caligula, Incitatus, and the Consulship". The Classical Quarterly. 64 (2): 772–777. doi:10.1017/S0009838814000470. ISSN 0009-8388.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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56; Tacitus, Annals 16.17; Josephus, Antiquities of Jews XIX.1.2. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.3. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.10, XIX.1.14. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.6. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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56. ^ Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.2; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.5. ^ Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.2; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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56. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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58. ^ Seneca the Younger, On Firmness xviii.2; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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58. ^ Archaeologists unearth place where Emperor Caligula
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59. ^ Suetonius. The Lives.  ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.2.1. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.3.1. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.19. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.1. ^ Tacitus, Life of Gnaeus Julius
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Agricola X, Annals XIII.20. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.13. ^ a b Sidwell, Barbara (18 March 2010). "Gaius Caligula's Mental Illness". Classical World. 103 (2): 183–206. doi:10.1353/clw.0.0165. ISSN 1558-9234.  ^ Philo
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of Alexandria, On the Embassy to Gaius II–IV. ^ Benediktson, D. Thomas (1989). "Caligula's Madness: Madness or Interictal Temporal Lobe Epilepsy?". The Classical World. 82 (5): 370–375. doi:10.2307/4350416. ISSN 0009-8418. JSTOR 4350416.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
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50. ^ Benediktson, D. Thomas (1991). "Caligula's Phobias and Philias: Fear of Seizure?". The Classical Journal. 87 (2): 159–163. ISSN 0009-8353. JSTOR 3297970.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Augustus
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54. ^ J.H. Pearn, " Epilepsy
Epilepsy
and Drowning in Childhood," British Medical Journal (1977) pp. 1510–11. ^ O. Temkin, The Falling Sickness (2nd ed., Baltimore 1971) 3–4, 7, 13, 16, 26, 86, 92–96, 179. ^ Suetonius: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars; An English Translation, Augmented with the Biographies of Contemporary Statesmen, Orators, Poets, and Other Associates. Suetonius. Publishing Editor. J. Eugene Reed. Alexander Thomson. Philadelphia. Gebbie & Co. 1889. ^ "The True Colours Of Greek and Roman Statues By Archaeologist Vinzenz Brinkmann." ^ R.S. Katz, "The Illness of Caligula" CW 65(1972),223-25, refuted by M.G. Morgan, "Caligula's Illness Again", CW 66(1973), 327–29. ^ Kington, Tom (17 January 2011). "Caligula's tomb found after police arrest man trying to smuggle statue". The Guardian. London.  ^ Beard, Mary (18 January 2011). "This isn't Caligula's tomb". A don's life. London: The Times. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ Anderson, James (1732). Royal Genealogies, Or the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings and Princes. Bettenham. p. 12. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  ^ Woods, David (2010). "Caligula's Quadrans". The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-). 170: 99–103. ISSN 0078-2696. JSTOR 42678887.  ^ Yablonsky, Linda (26 February 2006). "'Caligula' Gives a Toga Party (but No One's Really Invited)". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ Robinson, Jay. The Comeback. Word Books, 1979. ISBN 978-0-912376-45-5 ^ Caligula
Caligula
> Overview – AllMovie.com. Retrieved 2010-03-05. ^ Caligula
Caligula
- Cast and Crew - imdb.com ^ Sheaffer-Jones, Caroline (1 January 2012). "A Deconstructive Reading of Albert Camus' Caligula: Justice and the Game of Calculations". Australian Journal of French Studies. 49 (1): 31–42. doi:10.3828/AJFS.2012.3. ISSN 0004-9468.  ^ "The Reckoning of Kit & Little Boots". Nat Cassidy. Retrieved 25 June 2017.  ^ "Episode #223 – The Reckoning of Kit & Boots and Hope's Arbor". NYTHEATRECAST. The New York Theatre Experience. 4 June 2008. Archived from the original ( Podcast
Podcast
(MP3)) on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

Primary sources

Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book 59 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, (trans. W.Whiston), Books XVIII–XIX Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, (trans. C.D.Yonge, London, H. G. Bohn, 1854–1890):

On the Embassy to Gaius Flaccus

Seneca the Younger

On Firmness On Anger To Marcia, On Consolation On Tranquility of Mind On the Shortness of Life To Polybius, On Consolation To Helvia, On Consolation On Benefits On the Terrors of Death (Epistle IV) On Taking One's Own Life (Epistle LXXVII) On the Value of Advice (Epistle XCIV)

Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula Tacitus, Annals, Book 6

Secondary material

Balsdon, V. D. (1934). The Emperor Gaius. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  Barrett, Anthony A. (1989). Caligula: the corruption of power. London: Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-5487-3.  Grant, Michael (1979). The Twelve Caesars. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044072-0.  Hurley, Donna W. (1993). An Historical and Historiographical Commentary on Suetonius' Life of C. Caligula. Atlanta: Scholars Press.  Sandison, A. T. (1958). "The Madness of the Emperor Caligula". Medical History. 2: 202–209. doi:10.1017/s0025727300023759.  Wilcox, Amanda (2008). "Nature's Monster: Caligula
Caligula
as exemplum in Seneca's Dialogues". In Sluiter, Ineke; Rosen, Ralph M. Kakos: Badness and Anti-value in Classical Antiquity. Mnemosyne: Supplements. History and Archaeology of Classical Antiquity. 307. Leiden: Brill. 

External links[edit]

The portrait of Caligula
Caligula
in the Digital Sculpture Project

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caligula.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Gaius Caesar.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Caligula

Caligula
Caligula
Attempts to Conquer Britain in AD 40 Biography from De Imperatoribus Romanis Biography of Gaius Caligula Straight Dope article Caligula A chronological account of his reign Caligula
Caligula
at BBC
BBC
History Caligula
Caligula
with Mary Beard at BBC
BBC
Programmes 3D model of the J. Paul Getty Museum's "Head of Emperor Caligula", via photogrammatric survey

Caligula Julio-Claudian dynasty Born: 31 August AD 12 Died: 24 January AD 41

Roman Emperors

Preceded by Tiberius Roman Emperor 37–41 Succeeded by Claudius

Political offices

Preceded by Gnaeus Acerronius Proculus, and Gaius Petronius Pontius Nigrinus as Ordinary consuls Suffect consul of the Roman Empire 37 with Claudius Succeeded by Aulus Caecina Paetus, and Gaius Caninius Rebilus as Suffect consuls

Preceded by Servius Asinius Celer, and Sextus Nonius Quinctilianus as Suffect consuls Consul of the Roman Empire 39 with Lucius Apronius Caesianus Succeeded by Quintus Sanquinius Maximus as Suffect consul

Preceded by Aulus Didius Gallus, and Gnaeus Domitius Afer as Suffect consuls Consul of the Roman Empire 40 sine collega Succeeded by Gaius Laecanius Bassus, and Quintus Terentius Culleo as Suffect consuls

Preceded by Gaius Laecanius Bassus, and Quintus Terentius Culleo as Suffect consuls Consul of the Roman Empire 41 with Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus Succeeded by Quintus Pomponius Secundus as Suffect consul

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius
Julius
Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

v t e

Capri

History

History of Capri

Geography

Anacapri Arco Naturale Blue Grotto Capri
Capri
(municipality) Faraglioni Grotta Bianca Grotta del Castiglione Grotta dell'Arco Grotta dell'Arsenale Grotta delle Felci Grotta di Matromania Grotta del Pisco Grotta Verde Gulf of Naples Marina Grande Marina Piccola Monte Solaro Tyrrhenian Sea

Culture

Contempt (Le Mépris) South Wind The Story of San Michele Entdeckung der blauen Grotte auf der Insel Capri

Archaeological sites

Castello Barbarossa Cloaca Palazzo a Mare Villa Jovis

Notable landmarks

Certosa di San Giacomo Capri
Capri
Philosophical Park Cemetery Piazza Umberto I Gardens of Augustus Phoenician Steps Punta Carena Lighthouse Torre Materita Grand Hotel Quisisana JK Place Capri Ospedale G. Capilupi Capri Via Krupp

Churches

Chiesa di San Michele Arcangelo Chiesa di San Michele alla Croce Chiesa di Sant'Andrea Chiesa di Sant'Anna Chiesa di Sant'Antonio Chiesa di Santa Maria a Cetrella Chiesa di Santa Maria di Costantinopoli Chiesa di Santa Maria del Soccorso Chiesa di Santa Sofia Chiesa di Santo Stefano Chiesa di San Costanzo Chiesa del Santissimo Salvatore Eremo di Santa Maria a Cetrella

Villas

Villa Certosella Villa Lysis Villa Malaparte Villa Monacone Villa San Michele Villa Solitaria

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59052351 LCCN: n50032169 ISNI: 0000 0000 9310 8408 GND: 118518410 SELIBR: 182707 SUDOC: 027551016 BNF: cb11956741v (dat

.