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Kolkata
Kolkata
/koʊlˈkɑːtə/ (Bengali pronunciation: [kolkat̪a]), formerly Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/ until 2001, is the capital of the Indian state
Indian state
of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata
Port of Kolkata
is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Recent estimates of Kolkata
Kolkata
Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion (GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity) making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai
Mumbai
and Delhi.[12][13][14] In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal
Nawab of Bengal
under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India
India
Company a trading licence in 1690,[16] the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah
Siraj ud-Daulah
occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India
India
Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India
India
company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat (local rule), and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India
India
until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation. As a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata
Kolkata
has local traditions in drama, art, film, theatre, and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, and other areas. Kolkata culture
Kolkata culture
features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods (paras) and freestyle intellectual exchanges (adda). West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which also hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum
Indian Museum
and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata
Kolkata
hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India
India
and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata
Kolkata
differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Urban structure

3.1.1 North Kolkata 3.1.2 Central Kolkata 3.1.3 East Kolkata 3.1.4 South Kolkata

4 Climate

4.1 Temperature 4.2 Rainfall 4.3 Environmental Issues

5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Government and public services

7.1 Civic administration 7.2 Utility services 7.3 Military and diplomatic establishments

8 Transport 9 Healthcare 10 Education 11 Culture 12 Media 13 Sports 14 Sister cities 15 See also 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

Etymology Main article: Etymology of Kolkata The word Kolkata
Kolkata
derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata (Bengali: কলিকাতা) [ˈkɔlikat̪a], the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city eventually was to be established; the other two villages were Sutanuti
Sutanuti
and Govindapur.[17] There are several explanations about the etymology of this name:

The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô [ˈkalikʰːet̪rɔ] (Bengali: কালীক্ষেত্র), meaning "Field of [the goddess] Kali". Similarly, it can be a variation of 'Kalikshetra' (Sanskrit: कालीक्षेत्र, lit. "area of Goddess Kali"). Another theory is that the name derives from Kalighat.[18] Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila (Bengali: কিলকিলা), or "flat area".[19] The name may have its origin in the words khal [ˈkʰal] (Bengali: খাল) meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa [ˈkata] (Bengali: কাটা), which may mean "dug".[20] According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun [ˈkɔlitɕun] (Bengali: কলি চুন) and coir or kata [ˈkat̪a] (Bengali: কাতা); hence, it was called Kolikata [ˈkɔlikat̪a] (Bengali: কলিকাতা).[19]

Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata [ˈkolkat̪a] (Bengali: কলকাতা) or Kôlikata [ˈkɔlikat̪a] (Bengali: কলিকাতা) in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata
Kolkata
in order to match Bengali pronunciation.[21] (It should be noted that "Calcutt" is an etymologically unrelated place name found at several locations in England.) History Main article: History of Kolkata

Fort William, headquarters of the British East India
India
Company

The discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia.[22][23] Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India
India
Company, which was consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city;[24] In response to a public petition,[25] the Calcutta High Court
Calcutta High Court
ruled in 2003 that the city does not have a founder.[26] The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata, Gobindapur, and Sutanuti. Kalikata
Kalikata
was a fishing village; Sutanuti
Sutanuti
was a riverside weavers' village. They were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor; the jagirdari (a land grant bestowed by a king on his noblemen) taxation rights to the villages were held by the Sabarna Roy Choudhury family of landowners, or zamindars. These rights were transferred to the East India
India
Company in 1698.[27]:1

Chowringhee
Chowringhee
avenue and Tipu Sultan Mosque
Tipu Sultan Mosque
in central Calcutta, 1945

In 1712, the British completed the construction of Fort William, located on the east bank of the Hooghly River
Hooghly River
to protect their trading factory.[28] Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the company. His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta.[29] A force of Company soldiers (sepoys) and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year.[29] Per the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad
Allahabad
following the battle of Buxar, East India
India
company was appointed imperial tax collector of the Mughal emperor in the province of Bengal, Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa, while Mughal-appointed Nawabs continued to rule the province.[30] Declared a presidency city, Calcutta became the headquarters of the East India
India
Company by 1773.[31] In 1793, ruling power of the Nawabs were abolished and East India
India
company took complete control of the city and the province. In the early 19th century, the marshes surrounding the city were drained; the government area was laid out along the banks of the Hooghly River. Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William
Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William
between 1797 and 1805, was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture.[32] Throughout the late 18th and 19th century, the city was a centre of the East India
India
Company's opium trade.[33] By the 1850s, Calcutta had two areas: White Town, which was primarily British and centred on Chowringhee
Chowringhee
and Dalhousie Square; and Black Town, mainly Indian and centred on North Calcutta.[34] The city underwent rapid industrial growth starting in the early 1850s, especially in the textile and jute industries; this encouraged British companies to massively invest in infrastructure projects, which included telegraph connections and Howrah
Howrah
railway station. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new babu class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu
Hindu
communities.[35] In the 19th century, the Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance brought about an increased sociocultural sophistication among city denizens. In 1883, Calcutta was host to the first national conference of the Indian National Association, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India.[36]

Bengali billboards on Harrison Street. Calcutta was the largest commercial centre in British India.

Map of Calcutta, ca 1914

The British moved the capital to New Delhi
Delhi
in 1911.[37] Calcutta continued to be a centre for revolutionary organisations associated with the Indian independence movement. The city and its port were bombed several times by the Japanese between 1942 and 1944, during World War II.[38][39] Coinciding with the war, millions starved to death during the Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943 due to a combination of military, administrative, and natural factors.[40] Demands for the creation of a Muslim
Muslim
state led in 1946 to an episode of communal violence that killed over 4,000.[41][42][43] The partition of India led to further clashes and a demographic shift—many Muslims
Muslims
left for East Pakistan
East Pakistan
(present day Bangladesh), while hundreds of thousands of Hindus fled into the city.[44] During the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Marxist–Maoist movement by groups known as the Naxalites damaged much of the city's infrastructure, resulting in economic stagnation.[45] The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War of 1971 led to a massive influx of thousands of refugees, many of them penniless, that strained Kolkata's infrastructure.[46] During the mid-1980s, Mumbai
Mumbai
(then called Bombay) overtook Kolkata
Kolkata
as India's most populous city. In 1985, prime minister Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
dubbed Kolkata
Kolkata
a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes.[47] In the period 1977–2011, West Bengal
Bengal
was governed from Kolkata
Kolkata
by the Left Front, which was dominated by the Communist Party of India
India
(CPM). It was the world's longest-serving democratically elected communist government, during which Kolkata
Kolkata
was a key base for Indian communism.[48][49][50] In the West Bengal
West Bengal
Legislative Assembly election, 2011, Left Front was defeated by the Trinamool Congress. The city's economic recovery gathered momentum after the 1990s, when India
India
began to institute pro-market reforms. Since 2000, the information technology (IT) services sector has revitalised Kolkata's stagnant economy. The city is also experiencing marked growth in its manufacturing base.[51] Geography Main article: Geography of Kolkata

Kolkata
Kolkata
Skyline from Howrah

Aerial View of the Hoogly bridge

Spread roughly north–south along the east bank of the Hooghly River, Kolkata
Kolkata
sits within the lower Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
of eastern India; the city's elevation is 1.5–9 m (5–30 ft).[52] Much of the city was originally a wetland that was reclaimed over the decades to accommodate a burgeoning population.[53] The remaining undeveloped areas, known as the East Kolkata
Kolkata
Wetlands, were designated a "wetland of international importance" by the Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
(1975).[54] As with most of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin. Kolkata
Kolkata
is located over the "Bengal basin", a pericratonic tertiary basin.[55] Bengal
Bengal
basin comprises three structural units: shelf or platform in the west; central hinge or shelf/slope break; and deep basinal part in the east and southeast. Kolkata
Kolkata
is located atop the western part of the hinge zone which is about 25 km (16 mi) wide at a depth of about 45,000 m (148,000 ft) below the surface.[55] The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. Total thickness of sediment below Kolkata
Kolkata
is nearly 7,500 m (24,600 ft) above the crystalline basement; of these the top 350–450 m (1,150–1,480 ft) is Quaternary, followed by 4,500–5,500 m (14,760–18,040 ft) of Tertiary sediments, 500–700 m (1,640–2,300 ft) trap wash of Cretaceous
Cretaceous
trap and 600–800 m (1,970–2,620 ft) Permian-Carboniferous Gondwana
Gondwana
rocks.[55] The quaternary sediments consist of clay, silt, and several grades of sand and gravel. These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds: the lower one at a depth of 250–650 m (820–2,130 ft); the upper one 10–40 m (30–130 ft) in thickness.[56] According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes, the city lies inside seismic zone III.[57] Urban structure

Howrah Bridge
Howrah Bridge
from the western bank of the Ganges

The Kolkata metropolitan area is spread over 1,886.67 km2 (728.45 sq mi)[58]:7 and comprises 3 municipal corporations (including Kolkata
Kolkata
Municipal Corporation), 39 local municipalities and 24 panchayat samitis, as of 2011[update].[58]:7 The urban agglomeration encompassed 72 cities and 527 towns and villages, as of 2006[update].[59] Suburban areas in the Kolkata metropolitan area incorporate parts of the following districts: North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly, and Nadia.[60]:15 Kolkata, which is under the jurisdiction of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation
Kolkata Municipal Corporation
(KMC), has an area of 185 km2 (71 sq mi).[59] The east–west dimension of the city is comparatively narrow, stretching from the Hooghly River
Hooghly River
in the west to roughly the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass
Eastern Metropolitan Bypass
in the east—a span of 9–10 km (5.6–6.2 mi).[61] The north–south distance is greater, and its axis is used to section the city into North, Central, and South Kolkata. East Kolkata
Kolkata
is also a section.

Kolkata
Kolkata
skyline from Chowringhee

North Kolkata

Kolkata
Kolkata
riverfront at night

Vidyasagar Setu
Vidyasagar Setu
over the Hooghly River
Hooghly River
at dusk.

North Kolkata
Kolkata
is the oldest part of the city. Characterised by 19th-century architecture, dilapidated buildings, overpopulated slums, crowded bazaars, and narrow alleyways, it includes areas such as Shyambazar, Hatibagan, Maniktala, Kankurgachi, Rajabazar, Shobhabazar, Shyampukur, Sonagachi, Kumortuli, Bagbazar, Jorasanko, Chitpur, Pathuriaghata, Cossipore, Sinthee, Belgachia, Jorabagan, and Dum Dum.[62]:65–66 The northern suburban areas like Baranagar, Noapara, Dunlop, Dakshineswar, Nagerbazar, Belghoria, Sodepur, Madhyamgram, Kestopur, Birati, Khardah
Khardah
up to Barrackpur
Barrackpur
are also within the city of Kolkata
Kolkata
(as a metropolitan structure). Central Kolkata Central Kolkata
Kolkata
hosts the central business district. It contains B. B. D. Bagh, formerly known as Dalhousie Square, and the Esplanade on its east; Strand Road is on its west.[63] The West Bengal
West Bengal
Secretariat, General Post Office, Reserve Bank of India, High Court, Lalbazar Police Headquarters, and several other government and private offices are located there. Another business hub is the area south of Park Street, which comprises thoroughfares such as Chowringhee, Camac Street, Wood Street, Loudon Street, Shakespeare Sarani, and A. J. C. Bose Road.[64] The Maidan is a large open field in the heart of the city that has been called the "lungs of Kolkata"[65] and accommodates sporting events and public meetings.[66] The Victoria Memorial and Kolkata Race Course are located at the southern end of the Maidan. Other important areas of Central Kolkata
Kolkata
are Burrabazar, College Street, Sealdah, Taltala, Janbazar, Bowbazar, Entally, Chandni Chowk, Lalbazar, Chowringhee, Dharmatala, Tiretta Bazar, Bow Barracks, Mullick Bazar, Park Circus, Babughat
Babughat
etc. Among the other parks are Central Park in Bidhannagar
Bidhannagar
and Millennium Park on Strand Road, along the Hooghly River. East Kolkata East Kolkata
Kolkata
is largely composed of newly developed areas and neighbourhoods of Saltlake, Rajarhat, Tangra, Beliaghata, Ultadanga, Phoolbagan etc. Two planned townships in the greater Kolkata
Kolkata
region are Bidhannagar, also known as Salt Lake City and located north-east of the city; and Rajarhat, also called New Town and sited east of Bidhannagar.[17][67] In the 2000s, Sector V in Bidhannagar developed into a business hub for information technology and telecommunication companies.[68][69] Both Bidhannagar
Bidhannagar
and New Town are situated outside the Kolkata Municipal Corporation
Kolkata Municipal Corporation
limits, in their own municipalities.[67] South Kolkata South Kolkata
Kolkata
developed after India
India
gained independence in 1947; it includes upscale neighbourhoods such as Ballygunge, Alipore, New Alipore, Lansdowne, Bhowanipore, Kalighat, Dhakuria, Gariahat, Tollygunge, Naktala, Jodhpur
Jodhpur
Park, Lake Gardens, Golf Green, Jadavpur, Haltu, Nandi Bagan, Picnic Garden, Topsia, Santoshpur and Kasba.[17] Outlying areas of South Kolkata
Kolkata
include Garden Reach, Khidirpur, Metiabruz, Taratala, Maheshtala, Budge Budge, Behala, Sarsuna, Barisha, Parnasree Pally, Thakurpukur, Kudghat, Ranikuthi, Bansdroni, Baghajatin, Tiljala and Garia. The southern suburban areas like Narendrapur, Sonarpur, Baruipur are also within the city of Kolkata (as metropolitan structure). Fort William, on the western part of the city, houses the headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army;[70] its premises are under the jurisdiction of the army. Climate Main article: Climate of Kolkata Kolkata
Kolkata
is subject to a tropical wet-and-dry climate that is designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. According to a United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme
report, its wind and cyclone zone is "very high damage risk".[57] Temperature The annual mean temperature is 26.8 °C (80.2 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 19–30 °C (66–86 °F). Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s Celsius; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June.[71] Winter lasts for roughly two-and-a-half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 9–11 °C (48–52 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, with daily temperatures ranging from 27–37 °C (81–99 °F); January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 12–23 °C (54–73 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 43.9 °C (111.0 °F), and the lowest is 5 °C (41 °F).[71] The winter is mild and very comfortable weather pertains over the city throughout this season. Often, in April–June, the city is struck by heavy rains or dusty squalls that are followed by thunderstorms or hailstorms, bringing cooling relief from the prevailing humidity. These thunderstorms are convective in nature, and are known locally as kal bôishakhi (কালবৈশাখী), or "Nor'westers" in English.[72] Rainfall Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
branch of the south-west summer monsoon[73] lash Kolkata
Kolkata
between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,800 mm (71 in). The highest monthly rainfall total occurs in July and August. The city receives 2,528 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight exposure occurring in March.[74] Kolkata
Kolkata
has been hit by several cyclones; these include systems occurring in 1737 and 1864 that killed thousands.[75][76]

Climate data for Kolkata
Kolkata
(Alipore) 1971–1990

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.8 (91) 38.4 (101.1) 41.1 (106) 43.3 (109.9) 43.7 (110.7) 43.9 (111) 39.9 (103.8) 38.4 (101.1) 38.9 (102) 39.0 (102.2) 34.9 (94.8) 32.5 (90.5) 43.9 (111)

Average high °C (°F) 26.4 (79.5) 29.1 (84.4) 33.5 (92.3) 35.3 (95.5) 35.4 (95.7) 34.0 (93.2) 32.3 (90.1) 32.1 (89.8) 32.4 (90.3) 32.3 (90.1) 30.3 (86.5) 27.0 (80.6) 31.7 (89.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 20.1 (68.2) 23.0 (73.4) 27.6 (81.7) 30.2 (86.4) 30.7 (87.3) 30.3 (86.5) 29.2 (84.6) 29.1 (84.4) 29.1 (84.4) 28.2 (82.8) 24.9 (76.8) 20.8 (69.4) 26.9 (80.4)

Average low °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 16.9 (62.4) 21.7 (71.1) 25.1 (77.2) 26.0 (78.8) 26.5 (79.7) 26.1 (79) 26.1 (79) 25.8 (78.4) 23.9 (75) 19.6 (67.3) 14.5 (58.1) 22.2 (72)

Record low °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 7.2 (45) 10.0 (50) 16.1 (61) 17.9 (64.2) 20.4 (68.7) 20.6 (69.1) 22.6 (72.7) 20.6 (69.1) 17.2 (63) 10.6 (51.1) 7.2 (45) 6.7 (44.1)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 11 (0.43) 30 (1.18) 35 (1.38) 60 (2.36) 142 (5.59) 288 (11.34) 411 (16.18) 349 (13.74) 288 (11.34) 143 (5.63) 26 (1.02) 17 (0.67) 1,800 (70.87)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.2 2.2 3.0 4.8 8.7 14.7 20.5 20.2 15.7 8.1 1.5 0.9 101.5

Average relative humidity (%) 66 58 58 66 70 77 83 83 81 73 67 68 71

Mean monthly sunshine hours 203.9 201.2 225.8 235.4 227.1 123.1 93.1 104.9 116.2 182.6 190.8 203.4 2,107.5

Source #1: NOAA[77]

Source #2: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[78]

Environmental Issues Pollution is a major concern in Kolkata. As of 2008[update], sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide annual concentration were within the national ambient air quality standards of India, but respirable suspended particulate matter levels were high, and on an increasing trend for five consecutive years, causing smog and haze.[79][80] Severe air pollution in the city has caused a rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments, such as lung cancer.[81] Economy Main article: Economy of Kolkata

Sector V, located in the Salt Lake area—a hub for IT and ITES companies

South City
South City
Mall, one of the largest shopping complexes in Eastern India

Kolkata
Kolkata
is the main commercial and financial hub of East and North-East India[60] and home to the Calcutta Stock Exchange.[82][83] It is a major commercial and military port, and is the only city in eastern India
India
to have an international airport. Once India's leading city, Kolkata
Kolkata
experienced a steady economic decline in the decades following India's independence due to steep population increases and a rise in militant trade-unionism, which included frequent strikes that were backed by left-wing parties.[51] From the 1960s to the late 1990s, several factories were closed and businesses relocated.[51] The lack of capital and resources added to the depressed state of the city's economy and gave rise to an unwelcome sobriquet: the "dying city".[84] The city's fortunes improved after the Indian economy was liberalised in the 1990s and changes in economic policy were enacted by the West Bengal
West Bengal
state government.[51] Flexible production has been the norm in Kolkata, which has an informal sector that employs more than 40% of the labour force.[17] One unorganised group, roadside hawkers, generated business worth ₹ 8,772 crore (US$ 2 billion) in 2005.[85] As of 2001[update], around 0.81% of the city's workforce was employed in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc.); 15.49% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 83.69% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries).[60]:19 As of 2003[update], the majority of households in slums were engaged in occupations belonging to the informal sector; 36.5% were involved in servicing the urban middle class (as maids, drivers, etc.), and 22.2% were casual labourers.[86]:11 About 34% of the available labour force in Kolkata slums were unemployed.[86]:11 According to one estimate, almost a quarter of the population live on less than 27 rupees (equivalent to 45 US cents) per day.[87] As in many other Indian cities, information technology became a high-growth sector in Kolkata
Kolkata
starting in the late 1990s; the city's IT sector grew at 70% per annum—a rate that was twice the national average.[51] The 2000s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail, and hospitality sectors; several large shopping malls and hotels were launched.[88][89][90][91][92] As of 2010[update], Kolkata, with an estimated gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity of 150 billion dollars, ranked third among South Asian cities, after Mumbai
Mumbai
and Delhi.[93] Kolkata's GDP in 2014 was Rs 1.84 trillion, according to a collaborative assessment by multiple universities and climate agencies.[94] Kolkata
Kolkata
is home to many industrial units operated by large public- and private-sector corporations; major sectors include steel, heavy engineering, mining, minerals, cement, pharmaceuticals, food processing, agriculture, electronics, textiles, and jute.Companies such as ITC Limited, Coal India
India
Limited, National Insurance Company, Exide Industries
Exide Industries
and Britannia Industries
Britannia Industries
are all headquartered in the city. The Tea Board of India
India
and the Ordnance Factories Board
Ordnance Factories Board
of the Indian Ministry of Defence are also headquartered in the city. Kolkata hosts the headquarters of three major public-sector banks: Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, and the United Bank of India. Adoption of the "Look East" policy by the Indian government; opening of Sikkim's Nathu La mountain pass, which is located on the border between India
India
and China, to bi-directional international trade; and the interest shown by Southeast Asian countries in expanding into Indian markets are factors that could benefit Kolkata.[95][96]

Panoramic view of the Down town Sector V one of the major IT hubs of Kolkata
Kolkata
as seen from the lakes surrounding Bidhannagar. Major Buildings such as Technopolis, Godrej Waterside, TCS Lords, Eden and Wanderers Park, Gobsyn Crystal, South City
South City
Pinnacle, RDB Boulevard, West Bengal
West Bengal
Electronics Industry Development Corporation (WEBEL) Bhawan can be seen.

Demographics See also: Ethnic communities in Kolkata

Dakshineswar
Dakshineswar
Kali
Kali
Temple, a Hindu
Hindu
temple

Residential high-rise buildings in South City

The demonym for residents of Kolkata
Kolkata
are Calcuttan and Kolkatan.[97][98] According to provisional results of the 2011 national census, Kolkata
Kolkata
district, which occupies an area of 185 km2 (71 sq mi), had a population of 4,486,679;[99] its population density was 24,252/km2 (62,810/sq mi).[99] This represents a decline of 1.88% during the decade 2001–11. The sex ratio is 899 females per 1000 males—lower than the national average.[100] The ratio is depressed by the influx of working males from surrounding rural areas, from the rest of West Bengal; these men commonly leave their families behind.[101] Kolkata's literacy rate of 87.14%[100] exceeds the all- India
India
average of 74%.[102] The final population totals of census 2011 stated the population of city as 4,496,694.[9] The urban agglomeration had a population of 14,112,536 in 2011.[10] Bengali Hindus
Bengali Hindus
form the majority of Kolkata's population; Marwaris, Biharis and Muslims
Muslims
compose large minorities.[103] Among Kolkata's smaller communities are Chinese, Tamils, Nepalis, Odias, Telugus, Assamese, Gujaratis, Anglo-Indians, Armenians, Greeks, Tibetans, Maharashtrians, Konkanis, Malayalees, Punjabis, and Parsis.[27]:3 The number of Armenians, Greeks, Jews, and other foreign-origin groups declined during the 20th century.[104] The Jewish population of Kolkata
Kolkata
was 5,000 during World War II, but declined after Indian independence and the establishment of Israel;[105] by 2013, there were 25 Jews
Jews
in the city.[106] India's sole Chinatown is in eastern Kolkata;[104] once home to 20,000 ethnic Chinese, its population dropped to around 2,000 as of 2009[update][104] as a result of multiple factors including repatriation and denial of Indian citizenship following the 1962 Sino-Indian War, and immigration to foreign countries for better economic opportunities.[107] The Chinese community traditionally worked in the local tanning industry and ran Chinese restaurants.[104][108]

Kolkata
Kolkata
urban agglomeration population growth

Census Total %±

1981 9,194,000  —

1991 11,021,900 19.9%

2001 13,114,700 19.0%

2011 14,112,536 7.6%

Source: Census of India[10]

Others include Sikhism, Buddhism
Buddhism
& Other religions (0.03%)

Religion in Kolkata[109]

Religion

Percent

Hinduism

76.51%

Islam

20.60%

Christianity

0.88%

Jainism

0.47%

Others

1.54%

Bengali, the official state language, is the dominant language in Kolkata.[110] English is also used, particularly by the white-collar workforce. Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are spoken by a sizeable minority.[111][112] According to the 2011 census, 76.51% of the population is Hindu, 20.60% Muslim, 0.88% Christian, and 0.47% Jain.[113] The remainder of the population includes Sikhs, Buddhists, and other religions which accounts for 0.45% of the population; 1.09% did not state a religion in the census.[113] Kolkata
Kolkata
reported 67.6% of Special and Local Laws crimes registered in 35 large Indian cities during 2004.[114] The Kolkata
Kolkata
police district registered 15,510 Indian Penal Code cases in 2010, the 8th-highest total in the country.[115] In 2010, the crime rate was 117.3 per 100,000, below the national rate of 187.6; it was the lowest rate among India's largest cities.[116] As of 2003[update], about one-third of the population, or 1.5 million people, lived in 3,500 unregistered squatter-occupied and 2,011 registered slums.[86]:4[117]:92 The authorised slums (with access to basic services like water, latrines, trash removal by the Kolkata
Kolkata
Municipal Corporation) can be broadly divided into two groups—bustees, in which slum dwellers have some long term tenancy agreement with the landowners; and udbastu colonies, settlements which had been leased to refugees from present-day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
by the Government.[117][86]:5 The unauthorised slums (devoid of basic services provided by the municipality) are occupied by squatters who started living on encroached lands—mainly along canals, railway lines and roads.[117]:92[86]:5 According to the 2005 National Family Health Survey, around 14% of the households in Kolkata were poor, while 33% lived in slums, indicating a substantial proportion of households in slum areas were better off economically than the bottom quarter of urban households in terms of wealth status.[118]:23 Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for founding and working with the Missionaries of Charity
Missionaries of Charity
in Kolkata—an organisation "whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after".[119] Government and public services Civic administration Main article: Civic administration of Kolkata

Calcutta High Court

Kolkata
Kolkata
is administered by several government agencies. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation, or KMC, oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 15 boroughs, which together encompass 141 wards.[110] Each ward elects a councillor to the KMC. Each borough has a committee of councillors, each of whom is elected to represent a ward. By means of the borough committees, the corporation undertakes urban planning and maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals, and municipal markets.[120] As Kolkata's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor, and ten other elected members of the KMC.[121] The functions of the KMC include water supply, drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, street lighting, and building regulation.[120] The Kolkata Municipal Corporation
Kolkata Municipal Corporation
was ranked 1st out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India
India
in 2014. It scored 4.0 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[122] The Kolkata
Kolkata
Port Trust, an agency of the central government, manages the city's river port. As of 2012[update], the All India
India
Trinamool Congress controls the KMC; the mayor is Sovan Chatterjee, while the deputy mayor is Farzana Alam.[4] The city has an apolitical titular post, that of the Sheriff of Kolkata, which presides over various city-related functions and conferences.[123] Kolkata's administrative agencies have areas of jurisdiction that do not coincide. Listed in ascending order by area, they are: Kolkata district; the Kolkata Police
Kolkata Police
area and the Kolkata
Kolkata
Municipal Corporation area, or " Kolkata
Kolkata
city";[124] and the Kolkata
Kolkata
metropolitan area, which is the city's urban agglomeration. The agency overseeing the latter, the Kolkata
Kolkata
Metropolitan Development Authority, is responsible for the statutory planning and development of greater Kolkata.[125] As the seat of the Government of West Bengal, Kolkata
Kolkata
is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies, but also the West Bengal
Bengal
Legislative Assembly; the state secretariat, which is housed in the Writers' Building; and the Calcutta High Court. Most government establishments and institutions are housed in the centre of the city in B. B. D. Bagh
B. B. D. Bagh
(formerly known as Dalhousie Square). The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. It was preceded by the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William
Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William
which was established in 1774. The Calcutta High Court
Calcutta High Court
has jurisdiction over the state of West Bengal
Bengal
and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Kolkata
Kolkata
has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the City Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases.[126][127][128] The Kolkata
Kolkata
Police, headed by a police commissioner, is overseen by the West Bengal
West Bengal
Ministry of Home Affairs.[129][130] The Kolkata district
Kolkata district
elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 11 representatives to the state legislative assembly.[131] Utility services

A telecommunications tower belonging to services provider Tata Communications

The Kolkata Municipal Corporation
Kolkata Municipal Corporation
supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Hooghly River;[132] most of it is treated and purified at the Palta pumping station located in North 24 Parganas district.[133] Roughly 95% of the 4,000 tonnes of refuse produced daily by the city is transported to the dumping grounds in Dhapa, which is east of the town.[134][135] To promote the recycling of garbage and sewer water, agriculture is encouraged on the dumping grounds.[136] Parts of the city lack proper sewerage, leading to unsanitary methods of waste disposal.[74] Electricity is supplied by the privately operated Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation, or CESC, to the city proper; the West Bengal
West Bengal
State Electricity Board supplies it in the suburbs.[137][138] Fire services are handled by the West Bengal
West Bengal
Fire Service, a state agency.[139] As of 2012[update], the city had 16 fire stations.[140] State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city[141]:25–26:179. with Kolkata
Kolkata
being the first city in India
India
to have cell phone and 4G connectivity, the GSM
GSM
and CDMA cellular coverage is extensive.[142][143] As of 2010[update], Kolkata has 7 percent of the total Broadband internet consumers in India; BSNL, VSNL, Tata Indicom, Sify, Airtel, and Reliance are among the main vendors.[144][145] Military and diplomatic establishments The Ordnance Factories Board
Ordnance Factories Board
of the Ministry of Defence, the Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers and the Eastern Command of the Indian Army
Indian Army
are all headquartered in the city. The U.S Consulate in Calcutta is the US Department of State's second oldest Consulate and dates from 19 November 1792.[146] The Consulate General serves the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland
Nagaland
and Arunachal Pradesh. A Deputy High-Commission of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
also located in the city. Transport Main article: Transport in Kolkata

The Kolkata
Kolkata
tram system is the oldest operating electric tram system in Asia

A road in Kolkata
Kolkata
showing buses, taxis, auto rickshaws, cars, and other modes of road transport

The terminal of the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
Subhash Chandra Bose
International Airport

The Kolkata Metro
Kolkata Metro
is the oldest metro system in India

Public transport is provided by the Kolkata
Kolkata
Suburban Railway, the Kolkata
Kolkata
Metro, trams, rickshaws, and buses. The suburban rail network reaches the city's distant suburbs. According to a 2013 survey conducted by the International Association of Public Transport, in terms of a public transport system, Kolkata ranks among the top of the six Indian cities surveyed.[147][148] The Kolkata
Kolkata
Metro, in operation since 1984, is the oldest underground mass transit system in India.[149] It spans the north–south length of the city and covers a distance of 25.1 km (16 mi).[150] As of 2009[update], five Metro rail lines were under construction.[151] Kolkata
Kolkata
has four long-distance railway stations, located at Howrah (the largest railway complex in India), Sealdah, Chitpur
Chitpur
and Shalimar, which connect Kolkata
Kolkata
by rail to most cities in West Bengal
West Bengal
and to other major cities in India.[152] The city serves as the headquarters of three railway Zone out of Seventeen of the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
regional divisions—the Kolkata Metro
Kolkata Metro
Railways, Eastern Railway and the South-Eastern Railway.[153] Kolkata
Kolkata
has rail and road connectivity with Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh.[154][155][156] Buses, which are the most commonly used mode of transport, are run by government agencies and private operators.[157] Kolkata
Kolkata
is the only Indian city with a tram network, which is operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company.[158] The slow-moving tram services are restricted to certain areas of the city. Water-logging, caused by heavy rains that fall during the summer monsoon, can interrupt transportation networks.[159][160] Hired public conveyances include auto rickshaws, which often ply specific routes, and yellow metered taxis. Almost all of Kolkata's taxis are antiquated Hindustan Ambassadors by make; newer air-conditioned radio taxis are in service as well.[161][162] In parts of the city, cycle rickshaws and hand-pulled rickshaws are patronised by the public for short trips.[163] Due to its diverse and abundant public transportation, privately owned vehicles are not as common in Kolkata
Kolkata
as in other major Indian cities.[164] The city has witnessed a steady increase in the number of registered vehicles; 2002 data showed an increase of 44% over a period of seven years.[165] As of 2004[update], after adjusting for population density, the city's "road space" was only 6% compared to 23% in Delhi
Delhi
and 17% in Mumbai.[166] The Kolkata Metro
Kolkata Metro
has somewhat eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers. Agencies operating long-distance bus services include the Calcutta State Transport Corporation, the South Bengal
Bengal
State Transport Corporation, the North Bengal
Bengal
State Transport Corporation, and various private operators. The city's main bus terminals are located at Esplanade and Babughat.[167] The Kolkata– Delhi
Delhi
and Kolkata–Chennai prongs of the Golden Quadrilateral, and National Highway 34 start from the city.[168] Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, located in Dum Dum some 16 km (9.9 mi) north-east of the city centre, operates domestic and international flights. In 2013, the airport was upgraded to handle increased air traffic.[169][170] The Port of Kolkata, established in 1870, is India's oldest and the only major river port.[171] The Kolkata Port Trust
Kolkata Port Trust
manages docks in Kolkata
Kolkata
and Haldia.[172] The port hosts passenger services to Port Blair, capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; freighter service to ports throughout India
India
and around the world is operated by the Shipping Corporation of India.[171][173] Ferry services connect Kolkata
Kolkata
with its twin city of Howrah, located across the Hooghly River.[174][175] The route from North Bengal
Bengal
to Kolkata
Kolkata
is set to become cheaper and more efficient for people travelling by bus. Through April 2017 to March 2018, the North Bengal
Bengal
State Transport Corporation (NBSTC) will be introducing a fleet of rocket buses equipped with bio-toilets for the bus route.[176] Healthcare See also: Health care in Kolkata

Calcutta Medical College, the second institution in Asia to teach modern medicine(after 'Ecole de Médicine de Pondichéry')

IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata
Kolkata
is the largest hospital in West Bengal
Bengal
and one of the oldest in Kolkata.

As of 2011[update], the health care system in Kolkata
Kolkata
consists of 48 government hospitals, mostly under the Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, and 366 private medical establishments;[177] these establishments provide the city with 27,687 hospital beds.[177] For every 10,000 people in the city, there are 61.7 hospital beds,[178] which is higher than the national average of 9 hospital beds per 10,000.[179] Ten medical and dental colleges are located in the Kolkata metropolitan area which act as tertiary referral hospitals in the state.[180][181] The Calcutta Medical College, founded in 1835, was the first institution in Asia to teach modern medicine.[182] However, These facilities are inadequate to meet the healthcare needs of the city.[183][184][185] More than 78% in Kolkata
Kolkata
prefer the private medical sector over the public medical sector,[118]:109 due to the poor quality of care, the lack of a nearby facility, and excessive waiting times at government facilities.[118]:61 According to the Indian 2005 National Family Health Survey, only a small proportion of Kolkata
Kolkata
households were covered under any health scheme or health insurance.[118]:41 The total fertility rate in Kolkata
Kolkata
was 1.4, The lowest among the eight cities surveyed.[118]:45 In Kolkata, 77% of the married women used contraceptives, which was the highest among the cities surveyed, but use of modern contraceptive methods was the lowest (46%).[118]:47 The infant mortality rate in Kolkata
Kolkata
was 41 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate for children under five was 49 per 1,000 live births.[118]:48 Among the surveyed cities, Kolkata
Kolkata
stood second (5%) for children who had not had any vaccinations under the Universal Immunization Programme as of 2005[update].[118]:48 Kolkata
Kolkata
ranked second with access to an anganwadi centre under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme for 57% of the children between 0 and 71 months.[118]:51 The proportion of malnourished, anaemic and underweight children in Kolkata
Kolkata
was less in comparison to other surveyed cities.[118]:54–55 About 18% of the men and 30% of the women in Kolkata
Kolkata
are obese—the majority of them belonging to the non-poor strata of society.[118]:105 In 2005, Kolkata
Kolkata
had the highest percentage (55%) among the surveyed cities of anaemic women, while 20% of the men in Kolkata
Kolkata
were anaemic.[118]:56–57 Diseases like diabetes, asthma, goitre and other thyroid disorders were found in large numbers of people.[118]:57–59 Tropical diseases like malaria, dengue and chikungunya are prevalent in Kolkata, though their incidence is decreasing.[186][187] Kolkata
Kolkata
is one of the districts in India
India
with a high number of people with AIDS; it has been designated a district prone to high risk.[188][189] As of 2014, because of higher air pollution, the life expectancy of a person born in the city is four years fewer than in the suburbs.[190] Education Main article: Education in Kolkata

Indian Institute of Management Calcutta

West Bengal
West Bengal
National University of Juridical Sciences

University of Calcutta

Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata

Kolkata's schools are run by the state government or private organisations, many of which are religious. Bengali and English are the primary languages of instruction; Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
are also used, particularly in central Kolkata.[191][192] Schools in Kolkata
Kolkata
follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the West Bengal
West Bengal
Council of Higher Secondary Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE.[191] They usually choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science. Vocational programs are also available.[191] Some Kolkata
Kolkata
schools, for example La Martiniere Calcutta, Calcutta Boys' School, St. James' School (Kolkata), St. Xavier's Collegiate School, and Loreto House, have been ranked amongst the best schools in the country.[193]

Indian Institute of Foreign Trade

As of 2010[update], the Kolkata
Kolkata
urban agglomeration is home to 14 universities run by the state government.[194] The colleges are each affiliated with a university or institution based either in Kolkata
Kolkata
or elsewhere in India. Aliah University
Aliah University
which was founded in 1780 as Mohammedan College of Calcutta is the oldest post-secondary educational institution of the city.[195] The University of Calcutta, founded in 1857, is the first modern university in South Asia.[196] Bengal
Bengal
Engineering and Science University (BESU) is the second oldest engineering institution of the country located in Howrah.[197] An Institute of National Importance, BESU was converted to India's first IIEST. Jadavpur
Jadavpur
University is known for its arts, science, and engineering faculties.[198] The Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, which was the first of the Indian Institutes of Management, was established in 1961 at Joka, a locality in the south-western suburbs. Kolkata
Kolkata
also houses the prestigious Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, which was started here in the year 2006.[199] The West Bengal
Bengal
National University of Juridical Sciences is one of India's autonomous law schools,[200][201] and the Indian Statistical Institute is a public research institute and university. State owned Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, West Bengal
West Bengal
(MAKAUT, WB), formerly West Bengal
West Bengal
University of Technology (WBUT) is the largest Technological University in terms of student enrollment and number of Institutions affiliated by it. Private institutions include the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute
Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute
and University of Engineering & Management (UEM). Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in Kolkata
Kolkata
include physicists Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Saha,[202] and Jagadish Chandra Bose;[203] chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy;[202] statisticians Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis
Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis
and Anil Kumar Gain;[202] physician Upendranath Brahmachari;[202] educator Ashutosh Mukherjee;[204] and Nobel laureates Rabindranath Tagore,[205] C. V. Raman,[203] and Amartya Sen.[206] Kolkata
Kolkata
houses many premier research institutes like Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), All India
India
Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences (SNBNCBS), Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) and Indian Centre for Space Physics. Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman
C. V. Raman
did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in IACS. Culture Main article: Kolkata
Kolkata
culture

Victoria Memorial at night

Indian Museum

The National Library of India

Making of Durga
Durga
idol in Kumartuli, Kolkata.

Kolkata
Kolkata
is known for its literary, artistic, and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought.[207] Kolkata
Kolkata
has been called the "City of Furious, Creative Energy"[208] as well as the "cultural [or literary] capital of India".[209][210] The presence of paras, which are neighbourhoods that possess a strong sense of community, is characteristic of the city.[211] Typically, each para has its own community club and, on occasion, a playing field.[211] Residents engage in addas, or leisurely chats, that often take the form of freestyle intellectual conversation.[212][213] The city has a tradition of political graffiti depicting everything from outrageous slander to witty banter and limericks, caricatures, and propaganda.[214][215] Kolkata
Kolkata
has many buildings adorned with Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architectural motifs. Several well-maintained major buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures";[216] others are in various stages of decay.[217][218] Established in 1814 as the nation's oldest museum, the Indian Museum houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history
Indian natural history
and Indian art.[219] Marble Palace is a classic example of a European mansion that was built in the city. The Victoria Memorial, a place of interest in Kolkata, has a museum documenting the city's history. The National Library of India
India
is the leading public library in the country while Science City is the largest science centre in the Indian subcontinent.[220] The popularity of commercial theatres in the city has declined since the 1980s.[221]:99[222] Group theatres of Kolkata, a cultural movement that started in the 1940s contrasting with the then-popular commercial theatres, are theatres that are not professional or commercial, and are centres of various experiments in theme, content, and production;[223] group theatres use the proscenium stage to highlight socially relevant messages.[221]:99[224] Chitpur
Chitpur
locality of the city houses multiple production companies of jatra, a tradition of folk drama popular in rural Bengal.[225][226] Kolkata
Kolkata
is the home of the Bengali cinema industry, dubbed "Tollywood" for Tollygunj, where most of the state's film studios are located.[227] Its long tradition of art films includes globally acclaimed film directors such as Academy Award-winning director Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, Tapan Sinha, and contemporary directors such as Aparna Sen, Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Goutam Ghose
Goutam Ghose
and Rituparno Ghosh.[228] During the 19th and 20th centuries, Bengali literature
Bengali literature
was modernised through the works of authors such as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore, Kazi Nazrul Islam, and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay.[229] Coupled with social reforms led by Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda, and others, this constituted a major part of the Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance.[230] The middle and latter parts of the 20th century witnessed the arrival of post-modernism, as well as literary movements such as those espoused by the Kallol movement, hungryalists and the little magazines.[231] Large majority of publishers of the city is concentrated in and around College Street, "... a half-mile of bookshops and bookstalls spilling over onto the pavement", selling new and used books.[232] Kalighat
Kalighat
painting originated in 19th century Kolkata
Kolkata
as a local style that reflected a variety of themes including mythology and quotidian life.[233] The Government College of Art and Craft, founded in 1864, has been the cradle as well as workplace of eminent artists including Abanindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, and Nandalal Bose.[234] The art college was the birthplace of the Bengal
Bengal
school of art that arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the prevalent academic art styles in the early 20th century.[235][236] The Academy of Fine Arts and other art galleries hold regular art exhibitions. The city is recognised for its appreciation of Rabindra sangeet
Rabindra sangeet
(songs written by Rabindranath Tagore) and Indian classical music, with important concerts and recitals, such as Dover Lane Music Conference, being held throughout the year; Bengali popular music, including baul folk ballads, kirtans, and Gajan festival music; and modern music, including Bengali-language adhunik songs.[237][238] Since the early 1990s, new genres have emerged, including one comprising alternative folk–rock Bengali bands.[237] Another new style, jibonmukhi gaan ("songs about life"), is based on realism.[221]:105 Key elements of Kolkata's cuisine include rice and a fish curry known as machher jhol,[239] which can be accompanied by desserts such as roshogolla, sandesh, and a sweet yoghurt known as mishti dohi. Bengal's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of ilish, a fish that is a favourite among Calcuttans. Street foods such as beguni (fried battered eggplant slices), kati roll (flatbread roll with vegetable or chicken, mutton, or egg stuffing), phuchka (a deep-fried crêpe with tamarind sauce) and Indian Chinese cuisine
Indian Chinese cuisine
from Chinatown are popular.[240][241][242][243] Though Bengali women traditionally wear the sari, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.[244] Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. Durga
Durga
Puja, held in September–October, is Kolkata's most important and largest festival; it is an occasion for glamorous celebrations and artistic decorations.[245][246] The Bengali New Year, known as Poila Boishak, as well as the harvest festival of Poush Parbon are among the city's other festivals; also celebrated are Kali
Kali
Puja, Diwali, Holi, Jagaddhatri
Jagaddhatri
Puja, Saraswati Puja, Rathayatra, Janmashtami, Maha Shivratri, Vishwakarma Puja, Lakshmi Puja, Ganesh Chathurthi, Makar Sankranti, Gajan, Kalpataru Day, Bhai Phonta, Maghotsab, Eid, Muharram, Christmas, Buddha Purnima
Buddha Purnima
and Mahavir Jayanti. Cultural events include the Rabindra Jayanti, Independence Day(15 August), Republic Day(26 January), Kolkata
Kolkata
Book
Book
Fair, the Dover Lane Music Festival, the Kolkata
Kolkata
Film Festival, Nandikar's National Theatre Festival, Statesman Vintage & Classic Car Rally and Gandhi Jayanti.

Dance accompanied by Rabindra Sangeet, a music genre started by Rabindranath Tagore

Sandesh, a typical Bengali sweet made from chhena

A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga
Durga
shown during the Durga
Durga
Puja festival

Durga
Durga
Idol of Bagbazar
Bagbazar
Sarbojanin—first public puja of Kolkata, that would celebrate its 100 th year in 2018

Media See also: Kolkata in the media and List of Bengali-language television channels

Akashvani Bhawan, the head office of state-owned All India
India
Radio, Kolkata

The first newspaper in India, the Bengal
Bengal
Gazette started publishing from the city in 1780.[247] Among Kolkata's widely circulated Bengali-language newspapers are Anandabazar Patrika, Bartaman, Sangbad Pratidin, Aajkaal, Dainik Statesman and Ganashakti.[248] The Statesman and The Telegraph are two major English-language newspapers that are produced and published from Kolkata. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Kolkata
Kolkata
include The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and the Asian Age.[248] As the largest trading centre in East India, Kolkata
Kolkata
has several high-circulation financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard.[248][249] Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, Odia, Punjabi, and Chinese languages, are read by minorities.[248][104] Major periodicals based in Kolkata
Kolkata
include Desh, Sananda, Saptahik Bartaman, Unish-Kuri, Anandalok, and Anandamela.[248] Historically, Kolkata
Kolkata
has been the centre of the Bengali little magazine movement.[250][251] All India
India
Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM radio stations in the city.[252] Kolkata
Kolkata
has 12 local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR.[253] India's state-owned television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels,[254] while a mix of Bengali, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television.[255][256][257] Bengali-language 24-hour television news channels include ABP Ananda, Tara Newz, Kolkata
Kolkata
TV, 24 Ghanta, News Time and Channel 10.[258] Sports See also: Football in Kolkata, Kolkata
Kolkata
Marathon, and Kolkata
Kolkata
derby

Salt Lake Stadium
Salt Lake Stadium
during Indian Super League
Indian Super League
opening ceremony

The most popular sports in Kolkata
Kolkata
are football and cricket. Unlike most parts of India, the residents show significant passion for football.[259] The city is home to top national football clubs such as Mohun Bagan A.C., East Bengal
Bengal
F.C., Prayag United S.C., and the Mohammedan Sporting Club.[260][261] Calcutta Football League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest football league in Asia.[262] Mohun Bagan A.C., one of the oldest football clubs in Asia, is the only organisation to be dubbed a "National Club of India".[263][264] Football matches between Mohun Bagan and East Bengal, dubbed as the Kolkata
Kolkata
derby, witness large audience attendance and rivalry between patrons.[265]

A Twenty20
Twenty20
cricket match between Kolkata Knight Riders
Kolkata Knight Riders
and Pune Warriors during Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League
at the Eden Gardens

As in the rest of India, cricket is popular in Kolkata
Kolkata
and is played on grounds and in streets throughout the city.[266][267] Kolkata
Kolkata
has the Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League
franchise Kolkata
Kolkata
Knight Riders; the Cricket Association of Bengal, which regulates cricket in West Bengal, is also based in the city. Kolkata
Kolkata
also has an Indian Super League
Indian Super League
franchise known as Atlético de Kolkata. Tournaments, especially those involving cricket, football, badminton, and carrom, are regularly organised on an inter-locality or inter-club basis.[211] The Maidan, a vast field that serves as the city's largest park, hosts several minor football and cricket clubs and coaching institutes.[268] Eden Gardens, which has a capacity of 68,000 as of 2017[update],[269] hosted the final match of the 1987 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup. It is home to the Bengal
Bengal
cricket team and the Kolkata
Kolkata
Knight Riders. The multi-use Salt Lake Stadium, also known as Yuva Bharati Krirangan, is India's largest stadium by seating capacity. Most matches of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
were played in the Salt Lake Stadium including both Semi-Final matches and the Final match. Kolkata
Kolkata
also accounted for 45% of total attendance in 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
with an average of 55,345 spectators. [270] The Calcutta Cricket
Cricket
and Football Club is the second-oldest cricket club in the world.[271][272] Kolkata's Netaji Indoor Stadium
Netaji Indoor Stadium
served as host of the 1981 Asian Basketball Championship, where India's national basketball team finished 5th, ahead of teams that belong to Asia's basketball elite, such as Iran. The city has three 18-hole golf courses. The oldest is at the Royal Calcutta Golf Club, the first golf club built outside the United Kingdom.[273][274] The other two are located at the Tollygunge Club and at Fort William. The Royal Calcutta Turf Club
Royal Calcutta Turf Club
hosts horse racing and polo matches.[275] The Calcutta Polo Club
Calcutta Polo Club
is considered the oldest extant polo club in the world.[276][277][278] The Calcutta Racket Club is a squash and racquet club in Kolkata. It was founded in 1793, making it one of the oldest rackets clubs in the world, and the first in the Indian subcontinent.[279][280] The Calcutta South Club is a venue for national and international tennis tournaments; it held the first grass-court national championship in 1946.[281][282] In the period 2005–2007, Sunfeast Open, a tier-III tournament on the Women's Tennis Association
Women's Tennis Association
circuit, was held in the Netaji Indoor Stadium; it has since been discontinued.[283][284] The Calcutta Rowing Club hosts rowing heats and training events. Kolkata, considered the leading centre of rugby union in India, gives its name to the oldest international tournament in rugby union, the Calcutta Cup.[285][286][287] The Automobile Association of Eastern India, established in 1904,[288][289] and the Bengal
Bengal
Motor Sports Club are involved in promoting motor sports and car rallies in Kolkata
Kolkata
and West Bengal.[290][291] The Beighton Cup, an event organised by the Bengal
Bengal
Hockey Association and first played in 1895, is India's oldest field hockey tournament; it is usually held on the Mohun Bagan Ground of the Maidan.[292][293] Athletes from Kolkata
Kolkata
include Sourav Ganguly and Pankaj Roy, who are former captains of the Indian national cricket team; Olympic tennis bronze medallist Leander Paes, golfer Arjun Atwal, and former footballers Sailen Manna, Chuni Goswami, P. K. Banerjee, and Subrata Bhattacharya. Sister cities See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in India

 Bangladesh: Dhaka[294]  China: Kunming
Kunming
(October 2013)[294][295]  Greece: Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
(21 January 2005)[294][296]  Italy: Naples[294]  Pakistan: Karachi[297]  South Korea: Incheon[294][298]  Ukraine: Odessa[294][299]  United States:

Jersey City[294] Long Beach[294] Dallas[294]

See also

List of people from Kolkata West Bengal

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Motor Sports Club. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 7 December 2011.  ^ O'Brien, Barry (4 December 2004). "All hail hockey on history high". The Telegraph. Kolkata. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2012.  ^ "Indian Airlines lift Beighton Cup". Sport. The Hindu. Chennai, India. 11 April 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Mazumdar, Jaideep (17 November 2013). "A tale of two cities: Will Kolkata
Kolkata
learn from her sister?". Times of India. New Delhi. Retrieved 17 November 2013.  ^ "Agreement on the establishment of Sister City Relations between Kolkata, Republic of India
India
and Kunming, People's Republic of China". Oct 23, 2013. Retrieved Mar 17, 2018.  ^ "The Twinning of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and Calcutta". 21 January 2005. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Islamabad to get new sister city". Dawn. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ " Incheon
Incheon
Metropolitan City - Incheon
Incheon
City - Sister Cities". Incheon Metropolitan City. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017.  ^ "Sister Cities". Official site of Odessa. Retrieved Mar 17, 2018. 

Further reading

Chaudhuri, S (1990). Calcutta: the living City. I and II. Kolkata: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-562585-4.  Dutta, Krishna (2003). Calcutta: a cultural and literary history. Oxford, UK: Signal Books. ISBN 978-1-902669-59-5.  Mitra, A (1976). Calcutta diary. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-3082-9.  Mukherjee, SC (1991). The changing face of Calcutta: an architectural approach. Kolkata: Government of West Bengal. ASIN B0000D6TXX.  Roy, A (2002). City requiem, Calcutta: gender and the politics of poverty. Minneapolis, US: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3932-9.  Thomas, Frederic C. (1997). Calcutta poor: elegies on a city above pretense. Armonk, New York City: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-981-2.  Lapierre, Dominique (1985). La cité de la joie (The City of Joy). Kolkata: Arrow. ISBN 0-09-914091-8.  Singh, Malvika (2011). Kolkata: A Soul City (Historic and Famed Cities of India). Academic Foundation. p. 110. ISBN 978-81-7188-886-3.  Hazra, Indrajit (1 December 2013). Grand Delusions: A Short Biography of Kolkata. Aleph Book
Book
Company. p. 156. ISBN 978-93-82277-28-6.  Ghosh, Amitav (22 April 2009). Calcutta Chromosome: A Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery. Penguin India. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-14-306655-2.  Deb, Binaya Krishna (1905). The Early History and Growth of Calcutta. Harvard University: Romesh Chandra Ghose. p. 278.  Chaudhuri, Sukanta (1990). Calcutta, the Living City: The past. the University of Michigan: Oxford University Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-19-562718-3.  Roy, Ananya (1 October 2002). City Requiem, Calcutta: Gender and Politics of Poverty. University of Minnesota Press. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-8166-3933-5.  Chatterjee, Jayabrato; Khullar, Rupinder (1 January 2004). Kolkata: the dream city. the University of Michigan: UBS Publishers' Distributors. p. 93. ISBN 978-81-7476-471-3.  Moorhouse, Geoffrey (1971). Calcutta. Penguin Books India. p. 393. ISBN 978-0-14-009557-9.  Chatterjee, Partha (2012). The Black Hole of Empire: History of a Global Practice of Power. Princeton University Press. p. 425. ISBN 978-0-691-15201-1.  Chattopadhyay, Swati (2005). Representing Calcutta: Modernity, Nationalism, and the Colonial Uncanny. Psychology Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-415-34359-6.  Dey, Ishita; Samaddar, Ranabir (2016). Beyond Kolkata: Rajarhat
Rajarhat
and the Dystopia of Urban Imagination. Routledge. p. 304. ISBN 9781134931378.  Husain, Zakir; Dutta, Mousumi (2013). Women in Kolkata’s IT Sector: Satisficing Between Work and Household. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 133. ISBN 9788132215936.  Bose, Pablo Shiladitya (2015). Urban Development in India: Global Indians in the Remaking of Kolkata. Routledge. p. 178. ISBN 9781317596738.  Ray, Raka; Qayum, Seemin (2009). Cultures of Servitude: Modernity, Domesticity, and Class in India. Stanford University Press. p. 255. ISBN 9780804760713.  Ghosh, Anindita. Claiming the City: Protest, Crime, and Scandals in Colonial Calcutta, c. 1860-1920. Oxford University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0199464791.  Sanyal, Shukla (2014). Revolutionary Pamphlets, Propaganda and Political Culture in Colonial Bengal. Cambridge University Press. p. 219. ISBN 9781107065468.  Busteed, Henry Elmsley (1888). Echoes from Old Calcutta: Being Chiefly Reminiscences of the Days of Warren Hastings, Francis, and Impey. Asian Educational Services. p. 359. ISBN 9788120612952.  Fruzzetti, Lina; Östör, Ákos (2003). Calcutta Conversations. Orient Blackswan. p. 242. ISBN 9788180280092.  Richards, E. P. (2014). The Condition, Improvement and Town Planning of the City of Calcutta and Contiguous Areas: The Richards Report. Routledge. p. 492. ISBN 9781317617006.  Chatterjee, Arnab; Yarlagadda, Sudhakar (2007). Econophysics of Wealth Distributions: Econophys- Kolkata
Kolkata
I. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 248. ISBN 9788847003897.  Sarkar, Tanika. Calcutta: The Stormy Decades. Social Science Press. p. 486. ISBN 978-9383166077.  Choudhury, Ranabir Ray. A City in the Making: Aspects of Calcutta's Early Growth. Niyogi Books. p. 564. ISBN 978-9385285288.  Banerjee, Sumanta (2016). Memoirs of Roads: Calcutta from Colonial Urbanization to Global Modernization. Oxford University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0199468102. 

External links

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Places adjacent to Kolkata

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Articles and topics related to Kolkata

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History

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Kalighat
Falta Railway Kalikata Lal Dighi Maratha Ditch Robert Clive Sabarna Roy Choudhury Siege of Calcutta Sutanuti State Archaeological Gallery The Calcutta Quran Petition Warren Hastings Battle of Biderra Nabakrishna Deb Rabindranath Tagore

Localities and streets

Kolkata
Kolkata
Metropolitan Area Neighbourhoods

list

Streets (list)

Ethnic enclaves

Bow Barracks
Bow Barracks
(Anglo-Indian) Chinatown, Kolkata
Chinatown, Kolkata
(Chinese) Tangra, Kolkata (Chinese) Armani-para (Armenian)

Buildings

Belvedere Estate Indian Museum Jorasanko
Jorasanko
Thakur Bari Calcutta High Court Marble Palace National Library of India Netaji Bhawan Raj Bhavan Sabarna Sangrahashala Shaheed Minar Victoria Memorial St. Paul's Cathedral Metcalfe Hall Writers' Building Metropolitan Building Grand Hotel Shobhabazar
Shobhabazar
Rajbari

High rises

Completed Chatterjee International Center South City Tata Centre Industry House Everest House Jeevan Sudha GOI Building Hiland Park

Upcoming The 42 Urbana Uniworld City

Education

Secondary

Calcutta Boys' School Calcutta Girls' High School Don Bosco School, Park Circus Hare School Hindu
Hindu
School, Kolkata La Martiniere Calcutta Loreto Schools Ramakrishna, Narendrapur Sainik School, Purulia Scottish Church Collegiate School South Point School St. Xavier's Collegiate School St. Paul's School, Darjeeling St. James' School (Kolkata)

Higher

Aliah University Asiatic Society Asutosh College Vivekananda College Marine Engineering and Research Institute Bethune College Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology Medical College and Hospital Calcutta National Medical College Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur Indian Institute of Management Calcutta Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management Indian Statistical Institute Jadavpur
Jadavpur
University Maulana Azad College Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology National Library of India Netaji Subhas Open University Presidency University Rabindra Bharati University Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics School of Tropical Medicine Scottish Church College St. Xavier's College University of Calcutta West Bengal
West Bengal
University of Health Sciences West Bengal
West Bengal
National University of Juridical Sciences Calcutta School of Music

Industry and economy

ABP Group Allahabad
Allahabad
Bank AMRI Hospitals Andrew Yule and Company Baidyanath Group Balmer Lawrie Batanagar Bengal
Bengal
Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Berger Paints Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Biecco Lawrie Birds Jute
Jute
and Export Birla Corporation Braithwaite & Co. Braithwaite, Burn & Jessop Construction Company Bridge and Roof Company Britannia Industries Burn & Company Burnpur Burn Standard Company Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation (CESC) Calcutta Stock Exchange Chandras' Chemical Factory Coal India Damodar Valley Corporation Emami Exide Industries Garden Reach
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders & Engineers GKB Opticals Hawkers Hind Motor Hindustan Ambassador IISCO India
India
Government Mint, Kolkata ITC Limited Jai Balaji group Jessop & Company Kolkata
Kolkata
Port Trust Lexulous Limtex Lux Industries Magma Fincorp National Insurance Company Peerless Group Saregama Sinclairs Hotels Limited Tata Global Beverages The Juice Station The Park Hotels UCO Bank United Bank of India VISA Steel

Transportation

Road

Calcutta Tramways Company Calcutta State Transport Corporation Kalyani Expressway Kolkata
Kolkata
Bus
Bus
Rapid Transit System West Bengal
West Bengal
Surface Transport Corporation South Bengal
Bengal
State Transport Corporation Howrah Bridge
Howrah Bridge
(Rabindra Setu) Belghoria
Belghoria
Expressway Vidyasagar Setu Vivekananda Setu Nivedita Setu Golden Quadrilateral Rickshaw Hand-pulled rickshaw

Rail

Kolkata
Kolkata
Metro Kolkata
Kolkata
Circular Railway Kolkata
Kolkata
Suburban Railway Eastern Railway South Eastern Railway Trams in Kolkata Kolkata
Kolkata
LRTS Howrah
Howrah
Junction railway station Kolkata
Kolkata
railway station Sealdah
Sealdah
railway station Shalimar railway station Kolkata
Kolkata
Monorail

Sea

Port of Kolkata

Air

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport List of airports

Culture

Kolkata
Kolkata
Book
Book
Fair Calcutta Youth Choir Coffee House Dwarkin Festivals Kolkata
Kolkata
International Film Festival Dover Lane Music Conference Kolkata
Kolkata
in the media Music of Bengal Nandan Priya Rabindra Nritya Natya Rabindra Sangeet Ritwik Ghatak Satyajit Ray Feluda Byomkesh Bakshi Tollywood Ghosts in Bengali culture Adda P. C. Sorcar Football

Kolkata
Kolkata
Derby

Group theatre of Kolkata

Places of worship

Hindu

Belur Math Dakshineswar
Dakshineswar
Kali
Kali
Temple Kalighat

Christian

St. Paul's Cathedral Portuguese Church St. John's Church Parasnath Temple Tipu Sultan Mosque Birla Mandir, Kolkata Chinese temples in Kolkata Magen David Synagogue

Sports

ATK Barasat Stadium B.C. Roy Trophy Beighton Cup Bengal
Bengal
cricket team Calcutta Cricket
Cricket
and Football Club Calcutta Polo Club Calcutta South Club Bengal
Bengal
Tigers Bhawanipore F.C. Calcutta Cricket
Cricket
and Football Club Calcutta Football League Dalhousie A.C. East Bengal
Bengal
Club East Bengal
Bengal
Ground Eastern Railway F.C. Eden Gardens Indian Football Association IFA Shield Kalighat
Kalighat
F.C. Kishore Bharati Krirangan Kolkata
Kolkata
Derby Kolkata
Kolkata
Knight Riders

No Dada No KKR

Kolkata Police
Kolkata Police
Friendship Cup Football Tournament Kolkata
Kolkata
Vipers Mohammedan Sporting Club Mohammedan Sporting Ground Mohun Bagan Athletic Club Mohun Bagan Ground Netaji Indoor Stadium Pailan Arrows United S.C. Rabindra Sarobar
Rabindra Sarobar
Stadium Royal Bengal
Bengal
Tigers Salt Lake Stadium Sunfeast Open Southern Samity Subroto Cup Aryan F.C. Tollygunge Agragami F.C. West Bengal
West Bengal
football team

Other topics

Someplace Else Princeton Club Calcutta Club Adwaita Zoological Garden, Alipore Bengal
Bengal
Club Central Forensic Science Laboratory Calcutta Rowing Club Electoral constituencies List of people from Kolkata Fort William Hooghly River Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
Indian Botanic Garden Kundu Special Chinese of Calcutta Early phase of printing in Calcutta Legendary personalities in Bengal Maidan Missionaries of Charity Rabindra Sarobar Royal Calcutta Golf Club South Park Street Cemetery Sundarbans National Park Tolly

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Tourist attractions in Kolkata

Colonial

Howrah
Howrah
Railway Station Metropolitan Building Fort William National Library Victoria Memorial Shaheed Minar St. John's Church Raj Bhavan New Market Kolkata
Kolkata
High Court Shobhabazar
Shobhabazar
Rajbari Prinsep Ghat

Geographical

Hooghly River Lal Dighi Rabindra Sarobar Maidan

Religious places

Kalighat
Kalighat
Kali
Kali
Temple Dakshineswar
Dakshineswar
Kali
Kali
Temple Belur Math St. John's Church St. James' Church St. Paul's Cathedral Tipu Sultan Mosque Church of the Lord Jesus South Park Street Cemetery

Cultural

Durga
Durga
Puja Barowari
Barowari
Pujos Saraswati Puja Kali
Kali
Puja The Asiatic Society Dol Yatra College Street Esplanade Chowringhee Metro Kolkata
Kolkata
Film Festival Jorasanko
Jorasanko
Thakur Bari Poila Boisakh Chhau dance Football Rabindra Sangeet Kumortuli Sondesh Kolkata
Kolkata
Book
Book
Fair National Library General Post Office Vintage & Classic Car Rally

Boulevards

AJC Bose Road
AJC Bose Road
& APC Road Amherst Street Ballygunge
Ballygunge
Circular Road Bowbazar
Bowbazar
Street Camac Street Chittaranjan Avenue College Street Eastern Metropolitan Bypass Garia
Garia
Main Road Gariahat Road Gurusaday Dutta Road Grey Street The Chowringhee Lansdowne Road Mahatma Gandhi Road Mirza Ghalib Street Park Street Prince Anwar Shah Road Rabindra Sarani Raja Nabakrishna Street Raja SC Mullick Road Netaji Subash Chandra Bose Road Rashbehari Avenue Shakespeare Sarani Southern Avenue Strand Road Sudder Street V.I.P. Road Vivekananda Road Jawaharlal Nehru Road

Shopping

New Market College Street (Books) Mani Square South City
South City
Mall Quest Mall Forum Mall Other shopping malls Barnoporichoy

Parks, riverfront, zoos and stadiums

Alipore
Alipore
Zoo Central Park Millennium Park Mohor Kunja Aquatica Nicco park Science City Kolkata Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
Indian Botanic Garden (The Great Banyan) Maidan New Town Eco Park Eden Gardens Salt Lake Stadium Race Course Pavilions Netaji Indoor Stadium East Bengal
Bengal
Ground Mohammedan Sporting Ground

Category Portal

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State and Union Territory capitals of India

Agartala Aizawl Amaravati
Amaravati
(de facto) Bangalore Bhopal Bhubaneswar Chandigarh Chennai Daman Dehradun
Dehradun
(interim) New Delhi Dispur Gandhinagar Gangtok Hyderabad Imphal Itanagar Jaipur Jammu
Jammu
(in winter) Kavaratti Kohima Kolkata Lucknow Mumbai Panaji Patna Pondicherry Port Blair Raipur Ranchi Shillong Shimla Silvassa Srinagar
Srinagar
(in summer) Thiruvananthapuram

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Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

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World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

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Bengali renaissance

People

Sri Aurobindo Atul Prasad Sen Rajnarayan Basu Jagadish Chandra Bose Subhash Chandra Bose Satyendra Nath Bose Bethune Upendranath Brahmachari Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay Akshay Kumar Datta Henry Derozio Alexander Duff Michael Madhusudan Dutt Romesh Chunder Dutt Anil Kumar Gain Dwarkanath Ganguly Kadambini Ganguly Monomohun Ghose Ramgopal Ghosh Aghore Nath Gupta David Hare Kazi Nazrul Islam Eugène Lafont Ashutosh Mukherjee Harish Chandra Mukherjee Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Paramahamsa Gour Govinda Ray Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury Raja Ram Mohan Roy Meghnad Saha Akshay Chandra Sarkar Mahendralal Sarkar Brajendra Nath Seal Girish Chandra Sen Keshub Chandra Sen Haraprasad Shastri Debendranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore Satyendranath Tagore Jnanadanandini Devi Sitanath Tattwabhushan Brahmabandhav Upadhyay Ram Chandra Vidyabagish Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Swami Vivekananda Paramahansa Yogananda Begum Rokeya

Culture

Adi Dharm Bengali literature Bengali poetry Bengali music Brahmo Samaj British Raj British Indian Association History of Bengal Nazrul geeti Rabindra Nritya Natya Rabindra Sangeet Sambad Prabhakar Socialism in Bengal Swadeshi Satyagraha Tattwabodhini Patrika Tagore family Bangiya Sahitya Parishad Young Bengal

Institutions

Anandamohan College Asiatic Society Banga Mahila Vidyalaya Bangabasi College Bethune College Bengal
Bengal
Engineering and Science University, Shibpur Calcutta Madrasah College Calcutta Medical College Fort William College General Assembly's Institution Hindu
Hindu
Mahila Vidyalaya Hindu
Hindu
Theatre Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Midnapore College National Council of Education, Bengal Oriental Seminary Presidency College Ripon College Sanskrit
Sanskrit
College Scottish Church College Serampore College St. Xavier's College, Kolkata Vidyasagar College Visva-Bharati University University of Calcutta University of Dhaka

Other renaissance and revolutionary movements

Bhakti movement Gaudiya Vaishnavism Brahmoism Fakir-Sannyasi rebellion Indian independence movement Kalighat
Kalighat
painting Jugantar
Jugantar
movement Bengal
Bengal
School of Art Hindu–German Conspiracy Kallol Gananatya Andolan Bratachari movement Bengali Little Magazine Movement Parallel cinema Indian Communism Naxalism Hungryalism Prakalpana Movement

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