Cagliari (English: /ˌkæliˈɑːri/, /ˈkæljəri/ or US:
Italian: [ˈkaʎʎari] ( listen); Sardinian:
Casteddu;[a] Latin: Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the
capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.
Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu literally means castle. It has
about 150,000 inhabitants, while its metropolitan city (including
Cagliari and 16 other nearby municipalities) has more than 431,000
inhabitants. According to Eurostat, the population of the Functional
urban area, the commuting zone of Cagliari, rises to 476,974.
Cagliari is the 26th largest city in
Italy and the largest city on the
island of Sardinia.
An ancient city with a long history,
Cagliari has seen the rule of
several civilisations. Under the buildings of the modern city there is
a continuous stratification attesting to human settlement over the
course of some five thousand years, from the
Neolithic to today.
Historical sites include the prehistoric Domus de Janas, very damaged
by cave activity, a large Carthaginian era necropolis, a Roman era
amphitheatre, a Byzantine basilica, three Pisan-era towers and a
strong system of fortification that made the town the core of Spanish
Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Its natural
resources have always been its sheltered harbour, the often powerfully
fortified hill of Castel di Castro, the modern Casteddu, the salt from
its lagoons, and, from the hinterland, wheat from the
and silver and other ores from the
Cagliari was the capital of the Kingdom of
Sardinia from 1324 to 1848,
Turin became the formal capital of the kingdom (which in 1861
became the Kingdom of Italy). Today the city is a regional cultural,
educational, political and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art
Nouveau architecture and several monuments. It is also Sardinia's
economic and industrial hub, having one of the biggest ports in the
Mediterranean Sea, an international airport, and the 106th highest
income level in
Italy (among 8,092 comuni), comparable to that of
several northern Italian cities.
It is also the seat of the University of Cagliari, founded in 1607,
and of the Primate Roman Catholic archdiocese of Sardinia,
since the 5th century AD.
1.1 Early history
Giudicato of Cagliari
1.3 11th to 13th century
1.4 14th to 17th centuries
1.5 18th century
1.6 Modern age
1.7 Coats of Arms of Cagliari
2.1 Parks and recreation
3.1 Metropolitan City
5 Main sights
6.1 Museums and galleries
6.2 Feast of Sant'Efis
6.3 Other events
11 Health care
12.5 Urban and suburban mobility
13 Twin towns – sister cities
18 External links
History of Cagliari
History of Cagliari and Timeline of Cagliari
Monte Claro culture
Monte Claro culture pottery
Karalitan ship owners and traders, mosaic in Ostia Antica
Cagliari area has been inhabited since the Neolithic. It occupies
a favourable position between the sea and a fertile plain and is
surrounded by two swamps (which provides defence against attacks from
the inland). There are high mountains nearby, to which people could
evacuate if the settlement had to be given up. Relics of prehistoric
inhabitants were found in the hill of Monte Claro (Monte Claro
culture) and in Cape Sant'Elia (several domus de janas).
Punic era inscription from the National Archeological Museum
Necropolis of Tuvixeddu
Is Centu Scalas ("a hundred steps"), the Roman amphitheatre of
Krly was established around the 8th/7th century BC as one of a string
of Phoenician colonies in Sardinia, including Tharros. Its
founding is linked to its position along communication routes with
Africa as well as to its excellent port. The Phoenician settlement was
located in the Stagno di Santa Gilla, west of the present centre of
Cagliari. This was also the site of the Roman Portus Scipio, and when
Arab pirates raided the area in the 8th century it became the refuge
for people fleeing from the city. Other Phoenician settlements have
been found at Cape Sant'Elia.
In the late 6th century BC
Carthage took control of part of Sardinia,
Cagliari grew substantially under their domination, as testified
by the large
Tuvixeddu necropolis and other remains.
Cagliari was a
fortified settlement in what is now the modern
Marina quarter, with an
annexed holy area in the modern Stampace.
Cagliari came under Roman rule in 238 BC, shortly after
the First Punic War, when the Romans defeated the Carthaginians. No
mention of it is found on the occasion of the Roman conquest of the
island, but during the
Second Punic War
Second Punic War it was the headquarters of the
praetor, Titus Manlius Torquatus, from whence he conducted his
Hampsicora and the Carthaginians. At other
times it was also the Romans' chief naval station on the island, and
the residence of the praetor.
The Romans built a new settlement east of the old Punic city, the
Vicus munitus Caralis (i.e. the fortified town of Caralis) mentioned
Varro Atacinus. The two urban agglomerations merged gradually
during the second century B.C.; to this process is perhaps
attributable the plural form Carales.
Florus calls it the urbs urbinum, or capital of Sardinia, and
represents it as taken and severely punished by Gracchus, but this
statement is wholly at variance with Livy's account of the wars of
Gracchus, in Sardinia, according to which the cities were faithful to
Rome, and the revolt was confined to the mountain tribes. In the
Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, the citizens of Caralis were the
first to declare in favor of the former, an example soon followed by
the other cities of Sardinia; and Caesar himself touched there
with his fleet on his return from Africa. A few years later, when
Sardinia fell into the hands of Menas, the lieutenant of Sextus
Pompeius, Caralis was the only city which offered any resistance, but
was taken after a short siege.
Cagliari continued to be regarded as the capital of the island under
the Roman Empire, and though it did not become a colony, obtained the
status of Municipium.
Remains of Roman public buildings were found to the west of
Piazza del Carmine. There was an area of ordinary housing near the
modern Via Roma, and richer houses on the slopes of the Marina
distinct. The amphitheatre is located to the west of the Castello.
Christian community is attested in
Cagliari at least as early as the
3rd century, and by the end of that century the city had a Christian
bishop. In the middle decades of the 4th century bishop Lucifer of
Cagliari was exiled because of his opposition to the sentence against
Athanasius of Alexandria
Athanasius of Alexandria at the Synod of Milan. He was banished to the
Thebais by the emperor Constantius II.
Claudian describes the ancient city of Karalis as extending to a
considerable length towards the promontory or headland, the projection
of which sheltered its port. The port affords good anchorage for large
vessels, but besides this, which is only a well-sheltered standby,
there is a large salt-water lake or lagoon, called the Stagno di
Cagliari, adjoining the city and communicating by a narrow channel
with the bay, which appears from
Claudian to have been used in ancient
times as an inner harbor or basin. The promontory adjoining the
city is evidently that noticed by Ptolemy (Κάραλις πόλις
καὶ ἄκρα), but the Caralitanum Promontorium of Pliny can be
no other than the headland, now called Capo Carbonara, which forms the
eastern boundary of the
Gulf of Cagliari
Gulf of Cagliari and the southeast point of
the whole island. Immediately off it lay the little island of
Ficaria, now called the Isola dei Cavoli.
After the fall of the Western
Cagliari fell, together
with the rest of Sardinia, into the hands of the Vandals, but appears
to have retained its importance throughout the Middle Ages.
Saint Peter of the fishermen church, 12th century
Giudicato of Cagliari
Giudicato of Cagliari
Griffin and Pegasus pluteo, Byzantine Middle Ages. National
Archaeological Museum of Cagliari
Subsequently, ruled by the
Vandals and then part of the Byzantine
Cagliari became the capital of a gradually independent
giudicato. However, there is some evidence that during this period of
independence from external rule, the city was deserted because it was
too exposed to attacks by Moorish pirates coming from north Africa and
Spain. Apparently many people left Caralis and founded a new town
Santa Igia in an area close to the Santa Gilla swamp to the west
of Cagliari, but relatively distant from the sea.
The giudicato of
Cagliari comprised a large area of the Campidano
plain, the Sulcis-
Iglesiente and the mountain region of Ogliastra.
11th to 13th century
Torre dell'Elefante (1307)
During the 11th century, the
Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa began to extend its
political influence over the giudicato of Cagliari.
Pisa and the
maritime republic of
Genoa had a keen interest in
Sardinia because it
was a perfect strategic base for controlling the commercial routes
Italy and North Africa.
In 1215 the Pisan Lamberto Visconti, giudice of Gallura, forced the
Benedetta of Cagliari
Benedetta of Cagliari to give him the mount located east of
Santa Igia. Soon (1216–17) Pisan merchants established there a
new fortified city, known as Castel di Castro, which can be considered
the ancestor of the modern city of Cagliari.
In 1258, after the defeat of William III, the last giudice of
Cagliari, the Pisans and their Sardinian allies (Arborea, Gallura and
Logudoro) destroyed the old capital of Santa Igia. The giudicato
Cagliari was divided into three parts: the northwest third went to
Gallura; the central portion was incorporated into Arborea;
Iglesiente, on the southwest, were given to the Pisan della
Gherardesca family, while the
Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa maintained control over
its colony of Castel di Castro.
Some of the fortifications that still surround the current district of
Castello were built by the Pisans, including the two remaining white
limestone towers (early 14th century) designed by the architect
Giovanni Capula. Together with the district of Castello, Castel di
Castro comprised the districts of
Marina (which included the port),
and later Stampace (it) and Villanova.
Marina and Stampace were
guarded by walls, in contrast to Villanova, which was mostly home to
14th to 17th centuries
Main article: Kingdom of Sardinia
In the second decade of the 14th century the
Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon conquered
Sardinia after a series of battles against the Pisans. During the
siege of Castel di Castro (1324-1326), the Aragonese, led by the
infant Alfonso, built a stronghold on a more southern hill, that of
Cagliari from Civitates orbis terrarium (1572) by Georg Braun
When the fortified city was finally conquered by the Catalan-Aragonese
army, Castel di Castro (Castel de Càller or simply Càller in
Catalan) became the administrative capital of the newborn Kingdom of
Sardinia, one of the many kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon, which
later came under the rule of the Spanish Empire. After the expulsion
of the Tuscans, the Castello district was repopulated by the
Catalan settlers of Bonaria while the indigenous population was, as in
the past, concentrated in Stampace and Villanova.
The kings of Aragon and later the kings of Spain, were represented in
Cagliari by a viceroy, who resided in the Palazzo Regio.
Interior view of the Royal Palace of Cagliari
In the 16th century the fortifications of the city were strengthened
with the construction of the bastions and the rights and benefits of
the Catalan-Aragonese were extended to all citizens. The intellectual
life was relatively lively and in the early years of the 17th century
the University was founded.
In 1718, after a brief rule by the Austrian Habsburgs, Cagliari
Sardinia came under the House of Savoy. As rulers of Sardinia, the
Savoys took the title of kings of the Sardinian kingdom. During the
Savoyard Era, until 1848, the institutions of the Sardinian kingdom
remained unchanged, but with the "Perfect Fusion" in that year, all
the possessions of the
House of Savoy
House of Savoy House, comprising Savoy, Nice
(now part of France),
Piedmont and from 1815 Liguria, were merged into
a unitary state. Although Sardinian by name, the kingdom had its
parliament in Turin, where the Savoys resided, and its members were
mainly aristocrats from
Piedmont or the mainland.
In the late 18th century during the
France tried to
Cagliari because of its strategic role in the Mediterranean
sea (Expédition de Sardaigne). A French army landed on
and advanced towards Cagliari, but the French were defeated by
Sardinians who had decided to defend themselves against the
revolutionary army. The people of
Cagliari hoped to receive some
concession from the Savoys in return for their defence of the town.
For example, aristocrats from
Cagliari asked for a Sardinian
representative in the parliament of the kingdom. When the Savoyards
refused any concession to the Sardinians, the inhabitants of Cagliari
rose up against them and expelled all the representatives of the
kingdom along with the Piedmontese rulers. This insurgence is
Sa die de sa Sardigna
Sa die de sa Sardigna ("The day of
Sardinia") on the last weekend of April. However, the Savoys regained
control of the town after a brief period of autonomous rule.
Triumphal arch King Umberto I, better known as Bastione Saint Remy
View of Via Roma and the port
Starting in the 1870s, in the wake of the unification of Italy, the
city experienced a century of rapid growth. Many buildings were
erected by the end of the 19th century during the term of office of
mayor Ottone Bacaredda. Numerous buildings combined influences from
Art Nouveau together with the traditional Sardinian taste for floral
decoration; an example is the white marble
City Hall near the port.
Bacaredda is also known for his strong repression of one of the
earliest worker strikes at the beginning of the 20th century.[citation
Second World War
Second World War
Cagliari was heavily bombed by the Allies
in February 1943. In order to escape from the danger of bombardments
and difficult living conditions, many people were evacuated from the
city into the countryside. In total the victims of the bombings were
more than 2000 and about 80% of the buildings were damaged. The
city received the Gold Medal of Military Valour.
After the Italian armistice with the Allies in September 1943, the
German Army took control of
Cagliari and the island, but soon
retreated peacefully in order to reinforce their positions in mainland
Italy. The American Army then took control of Cagliari. Airports near
the city (Elmas, Monserrato, Decimomannu, currently a
were used by Allied aircraft to fly to North Africa or mainland Italy
After the war, the population of
Cagliari grew again and many
apartment blocks and recreational areas were erected in new
Coats of Arms of Cagliari
From the 14th to 17th century
From the 18th century to the present
The so-called Sella del Diavolo
And suddenly there is Cagliari: a naked town rising steep, steep,
golden-looking, piled naked to the sky from the plain at the head of
the formless hollow bay. It is strange and rather wonderful, not a bit
like Italy. The city piles up lofty and almost miniature, and makes me
think of Jerusalem: without trees, without cover, rising rather bare
and proud, remote as if back in history, like a town in a monkish,
illuminated missal. One wonders how it ever got there. And it seems
like Spain—or Malta: not Italy. It is a steep and lonely city,
treeless, as in some old illumination. Yet withal rather jewel-like:
like a sudden rose-cut amber jewel naked at the depth of the vast
indenture. The air is cold, blowing bleak and bitter, the sky is all
curd. And that is Cagliari. It has that curious look, as if it could
be seen, but not entered. It is like some vision, some memory,
something that has passed away. Impossible that one can actually walk
in that city: set foot there and eat and laugh there. Ah, no! Yet the
ship drifts nearer, nearer, and we are looking for the actual harbour.
— D. H. Lawrence, Sea and
Sardinia (1921) 
The city of
Cagliari is situated in the south of Sardinia, overlooking
the centre of the eponymous gulf, also called
Golfo degli Angeli
Golfo degli Angeli ("Bay
of Angels") after an ancient legend. The city is spread over and
around the hill of the historic district of Castello and nine other
limestone hills of the middle-to-late Miocene, unique heights of a
little more than 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level on the long
plains of Campidano. The plain is actually a
Graben formed during the
Alpine orogeny of the Cenozoic, which separated
Sardinia from the
European continent, roughly where the
Gulf of Lion is now. The Graben
filled in the course of tectonic movements associated with the breakup
of the ancient island
San Michele hill with the castle on the top
View over the historical district of Villanova
The repeated intrusion of the sea left calcareous sediments that
formed a series of hills that mark the territory of Cagliari. Castello
is where the fortified town arose in the
Middle Age near the harbour
of the port, other hills are those of Mount Urpinu, the St. Elias
hill, also known as the Sella del Diavolo ("Saddle of the Devil") for
its shape, Tuvumannu and Tuvixeddu, the site of the ancient Punic and
Roman necropolis, the small Bonaria hill, where the basilica stands,
and the San Michele hill, with the eponymous castle on top. The modern
city occupies the flat spaces between the hills and the sea to the
south and southeast, along the
Poetto beach, the lagoons and ponds of
Santa Gilla and Molentargius, and the remains of more recent marine
intrusions, in an articulate landscape with many landmarks and
panoramas of the bay, the plain, and the mountains that surround it on
the east (The Seven Brothers and Serpeddì) and west (the mountains of
Capoterra). On the cold, clear days of winter, the snowy peaks of
Gennargentu can be seen from the highest points of the city.
The city has four historic neighbourhoods: Castello, Marina, Stampace
and Villanova and several modern districts (such as San Benedetto,
Monte Urpinu and Genneruxi at the east, Sant'Avendrace at the west, Is
Mirrionis/San Michele at north and Bonaria, La Palma and
Poetto at the
south), grown when part of the ancient walls had been demolished in
the middle of the 19th century. The comune of
Cagliari has one
circoscrizione, the town of Pirri (about 30.000 inhabitants), former
village of the
Campidano absorbed in the fast growth after the Second
Parks and recreation
Old public gardens
Cagliari is one of the "greenest" Italian cities. Every inhabitant of
Cagliari has access to 87.5 square metres (942 sq ft) of
public gardens and parks.
Its mild climate allows the growth of numerous subtropical plants,
such as Jacaranda mimosifolia, Ficus macrophylla, with some huge
specimens in Via Roma and in the University Botanic Gardens, Erythrina
caffra with its stunning red flowers, Ficus retusa, which provides
shade for several of the city's streets, Araucaria heterophylla, the
date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), the Canary Islands palm (Phoenix
canariensis) and the Mexican Fan Palm (Washingtonia robusta).
Major city parks include:
Cagliari, panorama from Monti Urpinu Park
Park of Monte Claro
Monte Urpinu Park, the most wooded, is a low hill covered by a pine
Pinus halepensis Mill.) and evergreen oak (
Quercus ilex L.) forest
with a dense Mediterranean maquis of mastic (
Pistacia lentiscus L.),
Juniperus phoenicea L.), Kermes oak (
Quercus coccifera L.),
wild olive (
Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea, var. sylvestris) and tree
Euphorbia dendroides L.). It extends for about 25 hectares (62
Park of San Michele hill (about 25 hectares), with its medieval castle
on the top;
Terramaini Park, about 13 hectares (32 acres), with a little pond
which is home to flamingos and other wading birds;
Monte Claro Provincial Park, about 22 hectares (54 acres), which hosts
the provincial library in an old mansion on the top of the hill;
Ex-vetreria Pirri Park, about 2.5 hectares (6.2 acres);
Public gardens, the oldest public esplanade of the city, planted in
the 19th century, with a wonderful promenade of Jacaranda mimosifolia
Molentargius - Saline Regional Park is located near the city.
Some mountain parks, such as Monte Arcosu or Maidopis, with large
forests and wildlife (Sardinian deer, wild boars, etc.) are also
Aerial view of
Main article: Poetto
The main beach of
Cagliari is the Poetto. It stretches for about 8
kilometres (5 mi), from Sella del Diavolo ("Devil's Saddle") up
to the coastline of Quartu Sant'Elena.
Poetto is also the name of the
district located on the western stretch of the strip between the beach
and Saline di
Another smaller beach is that of Calamosca near the Sant'Elia
district. On the coast between Calamosca and
Poetto beaches, among the
cliffs of the Sella del Diavolo, lies Cala Fighera, a small bay.
Cagliari is close to other seaside locations such as Santa Margherita
di Pula, Chia, Geremeas, Solanas,
Villasimius and Costa Rei.
Snow in Cagliari, 1910
Cagliari has a
Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen climate
classification) with hot, dry summers and very mild winters. The
summer extreme values can be slightly over 40 °C (104 °F),
sometimes with very high humidity, while in winter, under special and
rare conditions, the temperature drops slightly below zero. Heavy
snowfalls occur on average every thirty years.
The average temperature of the coldest month, January, is about
10 °C (50 °F), and of the warmest month, August, about
25 °C (77 °F). But heat waves can occur, due to African
anticyclone, starting in June. From mid-June to mid-September, rain is
a rare event, limited to brief afternoon storms. The rainy season
starts in September, and the first cold days come in December.
Winds are frequent, especially the mistral and sirocco; in summer a
marine sirocco breeze (called s'imbattu in Sardinian language) lowers
the temperature and brings some relief from the heat.
Climate data for
Elmas Airport (1971-2000) (
8 km (5 mi) northwest of Cagliari, 7 km (4 mi)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Servizio Meteorologico, Hong Kong Observatory for data
of sunshine hours
Climate data for
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Aeral view of part of the
Cagliari Metropolitan Area
Historical census data current boundaries
Commune population 1931 - 1991
According to ISTAT, in 2014 there were 154,356 people residing in
Cagliari (+3.0% compared with 2011), of whom 71,522 were male and
82,834 female for a sex ratio of 0.86. Minors (children aged 18 and
younger) totalled 12.92% of the population, compared to pensioners at
24.81%. The average age of
Cagliari residents is 47.44. The ratio of
the population over 65 years of age to that under the age of 18, is
53.39%. The elderly population, defined as being over 65 years of age,
has increased by 21.95% over the last 10 years. The current birth rate
Cagliari is 6.29 births per 1,000 inhabitants. The average number
of people of any age per household is 2.11 and the percentage of
households composed of a single person is 42.53%. The population of
Cagliari is structured like that of other first world countries,
especially as to the prevalence of an elderly population. The trend of
these rates in the
Cagliari metropolitan area is proportionally
reversed in the suburbs, where most younger families move.
As of 2012[update], 4.26% (6,658 people) of the population was
foreign, of which the largest group were
Filipinos (21.33%), followed
Romanians (10.93%), Chinese (9.49%) and
In 1928, during the fascist regime, the neighbouring municipalities of
Pirri, Monserrato, Selargius,
Quartucciu and Elmas, were merged with
that of Cagliari. Mussolini's regime wanted to streamline the local
administration by eliminating many small towns and at the same time
Italy was a major power with many large cities. After the
war these small municipalities gradually regained their autonomy,
except for the former town of Pirri.
The first table shows the inhabitants of the town in its present
borders, the second one the commune population including the merged
Main article: Metropolitan City of Cagliari
Metropolitan City of Cagliari
Metropolitan City of Cagliari has been established in 2016 by a
Sardinia Regional Law and totals about 431,000 inhabitants according
to ISTAT. It is composed of 17 municipalities along the coast of the
gulf and up to 20 kilometres (12 mi) of the inner Campidano
It covers an area on the plain of
Campidano between large basins
(Santa Gilla lagoon and salt mills of about 30 km2 (3200 acres), ponds
(Molentargius, 16,22 km2 (40,10 acrees) and the depopulated mountains
up to 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) above sea level. The mountains are
largely covered by forests mostly managed by the Ente Foreste of the
Autonomous Region of Sardinia. To the west these amount to 256 square
kilometres (99 sq mi) on the
Capoterra and Pula mountains.
Monte Arcosu WWF Natural Reserve has another 36 square kilometres
(14 sq mi), and to the east on Mount Serpeddì and Sette
Fratelli there are a total of 132 square kilometres
(51 sq mi) of forest.
The Metropolitan City is defined by municipalities where the
population increased between the last two censuses, in a region where
the population is otherwise generally decreasing. These municipalities
welcome immigrants to the urban area whose main nucleus, the city of
Cagliari, has a high number of elderly people.
In the last century, the population of the municipalities of the
metropolitan area increased by 354% and in the last 50 years by 158%
(1911: 128,444; 1961: 288,683; 2011: 454,819). For the whole of
Sardinia this increase was respectively 88% and 15% (1911: 868,181;
1961: 1,419,362; 2011: 1,639,362). The urbanisation towards the area
Cagliari was, in percentage terms, impressive, making the capital
of the island a metropolis surrounded by rural areas increasingly
depopulated. This urbanisation is also reflected in the concentration
Cagliari of most of the economic activities and wealth.
Cagliari Via Roma La Rinascente
According to 2014 data from the Italian Ministry of Economic
Affairs, the inhabitants of
Cagliari benefited a per capita income
of 23,220 euros (being the fifth Regional Capital), that is the 122%
of the national average, while all of
Sardinia benefited only 16,640
euros, the 86%, being the 13th Region. The metropolitan area benefited
an average income of 19,185 euros, 103% of the national average. With
the 26% of the island population the
Cagliari Metropolitan City
produces the 31% of its GDP. As the capital city of the Autonomous
Region of Sardinia,
Cagliari is the administrative hub and
headquarters of the region as well as of the provincial offices of the
Italian central administration.
Cagliari is also the main trade and
industrial centre of the island, with numerous commercial sites and
factories within its metropolitan boundaries.
Sarroch port system was the third in
Italy for goods
movements in 2014
The first department store, (La Rinascente) opened in 1931 in the
centre of the city, and it is still open today. Nowadays there are
many commercial centres in the metropolitan area (Le Vele, Santa
Gilla, La Corte del Sole, Marconi) hosting many European chain stores
such as Auchan, Metro AG, Lidl, MediaWorld, Euronics, Jysk, IKEA,
Carrefour and Bata Shoes.
Cagliari is also home to an Amazon
Cagliari is the main operational headquarters of the Banco di
Sardegna, which belongs to the BPER Group and is listed on Borsa
Italiana, of the Banca di Cagliari.
Banca di Credito Sardo was based
Cagliari until it was absorbed by the parent company Intesa
The Macchiareddu-Grogastru area between
Capoterra is one
of the most important industrial areas of Sardinia, in conjunction
with a large international container terminal port at Giorgino.
Beside having one of the biggest container terminals on the
Cagliari also has one of the largest fish markets
Italy offering for sale a vast array of fish to both the public and
traders. The communications provider
Tiscali also has its headquarters
Multinational corporations like Coca-Cola, Heineken, Unilever,
Eni Group have factories in town. One of the six oil
refinery supersites in Europe, Saras, is located within the
metropolitan area at Sarroch.
Tourism is one of the major industries of the city, although
historical venues such as its monumental
Middle Ages and Early modern
period defence system, its Carthaginian, Roman and Byzantine ruins are
less highlighted compared to the recreational beaches and coastline.
Cruise ships touring the Mediterranean often stop for passengers at
Cagliari, and the city is a traffic hub to the nearby beaches of
Villasimius, Chia, Pula and Costa Rei, as well as to the urban beach
of Poettu. Pula is home to the archaeological site of the Punic and
Roman city of Nora. Especially in summer many clubs and pubs are goals
for young locals and tourists. Pubs and night-clubs are concentrated
in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, a narrow street in Stampace
district, in the
Marina district, near the port and in the Castello
district, The clubs are mostly to be found on the
Poetto Beach (in
summer) or in Viale Marconi (in winter). In
Cagliari there are 180
B&B and 22 hotels that totals 3,300 beds. There are many others
hotels in seaside resort of his gulf.
Considerable remains of the ancient city of Karalis are still visible,
including those of the Tuvixeddu necropolis, the Roman amphitheatre,
traditionally called Is centu scalas ("One hundred steps"), and of an
aqueduct used to provide generally scarce water. Still visible are
also some ancient cisterns of vast extent, the ruins of a small
circular temple, and numerous sepulchres on a hill outside the modern
town that appear to have formed the necropolis of the ancient
city. The amphitheatre stages open-air operas and concerts during
San Saturnino Basilica, 5th century
Basilica of San Saturnino, dedicated to a martyr
killed under Diocletian's reign, Saturninus of Cagliari, patron saint
of the city, was built in the 5th century. Of the original building
the dome and the central part remain, to which two arms (one with a
nave and two aisles) were added later. A Palaeo-
Christian crypt is
also under the church of San Lucifero (1660), dedicated to Saint
Lucifer, a bishop of the city. The church has a
Baroque façade with
ancient columns and sculpted parts, some of which came from the nearby
Eastern walls of Castello
Church of San Michele
The old medieval town (called Castello in Italian, Casteddu de susu in
Sardinian, "the upper castle") lies on top of a hill with a view of
Gulf of Cagliari
Gulf of Cagliari (also known as Angels' Gulf). Most of its city
walls are intact and include two early 14th-century white limestone
Torre di San Pancrazio
Torre di San Pancrazio and the Torre dell'Elefante,
typical examples of Pisan military architecture. The local white
limestone was also used to build the walls of the city and many other
buildings, besides the towers. The exact period of construction of a
fortress on this hill is unknown at present, due to the superposition
of layers of buildings along the history. Some scholars have
suggested a first urbanization of the quarter in the Punic era on the
basis of similarity of the planimetry with the contemporary
Carthaginian fortress of Monte Sirai. Recently, archaeological
excavations have identified Punic and Roman buildings under the
ramparts of the fortress. Already the Roman poet
Varro called the
city "Vicus munitus", a fortified city, and sixteenth-century authors
describe a Roman acropolis perhaps still visible in their day.
D. H. Lawrence, in his memoir of a voyage to Sardinia, Sea and
Sardinia, that he undertook in January 1921, described the effect of
warm Mediterranean sunlight on the white limestone city and compared
Cagliari to a "white Jerusalem".
The Cathedral (left) and the old city hall (right)
The cathedral was restored in the 1930s, returning the former Baroque
façade into a Medieval Pisan-style façade more akin to the original
appearance of the church in the 13th century. The bell tower is
original. The interior has a nave and two aisles, with a pulpit
(1159–1162) sculpted for the Cathedral of
Pisa but later donated to
Cagliari. The crypt houses the remains of martyrs found in the
Basilica of San Saturno (see below). Near the cathedral is the palace
of the provincial government. Before 1900 it was the island's
Basilica of Our Lady of Bonaria
Collegiata di Sant'Anna
The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Bonaria (from which the city of Buenos
Aires, Argentina, gets its name) was built by the
1324–1329 when they were besieging the Pisans in Castello. It has a
small Gothic portal in the façade and the interior houses a wooden
statue of the Madonna, which, after having been thrown off a Spanish
ship, landed at the foot of Bonaria hill. Bonaria hill is also the
location of the Monumental Cemetery of Bonaria.
The Chiesa della Purissima is a
Catalan Gothic church built in the
16th century in the Castello distinct.
The other early districts of the town (Marina, Stampace and Villanova)
retain much of their original character. In Stampace the Torre dello
Sperone, another tower built by the Pisans in the late 13th century,
is located, as well as two important monumental churches: the
Collegiata di Sant'Anna and the Chiesa di San Michele, both built in
the 18th century in a baroque style. Many more churches, both old and
modern, can be found throughout the city.
The Promenade Deck and the Terrazza Umberto I were designed in 1896 by
the engineers Joseph Costa and Fulgenzio Setti. The entire building
was built of white and yellow limestone in a classical style with
Corinthian columns. It was opened in 1901. A staircase with two
flights provides access from Constitution Square. It is interrupted by
a covered walkway and ends beneath the Arc de Triomphe, in the
Terrazza Umberto I. In 1943, during World War II, the staircase and
the Arch of Triumph were severely damaged by aerial bombardment, but
after the conflict they were faithfully reconstructed.
From the Terrazza Umberto I the
Bastion of Santa Caterina can be
accessed via a short flight of steps. Here there was once an old
Dominican convent, destroyed by fire in 1800. According to tradition,
the conspiracy to kill the Viceroy Camarassa in 1666 was set up in the
surroundings of the monastery.
Art Nouveau in Cagliari
The Promenade Deck was inaugurated in 1902. At first it was used as a
banqueting hall, then during the First World War as an infirmary. In
the 1930s, during the period of sanctions, it was an exhibition of
autarky. During World War II it served as a shelter
for displaced people whose homes had been destroyed by bombs. In 1948
it hosted the first Trade Fair of Sardinia. After many years of decay,
the Promenade was restored and re-evaluated as a cultural space
reserved especially for art exhibitions.
The modern districts built in the late 19th and early 20th century
contain examples of
Art Deco architecture, as well as controversial
examples of Fascist neoclassicism architecture, such as the Court of
Justice (Palazzo di Giustizia) in Republic Square. The Court of
Justice is near the biggest city park, Monte Urpinu, with its pine
trees, artificial lakes, and a vast area with a hill. The Orto
Botanico dell'Università di Cagliari, the city's botanical garden, is
also of interest.
18th-century University Library
The city has numerous libraries and is also home to the State Archive,
containing thousands of handwritten documents from the foundation of
the Kingdom of
Sardinia (1325 AD) to the present. In addition to
numerous local and university department libraries, the most important
libraries are the old University Library, with thousands of
ancient books, the Provincial Library, the Regional Library,
and the Mediateca of the Mediterranean, which contains the
municipal archive and library collection.
In the first century B.C. a famous singer and musician from Cagliari,
Tigellius, lived in
Rome and was satirized by
Cicero and Horace. The
history of Sardinian literature begins in
Cagliari in the first
century A.D. In the funerary monument of Atilia Pomptilla, carved into
the rock of the necropolis of Tuvixeddu, poems are engraved in Greek
and Latin dedicated to his dead wife. Some of them, particularly those
in the Greek language, have literary merit.
The first Sardinian literary author known was Bishop Lucifer of
Cagliari, who wrote severe pamphlets against the Arian heresyin the
fourth century A.D. Only in the eleventh century A.D. did the first
texts of an administrative nature appear in the modern Sardinian
language, together with hagiographs of local martyrs written in Latin.
Cagliari has been depicted by many writers, starting with the
late Roman poet Claudian. In the late 16th century, the local humanist
Roderigo Hunno Baeza dedicated to his town a didactic Latin poem,
Caralis Panegyricus. At the beginning of the 17th century Juan
Francisco Carmona wrote a hymn to
Cagliari in Spanish; Jacinto Arnal
De Bolea published in 1636, in Spanish, the first novel set in
Cagliari, entitled El Forastero. David Herbert Lawrence wrote
about the city in his Sea and Sardinia.
Modern writers connected to
Cagliari include Giuseppe Dessì, Giulio
Angioni, Giorgio Todde, Sergio Atzeni, (who set many of his novels and
short stories, such as Bakunin's Son, in ancient and modern Cagliari),
The new Teatro Lirico (opera house)
Cagliari was the birthplace or residence of the composer Ennio
Porrino, of the film, theatre and TV director Nanni Loy, and of the
actors Gianni Agus,
Amedeo Nazzari and
Pier Angeli (born Anna Maria
Excluding the Roman era amphitheater, the first theater was
Cagliari in 1767: the Teatro Zapata, later becoming the
Civic Theatre. Devastated by bombing in 1943, it was recently
restored, but the roof was not rebuilt, and today it serves as an
open-air theatre. The Politeama Regina Margherita, inaugurated in
1859, was destroyed by fire in 1942 and never rebuilt.
Although opera had, and in part still has, a solid tradition the city,
it was left without a true theater until 1993 when a new opera house,
the Teatro Lirico, was inaugurated. Inside there is a music
compound with a music conservatory with its own auditorium, and a
Cagliari is and was home to opera singers such as the
Giovanni Matteo Mario
Giovanni Matteo Mario (Giovanni Matteo De Candia, 1810-1883)
and Piero Schiavazzi (1875–1949), the baritone Angelo Romero (born
1940), the contralto Bernadette Manca di Nissa, born 1954 and the
soprano Giusy Devinu (1960–2007). The Italian pop singer Marco Carta
was also born in Cagliari, in 1985.
The old Teatro Massimo was only recently renovated and is now the seat
of the Teatro Stabile of Sardinia. The Municipal Auditorium, in
the former 17th-century church of Santa Teresa, is the seat of the
Scuola di Arte Drammatica (School of Dramatic Art) di Cagliari,
while the Teatro delle Saline ("Saltworks Theatre"), is home of
Akroama, Teatro Stabile di Innovazione ("Permanent Theater of
Finally, some comic and satirical theater companies are active in the
city, the most well known being the "Compagnia Teatrale Lapola",
which offers an urban version of the traditional campidanese comic
Founded by Bepi Vigna, Antonio Serra and Michele Medda, a comic book
school, the Centro Internazionale del Fumetto ("Comic Strip
International Centre") has been active for several decades. Its
founders invented and designed the comic characters
Nathan Never and
Museums and galleries
Cittadella dei Musei
Galleria comunale d'Arte
"The mother of the killed" by Francesco Ciusa, Civic Art Gallery
The Polo museale di
Cagliari "Cittadella dei musei" (Citadel of
Museums) is home to:
Museo archeologico nazionale di
Cagliari (National Archeological
Museum of Cagliari), the most important archeological museum of
Sardinia, which contains finds from the
Neolithic period (6000 B.C.)
to the Early
Middle Ages about 1000 A.D.
Museo civico d'arte siamese Stefano Cardu (Civic Siamese Art Museum
"Stefano Cardu") the most important European collection of Siamese
art, gathered by a Cagliaritan collector at the beginning of the 20th
Museo delle cere anatomiche Clemente Susini (Anatomical Waxwork Museum
"Clemente Susini"). This collection of anatomical waxworks is
considered one of the finest in the world, and perfectly describes the
human body, testifying to the state of medical and surgical knowledge
at the beginning of the 19th century. The collection was created by
the sculptor Clemente Susini and includes faithful reproductions of
dissections of cadavers performed in the School of Anatomy in Florence
Pinacoteca nazionale (National Picture Gallery)
Galleria comunale d'arte (Civic art Gallery) with an important
exposition of modern Italian painting offered to the city by its
collector (Ingrao Collection), and an exposition of Sardinian
Collezione sarda Luigi Piloni (University Sardinian Collection "Luigi
ExMà, MEM, Castello di San Michele, and Il Ghetto exposition
Museo di Bonaria (Basilical Church Museum of Bonaria), with an
interesting ex-voto collection
Museo del Duomo (Cathedral Museum);
Museo del tesoro di Sant'Eulalia (Treasure Museum of Saint Eulalia of
Barcelona; with its important Roman era underground area.
Orto botanico di
Cagliari University Botanical Gardens
Feast of Sant'Efis
Municipal mace bearer
Traditional folk costume of
Cagliari during the Feast of St. Ephysius
The Feast of
St. Ephysius (Sant'Efisio in Italian, Sant'Efis in
Sardinian) is the most important religious event of Cagliari, taking
place every year on May 1. During this festival, thousands of people
from folk groups all over
Sardinia wear their traditional costumes.
The saint is escorted by the traditional ancient Milicia, the deputy
mayor (Alter Nos), numerous confraternities, and a convoy of chariots
pulled by oxen in a procession to Nora (near modern Pula), 35 km
(22 mi) from Cagliari, where, according to tradition, he was
beheaded. In addition to being one of the oldest, it is also the
longest Italian religious procession, with about 70 km
(43 mi) of walks over four days, and the largest in the
A plague was spreading throughout Sardinia, starting in 1652, and the
Cagliari in particular, killing some ten thousand
inhabitants. According to legend, in 1656
St. Ephysius appeared to the
Spanish Viceroy, Francisco Fernández de Castro Andrade, Count of
Lemos to request a procession on 1 May, in order to free the city from
the plague. The Municipality of
Cagliari swore that, if the plague
disappeared, a procession would be held every day in the saint's
honor, starting from the Stampace district and ending at Nora where
the saint was martyred. In September the plague ended, and the
procession and festival was therefore regularly held starting the
following year on May 1. The procession was held even during the last
war; a statue of the saint was placed on a lorry and, through city
ruins of the devastated by the bombs, arrived safely in Nora.
Other feasts and events in
Holy Week and Easter celebrations
Sea processions of St. Francis of Paola, held in May, and Nostra
Signora di Bonaria, in July
Cagliari Fair, in early May
Audi MedCup regatta
Sardinian language and Campidanese dialect
The native language of Cagliari, declared official along with
Italian, is Sardinian (sardu), a Romance language, specifically
Campidanese dialect (campidanesu) in its local variant
The variant of
Cagliari in its high register has traditionally
represented the linguistic model of reference for the entire southern
area of the island, and the high social variant used by the middle
class in the whole Campidanese domain, as well as the literary model
of reference for writers and poets. This language is less spoken by
the younger generations in the city, who use Italian instead as that
language is compulsory in education and the mass media. Italian has
increasingly become predominant in social relations, both formal and
informal, relegating Sardinian to a mostly marginal role in everyday
life. Young people often have only passive competence in the language,
gathered from elderly relatives who still speak it, as their parents
often speak only Italian, or they may use a juvenile slang (italianu
porceddinu) that mixes both Sardinian and Italian.
Cagliari was the metropolis of the ancient Roman province, it
absorbed innovations coming from Rome, Carthage, and Constantinople,
and its language probably reflected late Latin urban dialects of the
5th-century core cities of the empire.
Seafood offered in a
Cagliari has some unique gastronomic traditions: unlike the rest of
the island its cuisine is mostly based on the wide variety of locally
available seafood. Although it is possible to trace influences from
Catalan, Sicilian and Genoese cuisine, Cagliaritan food has a
distinctive and unique character.
Excellent wines are also part of Cagliaritanians' dinners, like the
Cannonau, Nuragus, Nasco, Monica, Moscau, Girò and Malvasia, produced
in the nearby vineyards of the
The main newspaper of
Sardinia is L'Unione Sarda, it was founded in
Cagliari in 1889. It was one of the first European newspapers to have
its own website in 1994. It has a circulation of about 85,000 copies.
The main regional headquarters of RAI, the Italian state-owned radio
and television network, is in Cagliari. There are also two regional
television and radio companies as well as numerous information sites
on the internet.
Internal view of the Sardegna Arena, home of
Serie A football club
Cagliari Calcio since 2017
Cagliari is home to the football team
Cagliari Calcio, winner of the
Italian league championship in 1970, when the team was led by Gigi
Riva. Founded in 1920, the club played at the
Stadio Sant'Elia in the
city from 1970 until it was closed in the summer of 2017, causing the
club to temporarily relocate to the provisional Sardegna Arena.
Sant'Elia was the venue for three
1990 FIFA World Cup
1990 FIFA World Cup matches.
Cagliari is an ideal location for water sports such as surfing,
kitesurfing, windsurfing and sailing due to strong and reliable
Field hockey is also popular, with two teams in the
Italian top division, G.S. Amsicora and C.U.S. Cagliari, the first of
which won the league title more often than any other Italian team in
the men's championship (20) and is also the protagonist in the women's
Sport venues in
Rockfeller sports hall
Rockfeller skating rink
Via dello Sport gymnastics hall
Terra Maini Olympionic pool
Amsicora Stadium 
Rari Nantes pool 
Riccardo Santoru athletics stadium
Poettu hippodrome 
Mario Siddi fencing gymnasium
Mulinu Becciu tennis table hall
Facilities of the University Sports Center, C.U.S.
Cagliari city hall, Bacaredda Palace
Cagliari is the hub of the administration offices of the Sardinia
Autonomous Region and of
Cagliari Province. It is also the home of
several local offices of the Italian central administration.
It is the seat of the Superintendency of Cultural and Environmental
Heritage, of the
Sardinia Archival Superintendency and of the
Archeological Superintendency of the Cultural Heritage
Ministry, of the
Sardinia and Provincial seat of the Employment
and Social Policies Ministry, of the regional offices of the Finance
and Economy Ministry, and of some branch offices of the Health
Cagliari is home to all criminal, civil, administrative and accounting
Sardinia of the Ministry of Justice up to the High Court of
Assizes of Appeal. It was home to a prison, Buon Cammino, built in the
late 19th century, famous because no one has ever managed to escape. A
new modern prison has been built in the nearby town of Uta.
Traditionally, votes in
Cagliari are oriented towards the center-right
wing. Since World War II, all the mayors belonged to the Christian
Democracy party with the exception of Salvatore Ferrara, from the
Socialist Party, allied with the former. After the collapse of the
traditional parties in the 1990s, the mayors belonged to the party or
the coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi. The current economic and
political crisis that affects
Italy has prompted the electorate toward
a large abstention and to elect a young mayor, Massimo Zedda, who
belongs to a centre-left alliance. In the last municipal elections in
June 2016, Massimo Zedda was confirmed in the first round with 50.86%
of the votes.
"Aula Magna" of the University of Cagliari
Cagliari is home to the University of Cagliari, the largest public
university in Sardinia, founded in 1626. It currently includes six
faculties: Engineering and Architecture, Medicine and Surgery,
Economics, Juridical and Political Sciences, Basic Sciences, Biology
and Pharmacy, Humanistic Studies.
It is attended by about 35,000 students. All science faculties of
the university, as well as the university hospital, have been
transferred to a new "University Citadel", located in Monserrato.
Cagliari's downtown houses the engineering and the humanities
divisions and, in the Castle, the seat of the Rector, in an
18th-century palace with a library of thousands of ancient books.
Cagliari is also the seat of the Pontifical Faculty of Theology of
Sardinia and of the European Institute of Design.
San Michele Hospital
Life expectancy in
Cagliari is high: 79.5 years for men and 85.4 for
women (provincial level).
There has been a public hospital in
Cagliari since the 17th century.
The first modern structure was built in the middle of the 19th
century, designed by the architect Gaetano Cima. This hospital is
still operating, although all its departments will eventually be
transferred to the new University Hospital in Monserrato.
Among the other public hospitals, the
Giuseppe Brotzu (San Michele)
Hospital  was recognized in 1993 as a High Specialization
Nationally Relevant Hospital, particularly for liver, heart, pancreas
and bone marrow transplants.
Other public hospitals in the city include: the Santissima Trinità or
commonly Is Mirrionis; the Binaghi, specialised in pulmonology; Marino
specialised in traumatology, hyperbaric medicine and spinal cord
injuries; Businco specialised in oncology; and Microcitemico,
specialised in thalassemia,
Genetic diseases and rare diseases. There
are in addition many private hospitals.
Despite its dry climate, thanks to the regional system of dams, every
Cagliari may have 363 litres (96 US gal) per
day of safe drinking water.
Waste sorting is still at a low level: only 33.4 percent of waste
The statue of King Carlo Felice in Piazza Yenne, the starting point
for all of Sardinia's main roads
Check-in area of Cagliari-
Elmas International Airport
The city is served by the Cagliari-
Elmas International Airport,
located a few kilometres from the centre of Cagliari. A railway line
connects the city to the airport; walkways join the railway station to
the air terminal. The terminal is also connected to the city by
highway SS 130 and by a bus service run by the ARST company to the
central bus station in Matteotti square, in the centre of the city.
There are other airports not too far from the city: Deciomannu
NATO military airport and three fields for air sports,
Serdiana (used in particular for skydiving), Castiadas and
Cable-stayed bridge of the
Monserrato University Campus interchange SS
The following national roads begin in Cagliari:
Carlo Felice to
Porto Torres (motorway-like until
Oristano) and to
Olbia (SS131 Central Nuorese Branch).
Iglesiente, to Iglesias and Carbonia.
Orientale Sarda, which connects
Cagliari to Tortolì and Olbia,
ending in Palau, across from Corsica.
Sulcis along the coast.
del Gerrei, to Ballao and Ogliastra.
Provincial Road 17 connects
The port of
Cagliari is divided in two sector, the old port and the
new international container terminal. The port system of
Sarroch is the third for freight traffic in
Italy with a
movement of about 34 million tons.
Cagliari has scheduled services
by passenger ship to Civitavecchia, Naples,
Palermo and Trapani. In
Cagliari there are also two other small touristic ports, Su Siccu
(Lega Navale) and
Cagliari railway station
Ferrovie dello Stato
Ferrovie dello Stato railway station in
Cagliari has services to
Iglesias, Carbonia, Olbia, Golfo Aranci,
Sassari and Porto Torres.
The nearby commune of
Monserrato is the terminal railway station of a
narrow gauge line to
Arbatax and Sorgono.
Urban and suburban mobility
Bus and trolleybus services, managed by CTM  (more than 30 lines)
and ARST, connect internal destinations in the city and in the
Cagliari is one of the few Italian cities with an
extensive trolleybus network, whose fleet has been partially renovated
in 2012. A metro-like tram service on its own rail, MetroCagliari,
operates between Piazza Repubblica and the new University campus near
Monserrato (line 1) and from
Monserrato San Gottardo and Settimo San
Pietro (line 2). A line between Piazza Repubblica and Piazza
Matteotti, the city transport hub (with train, urban and extra-urban
bus stations), is planned. Trenitalia, the primary train operator in
Italy, operates a metro train service between
Cagliari Central Station
and Decimomannu, which connects the airport with the city center. A
public bike-sharing service is operating with pick-up points at Via
Sonnino - Palazzo Civico, Piazza Repubblica, Piazza Giovanni 23, and
Twin towns – sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Cagliari is twinned with:
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Padua, Italy, 2002
Biella, Italy, 2003
Cagliari there are at present (2014) the following consulates:
United Kingdom in Quartu Sant'Elena
^ Long name (defunct): Casteddu de Càlaris
^ Population data from Istat
^ ""Cagliari" in the Oxford British & World English dictionary".
Retrieved October 11, 2015.
^ ""Cagliari" in the Oxford US English dictionary". Retrieved October
^ "Regione Autonoma della Sardegna". Regione.sardegna.it. Retrieved
^ "Statistiche Istat". Dati.istat.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
Cagliari art (Italian Language Schools and Courses to Learn Italian
in Italy.)". It-schools.com. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
^ "Nell'Italia delle tasse Milano stacca tutti - Guarda il reddito del
tuo Comune". Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
^ a b sistemi e grafiche netsoul srl www.netsoul.net. "Universitр
degli studi di Cagliari". unica.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Chiesa di Cagliari". Chiesadicagliari.it. 2015-03-05. Retrieved
^ "Archdiocese of Cagliari". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney.
Retrieved 23 January 2015.
^ Claudian, De Bello Gildonico, IV A.D.: city located in front of
Libya (Africa), founded by the powerful Tyro, Karalis extends in
length, between the waves, with a small bumpy hill, disperses
headwinds. It follows a port in the mid of the sea, and all strong
winds are softened in the shelter of the pond.(521.Urbs Lybiam contra
Tyrio fundata potenti 521. Tenditur in longum Caralis, tenuemque per
undas 522. Obvia dimittit fracturum flamina collem. 523. Efficitur
portus medium mare: tutaque ventis 524. Omnibus, ingenti mansuescunt
Livy xxiii. 40, 41.
^ Id. xxx. 39.
^ Attilio Mastino (a cura di), Storia della Sardegna antica, Il
^ ii. 6. § 35.
^ xli. 6, 12, 17.
Commentarii de Bello Civili
Commentarii de Bello Civili i. 30.
^ Hirt. B. Afr. 98.
Cassius Dio xlviii. 30.
^ Pliny iii. 7. s. 13;
Strabo v. p. 224; Pomponius Mela, ii. 7;
Antonine Itinerary pp. 80, 81, 82, etc.
^ Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, 3.15 and 5.12
^ Claud. B. Gild. 520-24.
^ Pliny l. c.; Ptolemy iii. 3. § 8.
^ a b c Casula 1994, p. 209-210.
^ Casula 1994, p. 210-212.
^ Casula 1994, p. 304.
^ "Guide to Cagliari, Villasimius, Costa Rei" (PDF). CharmingSardinia.
February 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-07-11.
^ Casula 1994, p. 468.
^ a b
Cagliari News, Bombe su Cagliari: cronologia di una
^ http://www.online-literature.com/dh_lawrence/sea-and-sardinia/2/ Ch.
2 and 3
^ R. Pracchi; A. Terrosu Asole, eds. (1971). Atlante della Sardegna.
Cagliari: Editrice la Zattera.
^  Archived February 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
Molentargius - Saline". Parcomolentargius.it. Retrieved
^ "Tabelle climatiche 1971-2000 della stazione meteorologica di
Elmas Ponente dall'Atlante Climatico 1971-2000" (PDF).
Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved
^ "Climatological Normals of Cagliari". Weather.gov.hk. 2012-12-20.
^ "moyennes 1981/2010".
^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved
^  Archived August 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Smyth's Sardinia, pp. 206, 215Valery, Voyage en Sardaigne, c.
^ Ferrucio Barreca, La Sardegna fenicia e punica, Storia della
Sardegna antica e moderna, edizioni Chiarella, 1984
^ Juan Francisco Carmona, Hymno a Càller
^ Roderigo Hunno Baeza, Caralis panegyricus
^  Archived September 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Provincia di
Cagliari Biblioteca Provinciale Ragazzi".
Provincia.cagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Sardegna Biblioteche - Attività - Biblioteca regionale".
Sardegnabiblioteche.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
Comune di Cagliari MEM - Mediateca del Mediterraneo: Biblioteca
Comunale Generale e di Studi Sardi - Archivio Storico - Mediateca".
Comune.cagliari.it. Archived from the original on 2015-02-09.
^ Miscellaneous codex preserved in the Civic Library of Cagliari,
edited by Francesco Alziator, 1954
^ Jacinto Arnal de Bolea, El Forastero, Emprenta A. Galgerin, Càller,
1636, republished by the editor Marìa Dolores, Garcìa Sànchez,
CFS/CUEC, Cagliari, 2011
^ "Teatro Lirico Web-site". Teatroliricodicagliari.it. Retrieved
^  Archived September 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Scuola d'Arte Drammatica
Cagliari - Tetatro stabile d'arte
contemporanea Akròama". Scuoladiteatrocagliari.it. Retrieved
^ "Teatro delle Saline". Teatrodellesaline.it. Retrieved
^ "Akròama T.L.S. - Contemporary Art Theatre". Akroama.it. Retrieved
^ "Compagnia Teatrale LAPOLA". Lapola.eu. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^  Archived October 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Centro Internazionale del Fumetto - Cagliari".
Centrointernazionalefumetto.com. Archived from the original on
2015-02-11. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Musei - Soprintendenza Archeologia della Sardegna".
Archeocaor.beniculturali.it. 2012-06-24. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
Comune di Cagliari Museo d'Arte Siamese Stefano Cardu".
Comune.cagliari.it. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
^  Archived October 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Pinacoteca Nazionale di
Cagliari - Home".
Pinacoteca.cagliari.beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Galleria Comunale d'Arte Cagliari". Galleriacomunalecagliari.it.
^ "Ateneo - unica.it - Universitŕ degli studi di Cagliari". unica.it.
^ "Camù Centri d'Arte e Musei". Camuweb.it. Retrieved
^  Archived September 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Museo del Duomo di Cagliari". Museoduomodicagliari.it. 2014-06-20.
^ "Museo del Tesoro di Sant'Eulalia - Musei - I luoghi dell'arte e
della cultura - Luoghi -
Cagliari Turismo". Cagliariturismo.it.
^ "Orto Botanico di Cagliari". Ccb-sardegna.it. Retrieved
^ Cagliari, il sardo diventa lingua ufficiale: il Consiglio dice sì
al nuovo Statuto - Sardiniapost
^ "FIFA World Cup 1990 - Group F - Historical Football Kits".
Historicalkits.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Tennis Club
Cagliari - Home". Asdtennisclubcagliari.it. 2015-04-29.
^ "Amsicora - Cagliari" (in Italian). Amsicoracagliari.it. Retrieved
^ "Rarinantes Cagliari". Rarinantescagliari.it. 2013-01-24. Retrieved
^ "Cagliaritana Nuoto". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Home". Ippodromocagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Centro Universitario Sportivo Cagliari : Homepage".
Cuscagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Home - Soprintendenza per i Beni Architettonici, Paesaggistici,
Storici, Artistici ed Etnoantropologici per le province di
Oristano". Sbappsaecaor.beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "La Soprintendenza archivistica - Soprintendenza Archivistica per la
Sardegna". Sa-sardegna.beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Home - Soprintendenza Archeologia della Sardegna".
Archeocaor.beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Home-Page Sito web del Ministero dei beni e delle attività
culturali e del turismo". Beniculturali.it. Retrieved
^ "Ragioneria Generale dello Stato - Ministero dell'Economia e delle
Finanze". Rgs.mef.gov.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Classifica Atenei Statali 2012". Censismaster.it. Archived from the
original on 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
Cagliari - Presidi sanitari - Presidio Policlinico Monserrato".
Aoucagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu - Home page". Aobrotzu.it. Retrieved
^ "Cagliariairport - it". Sogaer.it. 2013-03-01. Retrieved
^ "ARST - - Home" (in Italian). Arst.sardegna.it. Retrieved
^ "Skydive Sardegna en". Skydivesardegna.com. Retrieved
^ http://www.porto.cagliari.it/images/pdf/dati-2014[permanent dead
^ "Acquista il biglietto con le nostre offerte". Trenitalia.com.
^ "CTM Cagliari". Ctmcagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
^ "ARST - - Home". Arst.sardegna.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
Andrews Robert, The Rough Guide to Sardinia, Publisher: Rough Guide
Ltd, 2010, ISBN 1848365403.
Dyson, Stephen L. - Roland Jr. Robert, Archaeology and History in
Sardinia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages: Shepherds, Sailors,
and Conquerors, 2007.
Sardinia Travel Map.
Lawrence D. H., Sea and Sardinia
Parker, Philip M., The 2011 Economic and Product Market Databook for
Cagliari, Italy, Icon Group International, 2011
Stein Eliot, Sardinia:
Cagliari & the South, Publisher: Footprint
Travel Guides, United Kingdom, 2012, ISBN 1908206535
Alziator Francesco, La città del sole, editrice La Zattera, Cagliari,
Cagliari preistorica, editrice CUEC, Cagliari, 2003.
Barreca Ferrucio, La Sardegna fenicia e punica, editore Chiarella,
Boscolo Alberto, La Sardegna bizantina e altogiudicale, editotr
Chiarella, Sassari, 1982
Francesco Cesare Casula (1994). La storia di Sardegna. Sassari:
Delfino Editore. ISBN 88-7138-063-0.
Cossu Giuseppe, Della città di Cagliari, notizie compendiose sacre e
profane, Stamperia Reale,
Del Piano Lorenzo, La Sardegna nell'ottocento, editore Chiarella,
Gallinari Luciano, Il
Cagliari tra XI e XIII secolo.
Proposte di interpretazioni istituzionali, in Rivista dell'Istituto di
Storia dell'Europa Mediterranea, n°5, 2010
Hunno Baeza Roderigo, Il Caralis Panegyricus, edited by Francesco
Alziator, Tipografia, Mercantile Doglio, Cagliari, 1954.
Manconi Francesco, La Sardegna al tempo degli Asburgo, Il Maestrale,
Nuoro, 2010, ISBN 9788864290102
Manconi Francesco, Una piccola provincia di un grande impero, CUEC,
Cagliari, 2012, ISBN 8884677882
Manconi Francesco (edited by), La società sarda in età spagnola,
Edizioni della Torre, Cagliari, 2003, 2 vol.
Mastino Attilio, Storia della Sardegna Antica, Il Maestrale, Nuoro,
2005, ISBN 9788889801635
Maxia Agata Rosa, La grammatica del dialetto cagliaritano, editrice
Della Torre, Cagliari, 2010
Meloni Piero, La Sardegna Romana, Chiarella, Sassari, 1980
Porru Vincenzo Raimondo, Saggio di gramatica sul dialetto sardo
meridionale, Stamperia Reale, Cagliari, 1811.
Scano Dionigi, Forma Karalis, a cura del
Comune di Cagliari, pref. di
E. Endrich, Cagliari, Società Editrice Italiana, 1934, (oggi in ed.
anast. Cagliari, La zattera, 1970; Cagliari, 3T, 1989).
Sole Carlino, La Sardegna sabauda nel settecento, edizione Chiarella,
Sorgia Giancarlo, La Sardegna spagnola, editore Chiarella, Sassari,
Spano Giovanni, Guida della città e dintorni di Cagliari, ed. Timon,
Cagliari nel seicento, editrice Il Castello, Cagliari,
Thermes Cenza, Cagliari, amore mio : guida storica, artistica,
sentimentale della citta di Cagliari, editrice 3T, Cagliari, 1980-81.
Thermes Cenza, E a dir di Cagliari..., editrice G. Trois, Cagliari,
Zedda Corrado, Pinna Raimondo, Fra
Santa Igia e il Castro Novo Montis
de Castro. La questione giuridica urbanistica a
del XIII secolo, Archivio Storico Giuridico Sardo di Sassari", n.s.,
15 (2010–2011), pp. 125–187
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article
name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John
Find more aboutCagliariat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Official website (in Italian)
Cagliari Tourist Board website
Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Cagliari
Settimo San Pietro
Villa San Pietro
Regional capitals of Italy
Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Phoenician cities and colonies
Mauritania / Morocco
Cerne / Arambys
Sa Caleta, Ibiza
Turkey / others
Phoenicus / Gibraltar
Italy by population