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Cagliari
Cagliari
(English: /ˌkæliˈɑːri/, /ˈkæljəri/ or US: /kælˈjɑːri/;[2][3] Italian: [ˈkaʎʎari] ( listen); Sardinian: Casteddu;[a] Latin: Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy.[4] Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu literally means castle. It has about 150,000 inhabitants,[5] while its metropolitan city (including Cagliari
Cagliari
and 16 other nearby municipalities) has more than 431,000 inhabitants. According to Eurostat, the population of the Functional urban area, the commuting zone of Cagliari, rises to 476,974.[6] Cagliari
Cagliari
is the 26th largest city in Italy
Italy
and the largest city on the island of Sardinia. An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari
Cagliari
has seen the rule of several civilisations. Under the buildings of the modern city there is a continuous stratification attesting to human settlement over the course of some five thousand years, from the Neolithic
Neolithic
to today. Historical sites include the prehistoric Domus de Janas, very damaged by cave activity, a large Carthaginian era necropolis, a Roman era amphitheatre, a Byzantine basilica, three Pisan-era towers and a strong system of fortification that made the town the core of Spanish Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Its natural resources have always been its sheltered harbour, the often powerfully fortified hill of Castel di Castro, the modern Casteddu, the salt from its lagoons, and, from the hinterland, wheat from the Campidano
Campidano
plain and silver and other ores from the Iglesiente
Iglesiente
mines. Cagliari
Cagliari
was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
from 1324 to 1848, when Turin
Turin
became the formal capital of the kingdom (which in 1861 became the Kingdom of Italy). Today the city is a regional cultural, educational, political and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments.[7] It is also Sardinia's economic and industrial hub, having one of the biggest ports in the Mediterranean Sea, an international airport, and the 106th highest income level in Italy
Italy
(among 8,092 comuni), comparable to that of several northern Italian cities.[8] It is also the seat of the University of Cagliari,[9] founded in 1607, and of the Primate Roman Catholic archdiocese of Sardinia,[10][11] since the 5th century AD.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Giudicato
Giudicato
of Cagliari 1.3 11th to 13th century 1.4 14th to 17th centuries 1.5 18th century 1.6 Modern age 1.7 Coats of Arms of Cagliari

2 Geography

2.1 Parks and recreation

2.1.1 Beaches

2.2 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Metropolitan City

4 Economy 5 Main sights 6 Culture

6.1 Museums and galleries 6.2 Feast of Sant'Efis 6.3 Other events 6.4 Languages 6.5 Gastronomy

7 Media 8 Sports 9 Government 10 Education 11 Health care 12 Transport

12.1 Airport 12.2 Roads 12.3 Ports 12.4 Railways 12.5 Urban and suburban mobility

13 Twin towns – sister cities 14 Consulates 15 Notes 16 References 17 Literature 18 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Cagliari
History of Cagliari
and Timeline of Cagliari

Monte Claro culture
Monte Claro culture
pottery

Early history[edit]

Karalitan ship owners and traders, mosaic in Ostia Antica

The Cagliari
Cagliari
area has been inhabited since the Neolithic. It occupies a favourable position between the sea and a fertile plain and is surrounded by two swamps (which provides defence against attacks from the inland). There are high mountains nearby, to which people could evacuate if the settlement had to be given up. Relics of prehistoric inhabitants were found in the hill of Monte Claro (Monte Claro culture) and in Cape Sant'Elia (several domus de janas).

Punic era inscription from the National Archeological Museum

Necropolis
Necropolis
of Tuvixeddu

Is Centu Scalas ("a hundred steps"), the Roman amphitheatre of Cagliari

Krly was established around the 8th/7th century BC as one of a string of Phoenician colonies in Sardinia, including Tharros.[12] Its founding is linked to its position along communication routes with Africa as well as to its excellent port. The Phoenician settlement was located in the Stagno di Santa Gilla, west of the present centre of Cagliari. This was also the site of the Roman Portus Scipio, and when Arab pirates raided the area in the 8th century it became the refuge for people fleeing from the city. Other Phoenician settlements have been found at Cape Sant'Elia. In the late 6th century BC Carthage
Carthage
took control of part of Sardinia, and Cagliari
Cagliari
grew substantially under their domination, as testified by the large Tuvixeddu necropolis
Tuvixeddu necropolis
and other remains. Cagliari
Cagliari
was a fortified settlement in what is now the modern Marina
Marina
quarter, with an annexed holy area in the modern Stampace. Sardinia
Sardinia
and Cagliari
Cagliari
came under Roman rule in 238 BC, shortly after the First Punic War, when the Romans defeated the Carthaginians. No mention of it is found on the occasion of the Roman conquest of the island, but during the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
it was the headquarters of the praetor, Titus Manlius Torquatus, from whence he conducted his operations against Hampsicora
Hampsicora
and the Carthaginians.[13] At other times it was also the Romans' chief naval station on the island, and the residence of the praetor.[14] The Romans built a new settlement east of the old Punic city, the Vicus munitus Caralis (i.e. the fortified town of Caralis) mentioned by Varro
Varro
Atacinus. The two urban agglomerations merged gradually during the second century B.C.; to this process is perhaps attributable the plural form Carales.[15] Florus
Florus
calls it the urbs urbinum, or capital of Sardinia, and represents it as taken and severely punished by Gracchus,[16] but this statement is wholly at variance with Livy's account of the wars of Gracchus, in Sardinia, according to which the cities were faithful to Rome, and the revolt was confined to the mountain tribes.[17] In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, the citizens of Caralis were the first to declare in favor of the former, an example soon followed by the other cities of Sardinia;[18] and Caesar himself touched there with his fleet on his return from Africa.[19] A few years later, when Sardinia
Sardinia
fell into the hands of Menas, the lieutenant of Sextus Pompeius, Caralis was the only city which offered any resistance, but was taken after a short siege.[20] Cagliari
Cagliari
continued to be regarded as the capital of the island under the Roman Empire, and though it did not become a colony, obtained the status of Municipium.[21] Remains of Roman public buildings were found to the west of Marina
Marina
in Piazza del Carmine. There was an area of ordinary housing near the modern Via Roma, and richer houses on the slopes of the Marina distinct. The amphitheatre is located to the west of the Castello. A Christian
Christian
community is attested in Cagliari
Cagliari
at least as early as the 3rd century, and by the end of that century the city had a Christian bishop. In the middle decades of the 4th century bishop Lucifer of Cagliari
Cagliari
was exiled because of his opposition to the sentence against Athanasius of Alexandria
Athanasius of Alexandria
at the Synod of Milan. He was banished to the desert of Thebais
Thebais
by the emperor Constantius II.[22] Claudian
Claudian
describes the ancient city of Karalis as extending to a considerable length towards the promontory or headland, the projection of which sheltered its port. The port affords good anchorage for large vessels, but besides this, which is only a well-sheltered standby, there is a large salt-water lake or lagoon, called the Stagno di Cagliari, adjoining the city and communicating by a narrow channel with the bay, which appears from Claudian
Claudian
to have been used in ancient times as an inner harbor or basin.[23] The promontory adjoining the city is evidently that noticed by Ptolemy (Κάραλις πόλις καὶ ἄκρα), but the Caralitanum Promontorium of Pliny can be no other than the headland, now called Capo Carbonara, which forms the eastern boundary of the Gulf of Cagliari
Gulf of Cagliari
and the southeast point of the whole island. Immediately off it lay the little island of Ficaria,[24] now called the Isola dei Cavoli. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Cagliari
Cagliari
fell, together with the rest of Sardinia, into the hands of the Vandals, but appears to have retained its importance throughout the Middle Ages.

Saint Peter of the fishermen church, 12th century

Giudicato
Giudicato
of Cagliari[edit] Main article: Giudicato
Giudicato
of Cagliari

Griffin and Pegasus pluteo, Byzantine Middle Ages. National Archaeological Museum of Cagliari

Subsequently, ruled by the Vandals
Vandals
and then part of the Byzantine Empire, Cagliari
Cagliari
became the capital of a gradually independent giudicato. However, there is some evidence that during this period of independence from external rule, the city was deserted because it was too exposed to attacks by Moorish pirates coming from north Africa and Spain. Apparently many people left Caralis and founded a new town named Santa Igia in an area close to the Santa Gilla swamp to the west of Cagliari, but relatively distant from the sea. The giudicato of Cagliari
Cagliari
comprised a large area of the Campidano plain, the Sulcis- Iglesiente
Iglesiente
and the mountain region of Ogliastra. 11th to 13th century[edit]

Torre dell'Elefante
Torre dell'Elefante
(1307)

During the 11th century, the Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa
began to extend its political influence over the giudicato of Cagliari. Pisa
Pisa
and the maritime republic of Genoa
Genoa
had a keen interest in Sardinia
Sardinia
because it was a perfect strategic base for controlling the commercial routes between Italy
Italy
and North Africa. In 1215 the Pisan Lamberto Visconti, giudice of Gallura, forced the judikessa Benedetta of Cagliari
Benedetta of Cagliari
to give him the mount located east of Santa Igia.[25] Soon (1216–17) Pisan merchants established there a new fortified city, known as Castel di Castro, which can be considered the ancestor of the modern city of Cagliari.[25] In 1258, after the defeat of William III, the last giudice of Cagliari, the Pisans and their Sardinian allies (Arborea, Gallura and Logudoro) destroyed the old capital of Santa Igia.[25] The giudicato of Cagliari
Cagliari
was divided into three parts: the northwest third went to Gallura; the central portion was incorporated into Arborea; Sulcis
Sulcis
and Iglesiente, on the southwest, were given to the Pisan della Gherardesca family, while the Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa
maintained control over its colony of Castel di Castro.[26] Some of the fortifications that still surround the current district of Castello were built by the Pisans, including the two remaining white limestone towers (early 14th century) designed by the architect Giovanni Capula. Together with the district of Castello, Castel di Castro comprised the districts of Marina
Marina
(which included the port), and later Stampace (it) and Villanova. Marina
Marina
and Stampace were guarded by walls, in contrast to Villanova, which was mostly home to peasants. 14th to 17th centuries[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Sardinia In the second decade of the 14th century the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
conquered Sardinia
Sardinia
after a series of battles against the Pisans. During the siege of Castel di Castro (1324-1326), the Aragonese, led by the infant Alfonso, built a stronghold on a more southern hill, that of Bonaria.

View of Cagliari
Cagliari
from Civitates orbis terrarium (1572) by Georg Braun

When the fortified city was finally conquered by the Catalan-Aragonese army, Castel di Castro (Castel de Càller or simply Càller in Catalan) became the administrative capital of the newborn Kingdom of Sardinia, one of the many kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon, which later came under the rule of the Spanish Empire. After the expulsion of the Tuscans,[27] the Castello district was repopulated by the Catalan settlers of Bonaria while the indigenous population was, as in the past, concentrated in Stampace and Villanova. The kings of Aragon and later the kings of Spain, were represented in Cagliari
Cagliari
by a viceroy, who resided in the Palazzo Regio.

Interior view of the Royal Palace of Cagliari

In the 16th century the fortifications of the city were strengthened with the construction of the bastions and the rights and benefits of the Catalan-Aragonese were extended to all citizens. The intellectual life was relatively lively and in the early years of the 17th century the University was founded. 18th century[edit] In 1718,[28] after a brief rule by the Austrian Habsburgs, Cagliari and Sardinia
Sardinia
came under the House of Savoy. As rulers of Sardinia, the Savoys took the title of kings of the Sardinian kingdom. During the Savoyard Era, until 1848, the institutions of the Sardinian kingdom remained unchanged, but with the "Perfect Fusion" in that year, all the possessions of the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
House, comprising Savoy, Nice (now part of France), Piedmont
Piedmont
and from 1815 Liguria, were merged into a unitary state. Although Sardinian by name, the kingdom had its parliament in Turin, where the Savoys resided, and its members were mainly aristocrats from Piedmont
Piedmont
or the mainland. In the late 18th century during the Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic wars
France
France
tried to conquer Cagliari
Cagliari
because of its strategic role in the Mediterranean sea (Expédition de Sardaigne). A French army landed on Poetto
Poetto
beach and advanced towards Cagliari, but the French were defeated by Sardinians who had decided to defend themselves against the revolutionary army. The people of Cagliari
Cagliari
hoped to receive some concession from the Savoys in return for their defence of the town. For example, aristocrats from Cagliari
Cagliari
asked for a Sardinian representative in the parliament of the kingdom. When the Savoyards refused any concession to the Sardinians, the inhabitants of Cagliari rose up against them and expelled all the representatives of the kingdom along with the Piedmontese rulers.[29] This insurgence is celebrated in Cagliari
Cagliari
during Sa die de sa Sardigna
Sa die de sa Sardigna
("The day of Sardinia") on the last weekend of April. However, the Savoys regained control of the town after a brief period of autonomous rule. Modern age[edit]

Triumphal arch King Umberto I, better known as Bastione Saint Remy

View of Via Roma and the port

Starting in the 1870s, in the wake of the unification of Italy, the city experienced a century of rapid growth. Many buildings were erected by the end of the 19th century during the term of office of mayor Ottone Bacaredda. Numerous buildings combined influences from Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
together with the traditional Sardinian taste for floral decoration; an example is the white marble City Hall
City Hall
near the port. Bacaredda is also known for his strong repression of one of the earliest worker strikes at the beginning of the 20th century.[citation needed] During the Second World War
Second World War
Cagliari
Cagliari
was heavily bombed by the Allies in February 1943. In order to escape from the danger of bombardments and difficult living conditions, many people were evacuated from the city into the countryside. In total the victims of the bombings were more than 2000[30] and about 80% of the buildings were damaged. The city received the Gold Medal of Military Valour.[30] After the Italian armistice with the Allies in September 1943, the German Army took control of Cagliari
Cagliari
and the island, but soon retreated peacefully in order to reinforce their positions in mainland Italy. The American Army then took control of Cagliari. Airports near the city (Elmas, Monserrato, Decimomannu, currently a NATO
NATO
airbase) were used by Allied aircraft to fly to North Africa or mainland Italy and Sicily. After the war, the population of Cagliari
Cagliari
grew again and many apartment blocks and recreational areas were erected in new residential districts. Coats of Arms of Cagliari[edit]

13th century

From the 14th to 17th century

From the 18th century to the present

Geography[edit]

The so-called Sella del Diavolo

And suddenly there is Cagliari: a naked town rising steep, steep, golden-looking, piled naked to the sky from the plain at the head of the formless hollow bay. It is strange and rather wonderful, not a bit like Italy. The city piles up lofty and almost miniature, and makes me think of Jerusalem: without trees, without cover, rising rather bare and proud, remote as if back in history, like a town in a monkish, illuminated missal. One wonders how it ever got there. And it seems like Spain—or Malta: not Italy. It is a steep and lonely city, treeless, as in some old illumination. Yet withal rather jewel-like: like a sudden rose-cut amber jewel naked at the depth of the vast indenture. The air is cold, blowing bleak and bitter, the sky is all curd. And that is Cagliari. It has that curious look, as if it could be seen, but not entered. It is like some vision, some memory, something that has passed away. Impossible that one can actually walk in that city: set foot there and eat and laugh there. Ah, no! Yet the ship drifts nearer, nearer, and we are looking for the actual harbour. — D. H. Lawrence, Sea and Sardinia
Sardinia
(1921) [31]

The city of Cagliari
Cagliari
is situated in the south of Sardinia, overlooking the centre of the eponymous gulf, also called Golfo degli Angeli
Golfo degli Angeli
("Bay of Angels") after an ancient legend. The city is spread over and around the hill of the historic district of Castello and nine other limestone hills of the middle-to-late Miocene, unique heights of a little more than 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level on the long plains of Campidano. The plain is actually a Graben
Graben
formed during the Alpine orogeny
Alpine orogeny
of the Cenozoic, which separated Sardinia
Sardinia
from the European continent, roughly where the Gulf of Lion is now. The Graben filled in the course of tectonic movements associated with the breakup of the ancient island Paleozoic
Paleozoic
skeleton.[32]

San Michele hill with the castle on the top

View over the historical district of Villanova

The repeated intrusion of the sea left calcareous sediments that formed a series of hills that mark the territory of Cagliari. Castello is where the fortified town arose in the Middle Age
Middle Age
near the harbour of the port, other hills are those of Mount Urpinu, the St. Elias hill, also known as the Sella del Diavolo ("Saddle of the Devil") for its shape, Tuvumannu and Tuvixeddu, the site of the ancient Punic and Roman necropolis, the small Bonaria hill, where the basilica stands, and the San Michele hill, with the eponymous castle on top. The modern city occupies the flat spaces between the hills and the sea to the south and southeast, along the Poetto
Poetto
beach, the lagoons and ponds of Santa Gilla and Molentargius, and the remains of more recent marine intrusions, in an articulate landscape with many landmarks and panoramas of the bay, the plain, and the mountains that surround it on the east (The Seven Brothers and Serpeddì) and west (the mountains of Capoterra). On the cold, clear days of winter, the snowy peaks of Gennargentu
Gennargentu
can be seen from the highest points of the city.

Fonsarda

The city has four historic neighbourhoods: Castello, Marina, Stampace and Villanova and several modern districts (such as San Benedetto, Monte Urpinu and Genneruxi at the east, Sant'Avendrace at the west, Is Mirrionis/San Michele at north and Bonaria, La Palma and Poetto
Poetto
at the south), grown when part of the ancient walls had been demolished in the middle of the 19th century. The comune of Cagliari
Cagliari
has one circoscrizione, the town of Pirri (about 30.000 inhabitants), former village of the Campidano
Campidano
absorbed in the fast growth after the Second World War. Parks and recreation[edit]

Old public gardens

Cagliari
Cagliari
is one of the "greenest" Italian cities. Every inhabitant of Cagliari
Cagliari
has access to 87.5 square metres (942 sq ft) of public gardens and parks.[33] Its mild climate allows the growth of numerous subtropical plants, such as Jacaranda mimosifolia, Ficus macrophylla, with some huge specimens in Via Roma and in the University Botanic Gardens, Erythrina caffra with its stunning red flowers, Ficus retusa, which provides shade for several of the city's streets, Araucaria heterophylla, the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), the Canary Islands palm (Phoenix canariensis) and the Mexican Fan Palm (Washingtonia robusta). Major city parks include:

Cagliari, panorama from Monti Urpinu Park

Park of Monte Claro

Monte Urpinu Park, the most wooded, is a low hill covered by a pine ( Pinus halepensis
Pinus halepensis
Mill.) and evergreen oak ( Quercus ilex
Quercus ilex
L.) forest with a dense Mediterranean maquis of mastic ( Pistacia lentiscus
Pistacia lentiscus
L.), juniper ( Juniperus phoenicea
Juniperus phoenicea
L.), Kermes oak ( Quercus coccifera
Quercus coccifera
L.), wild olive ( Olea europaea
Olea europaea
L. ssp. europaea, var. sylvestris) and tree spurge ( Euphorbia dendroides
Euphorbia dendroides
L.). It extends for about 25 hectares (62 acres). Park of San Michele hill (about 25 hectares), with its medieval castle on the top; Terramaini Park, about 13 hectares (32 acres), with a little pond which is home to flamingos and other wading birds; Monte Claro Provincial Park, about 22 hectares (54 acres), which hosts the provincial library in an old mansion on the top of the hill; Ex-vetreria Pirri Park, about 2.5 hectares (6.2 acres); Public gardens, the oldest public esplanade of the city, planted in the 19th century, with a wonderful promenade of Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don.

The Molentargius
Molentargius
- Saline Regional Park[34] is located near the city. Some mountain parks, such as Monte Arcosu or Maidopis, with large forests and wildlife (Sardinian deer, wild boars, etc.) are also nearby.

Aerial view of Poetto
Poetto
Beach

Beaches[edit] Main article: Poetto The main beach of Cagliari
Cagliari
is the Poetto. It stretches for about 8 kilometres (5 mi), from Sella del Diavolo ("Devil's Saddle") up to the coastline of Quartu Sant'Elena. Poetto
Poetto
is also the name of the district located on the western stretch of the strip between the beach and Saline di Molentargius
Molentargius
("Molentargius's Salt
Salt
Mine"). Another smaller beach is that of Calamosca near the Sant'Elia district. On the coast between Calamosca and Poetto
Poetto
beaches, among the cliffs of the Sella del Diavolo, lies Cala Fighera, a small bay. Cagliari
Cagliari
is close to other seaside locations such as Santa Margherita di Pula, Chia, Geremeas, Solanas, Villasimius
Villasimius
and Costa Rei. Climate[edit]

Snow in Cagliari, 1910

Cagliari
Cagliari
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Csa in the Köppen climate classification) with hot, dry summers and very mild winters. The summer extreme values can be slightly over 40 °C (104 °F), sometimes with very high humidity, while in winter, under special and rare conditions, the temperature drops slightly below zero. Heavy snowfalls occur on average every thirty years. The average temperature of the coldest month, January, is about 10 °C (50 °F), and of the warmest month, August, about 25 °C (77 °F). But heat waves can occur, due to African anticyclone, starting in June. From mid-June to mid-September, rain is a rare event, limited to brief afternoon storms. The rainy season starts in September, and the first cold days come in December. Winds are frequent, especially the mistral and sirocco; in summer a marine sirocco breeze (called s'imbattu in Sardinian language) lowers the temperature and brings some relief from the heat.

Climate data for Cagliari
Cagliari
Elmas
Elmas
Airport (1971-2000) ( Elmas
Elmas
about 8 km (5 mi) northwest of Cagliari, 7 km (4 mi) from sea)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 14.8 (58.6) 16.5 (61.7) 18.6 (65.5) 22.9 (73.2) 27.3 (81.1) 30.4 (86.7) 30.8 (87.4) 27.4 (81.3) 23.1 (73.6) 18.3 (64.9) 15.4 (59.7) 21.7 (71.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.9 (49.8) 10.3 (50.5) 11.8 (53.2) 13.8 (56.8) 17.7 (63.9) 21.8 (71.2) 24.7 (76.5) 25.2 (77.4) 22.3 (72.1) 18.4 (65.1) 13.8 (56.8) 11.0 (51.8) 16.7 (62.1)

Average low °C (°F) 5.5 (41.9) 5.8 (42.4) 7.1 (44.8) 8.9 (48) 12.4 (54.3) 16.2 (61.2) 18.9 (66) 19.6 (67.3) 17.1 (62.8) 13.7 (56.7) 9.3 (48.7) 6.6 (43.9) 11.8 (53.2)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 49.7 (1.957) 53.3 (2.098) 40.4 (1.591) 39.7 (1.563) 26.1 (1.028) 11.9 (0.469) 4.1 (0.161) 7.5 (0.295) 34.9 (1.374) 52.6 (2.071) 58.4 (2.299) 48.9 (1.925) 428 (16.85)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.8 6.8 6.8 7.0 4.4 2.1 0.8 1.3 4.3 6.5 7.4 7.4 61.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 136.4 139.2 186.0 213.0 269.7 288.0 334.8 310.0 246.0 198.4 147.0 127.1 2,596

Source: Servizio Meteorologico,[35] Hong Kong Observatory[36] for data of sunshine hours

Climate data for Cagliari
Cagliari
(1981-2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 14.4 (57.9) 15.0 (59) 17.1 (62.8) 19.5 (67.1) 23.8 (74.8) 28.2 (82.8) 31.4 (88.5) 31.7 (89.1) 27.9 (82.2) 23.7 (74.7) 18.8 (65.8) 15.5 (59.9) 22.3 (72.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.9 (49.8) 10.2 (50.4) 12.1 (53.8) 14.5 (58.1) 18.4 (65.1) 22.5 (72.5) 25.6 (78.1) 25.9 (78.6) 22.7 (72.9) 18.9 (66) 14.3 (57.7) 11.1 (52) 17.2 (63)

Average low °C (°F) 5.4 (41.7) 5.5 (41.9) 7.2 (45) 9.4 (48.9) 13.1 (55.6) 16.8 (62.2) 19.7 (67.5) 20.2 (68.4) 17.5 (63.5) 14.1 (57.4) 9.9 (49.8) 6.8 (44.2) 12.2 (54)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 40.7 (1.602) 40.4 (1.591) 33.6 (1.323) 42.2 (1.661) 20.7 (0.815) 10.0 (0.394) 3.1 (0.122) 7.5 (0.295) 35.7 (1.406) 49.1 (1.933) 62.7 (2.469) 49.6 (1.953) 395.3 (15.564)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 6 6 7 4 2 1 1 5 6 8 8 61

Mean monthly sunshine hours 150 163 209 218 270 311 342 321 243 209 150 127 2,726

Source: meteo-climat-bzh.dyndns.org[37]

Demographics[edit]

Aeral view of part of the Cagliari
Cagliari
Metropolitan Area

Historical census data current boundaries

Year Pop. ±%

1485 5,088 —    

1603 7,868 +54.6%

1678 13,428 +70.7%

1688 17,390 +29.5%

1698 15,677 −9.9%

1728 18,365 +17.1%

1751 20,948 +14.1%

1771 24,254 +15.8%

1776 27,102 +11.7%

1781 25,905 −4.4%

1821 31,935 +23.3%

1824 30,685 −3.9%

1838 31,157 +1.5%

1844 33,700 +8.2%

1848 33,826 +0.4%

1857 35,369 +4.6%

1861 37,243 +5.3%

1871 37,135 −0.3%

1881 43,472 +17.1%

1901 61,678 +41.9%

1911 70,132 +13.7%

1921 73,024 +4.1%

1931 83,359 +14.2%

1936 88,122 +5.7%

1951 117,361 +33.2%

1961 138,570 +18.1%

1971 190,080 +37.2%

1981 197,517 +3.9%

1991 183,659 −7.0%

2001 164,249 −10.6%

2011 149,883 −8.7%

2016 154,460 +3.1%

Commune population 1931 - 1991

Year Pop. ±%

1931 100,620 —    

1936 106,649 +6.0%

1951 138,539 +29.9%

1961 183,784 +32.7%

1971 223,376 +21.5%

1981 233,848 +4.7%

1991 204,237 −12.7%

According to ISTAT,[38] in 2014 there were 154,356 people residing in Cagliari
Cagliari
(+3.0% compared with 2011), of whom 71,522 were male and 82,834 female for a sex ratio of 0.86. Minors (children aged 18 and younger) totalled 12.92% of the population, compared to pensioners at 24.81%. The average age of Cagliari
Cagliari
residents is 47.44. The ratio of the population over 65 years of age to that under the age of 18, is 53.39%. The elderly population, defined as being over 65 years of age, has increased by 21.95% over the last 10 years. The current birth rate in Cagliari
Cagliari
is 6.29 births per 1,000 inhabitants. The average number of people of any age per household is 2.11 and the percentage of households composed of a single person is 42.53%. The population of Cagliari
Cagliari
is structured like that of other first world countries, especially as to the prevalence of an elderly population. The trend of these rates in the Cagliari
Cagliari
metropolitan area is proportionally reversed in the suburbs, where most younger families move. As of 2012[update], 4.26% (6,658 people) of the population was foreign, of which the largest group were Filipinos
Filipinos
(21.33%), followed by Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(11.93%), Romanians
Romanians
(10.93%), Chinese (9.49%) and Senegalese
Senegalese
(9.49%). In 1928, during the fascist regime, the neighbouring municipalities of Pirri, Monserrato, Selargius, Quartucciu
Quartucciu
and Elmas, were merged with that of Cagliari. Mussolini's regime wanted to streamline the local administration by eliminating many small towns and at the same time show that Italy
Italy
was a major power with many large cities. After the war these small municipalities gradually regained their autonomy, except for the former town of Pirri. The first table shows the inhabitants of the town in its present borders, the second one the commune population including the merged municipalities. Metropolitan City[edit] Main article: Metropolitan City of Cagliari The Metropolitan City of Cagliari
Metropolitan City of Cagliari
has been established in 2016 by a Sardinia
Sardinia
Regional Law and totals about 431,000 inhabitants according to ISTAT. It is composed of 17 municipalities along the coast of the gulf and up to 20 kilometres (12 mi) of the inner Campidano plain. It covers an area on the plain of Campidano
Campidano
between large basins (Santa Gilla lagoon and salt mills of about 30 km2 (3200 acres), ponds (Molentargius, 16,22 km2 (40,10 acrees) and the depopulated mountains up to 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) above sea level. The mountains are largely covered by forests mostly managed by the Ente Foreste of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia. To the west these amount to 256 square kilometres (99 sq mi) on the Capoterra
Capoterra
and Pula mountains. Monte Arcosu WWF Natural Reserve has another 36 square kilometres (14 sq mi), and to the east on Mount Serpeddì and Sette Fratelli there are a total of 132 square kilometres (51 sq mi) of forest. The Metropolitan City is defined by municipalities where the population increased between the last two censuses, in a region where the population is otherwise generally decreasing. These municipalities welcome immigrants to the urban area whose main nucleus, the city of Cagliari, has a high number of elderly people. In the last century, the population of the municipalities of the metropolitan area increased by 354% and in the last 50 years by 158% (1911: 128,444; 1961: 288,683; 2011: 454,819). For the whole of Sardinia
Sardinia
this increase was respectively 88% and 15% (1911: 868,181; 1961: 1,419,362; 2011: 1,639,362). The urbanisation towards the area of Cagliari
Cagliari
was, in percentage terms, impressive, making the capital of the island a metropolis surrounded by rural areas increasingly depopulated. This urbanisation is also reflected in the concentration in Cagliari
Cagliari
of most of the economic activities and wealth. Economy[edit]

SARAS refinery

Cagliari
Cagliari
Via Roma La Rinascente

According to 2014 data from the Italian Ministry of Economic Affairs,[39] the inhabitants of Cagliari
Cagliari
benefited a per capita income of 23,220 euros (being the fifth Regional Capital), that is the 122% of the national average, while all of Sardinia
Sardinia
benefited only 16,640 euros, the 86%, being the 13th Region. The metropolitan area benefited an average income of 19,185 euros, 103% of the national average. With the 26% of the island population the Cagliari
Cagliari
Metropolitan City produces the 31% of its GDP. As the capital city of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, Cagliari
Cagliari
is the administrative hub and headquarters of the region as well as of the provincial offices of the Italian central administration. Cagliari
Cagliari
is also the main trade and industrial centre of the island, with numerous commercial sites and factories within its metropolitan boundaries. The Cagliari- Sarroch
Sarroch
port system was the third in Italy
Italy
for goods movements in 2014[40] The first department store, (La Rinascente) opened in 1931 in the centre of the city, and it is still open today. Nowadays there are many commercial centres in the metropolitan area (Le Vele, Santa Gilla, La Corte del Sole, Marconi) hosting many European chain stores such as Auchan, Metro AG, Lidl, MediaWorld, Euronics, Jysk, IKEA,[41] Carrefour
Carrefour
and Bata Shoes. Cagliari
Cagliari
is also home to an Amazon warehouse.[42] Cagliari
Cagliari
is the main operational headquarters of the Banco di Sardegna, which belongs to the BPER Group and is listed on Borsa Italiana, of the Banca di Cagliari. Banca di Credito Sardo was based in Cagliari
Cagliari
until it was absorbed by the parent company Intesa Sanpaolo. The Macchiareddu-Grogastru area between Cagliari
Cagliari
and Capoterra
Capoterra
is one of the most important industrial areas of Sardinia, in conjunction with a large international container terminal port at Giorgino.[43] Beside having one of the biggest container terminals on the Mediterranean Sea, Cagliari
Cagliari
also has one of the largest fish markets in Italy
Italy
offering for sale a vast array of fish to both the public and traders. The communications provider Tiscali
Tiscali
also has its headquarters in Cagliari. Multinational corporations like Coca-Cola, Heineken, Unilever, Bridgestone
Bridgestone
and Eni
Eni
Group have factories in town. One of the six oil refinery supersites in Europe, Saras, is located within the metropolitan area at Sarroch. Tourism is one of the major industries of the city, although historical venues such as its monumental Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Early modern period defence system, its Carthaginian, Roman and Byzantine ruins are less highlighted compared to the recreational beaches and coastline. Cruise ships touring the Mediterranean often stop for passengers at Cagliari, and the city is a traffic hub to the nearby beaches of Villasimius, Chia, Pula and Costa Rei, as well as to the urban beach of Poettu. Pula is home to the archaeological site of the Punic and Roman city of Nora. Especially in summer many clubs and pubs are goals for young locals and tourists. Pubs and night-clubs are concentrated in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, a narrow street in Stampace district, in the Marina
Marina
district, near the port and in the Castello district, The clubs are mostly to be found on the Poetto
Poetto
Beach (in summer) or in Viale Marconi (in winter). In Cagliari
Cagliari
there are 180 B&B and 22 hotels that totals 3,300 beds. There are many others hotels in seaside resort of his gulf. Main sights[edit] Considerable remains of the ancient city of Karalis are still visible, including those of the Tuvixeddu necropolis, the Roman amphitheatre, traditionally called Is centu scalas ("One hundred steps"), and of an aqueduct used to provide generally scarce water. Still visible are also some ancient cisterns of vast extent, the ruins of a small circular temple, and numerous sepulchres on a hill outside the modern town that appear to have formed the necropolis of the ancient city.[44] The amphitheatre stages open-air operas and concerts during the summer.

San Saturnino Basilica, 5th century

The Palaeo- Christian
Christian
Basilica
Basilica
of San Saturnino, dedicated to a martyr killed under Diocletian's reign, Saturninus of Cagliari, patron saint of the city, was built in the 5th century. Of the original building the dome and the central part remain, to which two arms (one with a nave and two aisles) were added later. A Palaeo- Christian
Christian
crypt is also under the church of San Lucifero (1660), dedicated to Saint Lucifer, a bishop of the city. The church has a Baroque
Baroque
façade with ancient columns and sculpted parts, some of which came from the nearby necropolis.

Eastern walls of Castello

Church of San Michele

The old medieval town (called Castello in Italian, Casteddu de susu in Sardinian, "the upper castle") lies on top of a hill with a view of the Gulf of Cagliari
Gulf of Cagliari
(also known as Angels' Gulf). Most of its city walls are intact and include two early 14th-century white limestone towers, the Torre di San Pancrazio
Torre di San Pancrazio
and the Torre dell'Elefante, typical examples of Pisan military architecture. The local white limestone was also used to build the walls of the city and many other buildings, besides the towers. The exact period of construction of a fortress on this hill is unknown at present, due to the superposition of layers of buildings along the history. Some scholars[45] have suggested a first urbanization of the quarter in the Punic era on the basis of similarity of the planimetry with the contemporary Carthaginian fortress of Monte Sirai. Recently, archaeological excavations have identified Punic and Roman buildings under the ramparts of the fortress.[46] Already the Roman poet Varro
Varro
called the city "Vicus munitus", a fortified city, and sixteenth-century authors describe a Roman acropolis perhaps still visible in their day.[47][48] D. H. Lawrence, in his memoir of a voyage to Sardinia, Sea and Sardinia, that he undertook in January 1921, described the effect of warm Mediterranean sunlight on the white limestone city and compared Cagliari
Cagliari
to a "white Jerusalem".

The Cathedral (left) and the old city hall (right)

The cathedral was restored in the 1930s, returning the former Baroque façade into a Medieval Pisan-style façade more akin to the original appearance of the church in the 13th century. The bell tower is original. The interior has a nave and two aisles, with a pulpit (1159–1162) sculpted for the Cathedral of Pisa
Pisa
but later donated to Cagliari. The crypt houses the remains of martyrs found in the Basilica
Basilica
of San Saturno (see below). Near the cathedral is the palace of the provincial government. Before 1900 it was the island's governor's palace.

The Basilica
Basilica
of Our Lady of Bonaria

Collegiata di Sant'Anna

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Bonaria (from which the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, gets its name) was built by the Catalans
Catalans
in 1324–1329 when they were besieging the Pisans in Castello. It has a small Gothic portal in the façade and the interior houses a wooden statue of the Madonna, which, after having been thrown off a Spanish ship, landed at the foot of Bonaria hill. Bonaria hill is also the location of the Monumental Cemetery of Bonaria. The Chiesa della Purissima is a Catalan Gothic
Catalan Gothic
church built in the 16th century in the Castello distinct. The other early districts of the town (Marina, Stampace and Villanova) retain much of their original character. In Stampace the Torre dello Sperone, another tower built by the Pisans in the late 13th century, is located, as well as two important monumental churches: the Collegiata di Sant'Anna and the Chiesa di San Michele, both built in the 18th century in a baroque style. Many more churches, both old and modern, can be found throughout the city. The Promenade Deck and the Terrazza Umberto I were designed in 1896 by the engineers Joseph Costa and Fulgenzio Setti. The entire building was built of white and yellow limestone in a classical style with Corinthian columns. It was opened in 1901. A staircase with two flights provides access from Constitution Square. It is interrupted by a covered walkway and ends beneath the Arc de Triomphe, in the Terrazza Umberto I. In 1943, during World War II, the staircase and the Arch of Triumph were severely damaged by aerial bombardment, but after the conflict they were faithfully reconstructed. From the Terrazza Umberto I the Bastion
Bastion
of Santa Caterina can be accessed via a short flight of steps. Here there was once an old Dominican convent, destroyed by fire in 1800. According to tradition, the conspiracy to kill the Viceroy Camarassa in 1666 was set up in the surroundings of the monastery.

Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
in Cagliari

The Promenade Deck was inaugurated in 1902. At first it was used as a banqueting hall, then during the First World War as an infirmary. In the 1930s, during the period of sanctions, it was an exhibition of autarky[citation needed]. During World War II it served as a shelter for displaced people whose homes had been destroyed by bombs. In 1948 it hosted the first Trade Fair of Sardinia. After many years of decay, the Promenade was restored and re-evaluated as a cultural space reserved especially for art exhibitions. The modern districts built in the late 19th and early 20th century contain examples of Art Deco
Art Deco
architecture, as well as controversial examples of Fascist neoclassicism architecture, such as the Court of Justice (Palazzo di Giustizia) in Republic Square. The Court of Justice is near the biggest city park, Monte Urpinu, with its pine trees, artificial lakes, and a vast area with a hill. The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Cagliari, the city's botanical garden, is also of interest. Culture[edit]

18th-century University Library

The city has numerous libraries and is also home to the State Archive, containing thousands of handwritten documents from the foundation of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
(1325 AD) to the present. In addition to numerous local and university department libraries, the most important libraries are the old University Library,[49] with thousands of ancient books, the Provincial Library,[50] the Regional Library,[51] and the Mediateca of the Mediterranean,[52] which contains the municipal archive and library collection. In the first century B.C. a famous singer and musician from Cagliari, Tigellius, lived in Rome
Rome
and was satirized by Cicero
Cicero
and Horace. The history of Sardinian literature begins in Cagliari
Cagliari
in the first century A.D. In the funerary monument of Atilia Pomptilla, carved into the rock of the necropolis of Tuvixeddu, poems are engraved in Greek and Latin dedicated to his dead wife. Some of them, particularly those in the Greek language, have literary merit. The first Sardinian literary author known was Bishop Lucifer of Cagliari, who wrote severe pamphlets against the Arian heresyin the fourth century A.D. Only in the eleventh century A.D. did the first texts of an administrative nature appear in the modern Sardinian language, together with hagiographs of local martyrs written in Latin. Life in Cagliari
Cagliari
has been depicted by many writers, starting with the late Roman poet Claudian. In the late 16th century, the local humanist Roderigo Hunno Baeza dedicated to his town a didactic Latin poem, Caralis Panegyricus.[53] At the beginning of the 17th century Juan Francisco Carmona wrote a hymn to Cagliari
Cagliari
in Spanish; Jacinto Arnal De Bolea published in 1636, in Spanish, the first novel set in Cagliari, entitled El Forastero.[54] David Herbert Lawrence wrote about the city in his Sea and Sardinia. Modern writers connected to Cagliari
Cagliari
include Giuseppe Dessì, Giulio Angioni, Giorgio Todde, Sergio Atzeni, (who set many of his novels and short stories, such as Bakunin's Son, in ancient and modern Cagliari), Flavio Soriga.

The new Teatro Lirico (opera house)

Cagliari
Cagliari
was the birthplace or residence of the composer Ennio Porrino, of the film, theatre and TV director Nanni Loy, and of the actors Gianni Agus, Amedeo Nazzari
Amedeo Nazzari
and Pier Angeli
Pier Angeli
(born Anna Maria Pierangeli). Excluding the Roman era amphitheater, the first theater was inaugurated in Cagliari
Cagliari
in 1767: the Teatro Zapata, later becoming the Civic Theatre. Devastated by bombing in 1943, it was recently restored, but the roof was not rebuilt, and today it serves as an open-air theatre. The Politeama Regina Margherita, inaugurated in 1859, was destroyed by fire in 1942 and never rebuilt. Although opera had, and in part still has, a solid tradition the city, it was left without a true theater until 1993 when a new opera house, the Teatro Lirico, was inaugurated.[55] Inside there is a music compound with a music conservatory with its own auditorium, and a music park. Cagliari
Cagliari
is and was home to opera singers such as the tenors Giovanni Matteo Mario
Giovanni Matteo Mario
(Giovanni Matteo De Candia, 1810-1883) and Piero Schiavazzi (1875–1949), the baritone Angelo Romero (born 1940), the contralto Bernadette Manca di Nissa, born 1954 and the soprano Giusy Devinu (1960–2007). The Italian pop singer Marco Carta was also born in Cagliari, in 1985. The old Teatro Massimo was only recently renovated and is now the seat of the Teatro Stabile of Sardinia.[56] The Municipal Auditorium, in the former 17th-century church of Santa Teresa, is the seat of the Scuola di Arte Drammatica (School of Dramatic Art) di Cagliari,[57] while the Teatro delle Saline ("Saltworks Theatre"),[58] is home of Akroama, Teatro Stabile di Innovazione ("Permanent Theater of Innovation").[59] Finally, some comic and satirical theater companies are active in the city, the most well known being the "Compagnia Teatrale Lapola",[60] which offers an urban version of the traditional campidanese comic theater.[61] Founded by Bepi Vigna, Antonio Serra and Michele Medda, a comic book school, the Centro Internazionale del Fumetto ("Comic Strip International Centre")[62] has been active for several decades. Its founders invented and designed the comic characters Nathan Never
Nathan Never
and Legs Weaver. Museums and galleries[edit]

Cittadella dei Musei

Galleria comunale d'Arte

"The mother of the killed" by Francesco Ciusa, Civic Art Gallery

The Polo museale di Cagliari
Cagliari
"Cittadella dei musei" (Citadel of Museums) is home to:

Museo archeologico nazionale di Cagliari
Cagliari
(National Archeological Museum of Cagliari), the most important archeological museum of Sardinia, which contains finds from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period (6000 B.C.) to the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
about 1000 A.D.[63] Museo civico d'arte siamese Stefano Cardu (Civic Siamese Art Museum "Stefano Cardu") the most important European collection of Siamese art, gathered by a Cagliaritan collector at the beginning of the 20th century.[64] Museo delle cere anatomiche Clemente Susini (Anatomical Waxwork Museum "Clemente Susini").[65] This collection of anatomical waxworks is considered one of the finest in the world, and perfectly describes the human body, testifying to the state of medical and surgical knowledge at the beginning of the 19th century. The collection was created by the sculptor Clemente Susini and includes faithful reproductions of dissections of cadavers performed in the School of Anatomy in Florence 1803-1805 A.D. Pinacoteca nazionale (National Picture Gallery)[66] Galleria comunale d'arte (Civic art Gallery) with an important exposition of modern Italian painting offered to the city by its collector (Ingrao Collection), and an exposition of Sardinian artists.[67] Collezione sarda Luigi Piloni (University Sardinian Collection "Luigi Piloni")[68] ExMà, MEM, Castello di San Michele, and Il Ghetto exposition centers[69] Museo di Bonaria (Basilical Church Museum of Bonaria),[70] with an interesting ex-voto collection Museo del Duomo (Cathedral Museum);[71] Museo del tesoro di Sant'Eulalia (Treasure Museum of Saint Eulalia of Barcelona;[72] with its important Roman era underground area. Orto botanico di Cagliari
Cagliari
University Botanical Gardens[73]

Feast of Sant'Efis[edit]

Municipal mace bearer

Traditional folk costume of Cagliari
Cagliari
during the Feast of St. Ephysius

The Feast of St. Ephysius
St. Ephysius
(Sant'Efisio in Italian, Sant'Efis in Sardinian) is the most important religious event of Cagliari, taking place every year on May 1. During this festival, thousands of people from folk groups all over Sardinia
Sardinia
wear their traditional costumes. The saint is escorted by the traditional ancient Milicia, the deputy mayor (Alter Nos), numerous confraternities, and a convoy of chariots pulled by oxen in a procession to Nora (near modern Pula), 35 km (22 mi) from Cagliari, where, according to tradition, he was beheaded. In addition to being one of the oldest, it is also the longest Italian religious procession, with about 70 km (43 mi) of walks over four days, and the largest in the Mediterranean area. A plague was spreading throughout Sardinia, starting in 1652, and the epidemic infected Cagliari
Cagliari
in particular, killing some ten thousand inhabitants. According to legend, in 1656 St. Ephysius
St. Ephysius
appeared to the Spanish Viceroy, Francisco Fernández de Castro Andrade, Count of Lemos to request a procession on 1 May, in order to free the city from the plague. The Municipality of Cagliari
Cagliari
swore that, if the plague disappeared, a procession would be held every day in the saint's honor, starting from the Stampace district and ending at Nora where the saint was martyred. In September the plague ended, and the procession and festival was therefore regularly held starting the following year on May 1. The procession was held even during the last war; a statue of the saint was placed on a lorry and, through city ruins of the devastated by the bombs, arrived safely in Nora. Other events[edit] Other feasts and events in Cagliari
Cagliari
include:

The Carnival Holy Week and Easter celebrations Sea processions of St. Francis of Paola, held in May, and Nostra Signora di Bonaria, in July Cagliari
Cagliari
Fair, in early May Audi MedCup
Audi MedCup
regatta

Languages[edit] Main articles: Sardinian language
Sardinian language
and Campidanese dialect The native language of Cagliari, declared official along with Italian,[74] is Sardinian (sardu), a Romance language, specifically the Campidanese dialect
Campidanese dialect
(campidanesu) in its local variant (casteddaju). The variant of Cagliari
Cagliari
in its high register has traditionally represented the linguistic model of reference for the entire southern area of the island, and the high social variant used by the middle class in the whole Campidanese domain, as well as the literary model of reference for writers and poets. This language is less spoken by the younger generations in the city, who use Italian instead as that language is compulsory in education and the mass media. Italian has increasingly become predominant in social relations, both formal and informal, relegating Sardinian to a mostly marginal role in everyday life. Young people often have only passive competence in the language, gathered from elderly relatives who still speak it, as their parents often speak only Italian, or they may use a juvenile slang (italianu porceddinu) that mixes both Sardinian and Italian. Since Cagliari
Cagliari
was the metropolis of the ancient Roman province, it absorbed innovations coming from Rome, Carthage, and Constantinople, and its language probably reflected late Latin urban dialects of the 5th-century core cities of the empire.

Seafood
Seafood
offered in a Cagliari
Cagliari
restaurant

Gastronomy[edit] Cagliari
Cagliari
has some unique gastronomic traditions: unlike the rest of the island its cuisine is mostly based on the wide variety of locally available seafood. Although it is possible to trace influences from Catalan, Sicilian and Genoese cuisine, Cagliaritan food has a distinctive and unique character. Excellent wines are also part of Cagliaritanians' dinners, like the Cannonau, Nuragus, Nasco, Monica, Moscau, Girò and Malvasia, produced in the nearby vineyards of the Campidano
Campidano
plain. Media[edit] The main newspaper of Sardinia
Sardinia
is L'Unione Sarda, it was founded in Cagliari
Cagliari
in 1889. It was one of the first European newspapers to have its own website in 1994. It has a circulation of about 85,000 copies. The main regional headquarters of RAI, the Italian state-owned radio and television network, is in Cagliari. There are also two regional television and radio companies as well as numerous information sites on the internet. Sports[edit]

Internal view of the Sardegna Arena, home of Serie A
Serie A
football club Cagliari Calcio
Cagliari Calcio
since 2017

Cagliari
Cagliari
is home to the football team Cagliari
Cagliari
Calcio, winner of the Italian league championship in 1970, when the team was led by Gigi Riva. Founded in 1920, the club played at the Stadio Sant'Elia
Stadio Sant'Elia
in the city from 1970 until it was closed in the summer of 2017, causing the club to temporarily relocate to the provisional Sardegna Arena. Sant'Elia was the venue for three 1990 FIFA World Cup
1990 FIFA World Cup
matches.[75] Cagliari
Cagliari
is an ideal location for water sports such as surfing, kitesurfing, windsurfing and sailing due to strong and reliable favourable winds. Field hockey
Field hockey
is also popular, with two teams in the Italian top division, G.S. Amsicora and C.U.S. Cagliari, the first of which won the league title more often than any other Italian team in the men's championship (20) and is also the protagonist in the women's division. Sport venues in Cagliari
Cagliari
include:

Sardegna Arena Tennis Club Cagliari
Cagliari
[76] Rockfeller sports hall Rockfeller skating rink Via dello Sport gymnastics hall Terra Maini Olympionic pool Amsicora Stadium [77] Rari Nantes pool [78][79] Esperia pool Riccardo Santoru athletics stadium Civic pool Acquasport pool Poettu hippodrome [80] Mario Siddi fencing gymnasium Mulinu Becciu tennis table hall Facilities of the University Sports Center, C.U.S. Cagliari
Cagliari
[81]

Government[edit]

Cagliari
Cagliari
city hall, Bacaredda Palace

Cagliari
Cagliari
is the hub of the administration offices of the Sardinia Autonomous Region and of Cagliari
Cagliari
Province. It is also the home of several local offices of the Italian central administration. It is the seat of the Superintendency of Cultural and Environmental Heritage,[82] of the Sardinia
Sardinia
Archival Superintendency[83] and of the Archeological Superintendency[84] of the Cultural Heritage Ministry,[85] of the Sardinia
Sardinia
and Provincial seat of the Employment and Social Policies Ministry, of the regional offices of the Finance and Economy Ministry,[86] and of some branch offices of the Health Ministry. Cagliari
Cagliari
is home to all criminal, civil, administrative and accounting courts for Sardinia
Sardinia
of the Ministry of Justice up to the High Court of Assizes of Appeal. It was home to a prison, Buon Cammino, built in the late 19th century, famous because no one has ever managed to escape. A new modern prison has been built in the nearby town of Uta. Traditionally, votes in Cagliari
Cagliari
are oriented towards the center-right wing. Since World War II, all the mayors belonged to the Christian Democracy party with the exception of Salvatore Ferrara, from the Socialist Party, allied with the former. After the collapse of the traditional parties in the 1990s, the mayors belonged to the party or the coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi. The current economic and political crisis that affects Italy
Italy
has prompted the electorate toward a large abstention and to elect a young mayor, Massimo Zedda, who belongs to a centre-left alliance. In the last municipal elections in June 2016, Massimo Zedda was confirmed in the first round with 50.86% of the votes. Education[edit]

"Aula Magna" of the University of Cagliari

Cagliari
Cagliari
is home to the University of Cagliari,[9] the largest public university in Sardinia, founded in 1626. It currently includes six faculties: Engineering and Architecture, Medicine and Surgery, Economics, Juridical and Political Sciences, Basic Sciences, Biology and Pharmacy, Humanistic Studies. It is attended by about 35,000 students.[87] All science faculties of the university, as well as the university hospital, have been transferred to a new "University Citadel", located in Monserrato. Cagliari's downtown houses the engineering and the humanities divisions and, in the Castle, the seat of the Rector, in an 18th-century palace with a library of thousands of ancient books. Cagliari
Cagliari
is also the seat of the Pontifical Faculty of Theology of Sardinia
Sardinia
and of the European Institute of Design. Health care[edit]

San Michele Hospital

Life expectancy in Cagliari
Cagliari
is high: 79.5 years for men and 85.4 for women (provincial level). There has been a public hospital in Cagliari
Cagliari
since the 17th century. The first modern structure was built in the middle of the 19th century, designed by the architect Gaetano Cima. This hospital is still operating, although all its departments will eventually be transferred to the new University Hospital[88] in Monserrato. Among the other public hospitals, the Giuseppe Brotzu (San Michele) Hospital [89] was recognized in 1993 as a High Specialization Nationally Relevant Hospital, particularly for liver, heart, pancreas and bone marrow transplants. Other public hospitals in the city include: the Santissima Trinità or commonly Is Mirrionis; the Binaghi, specialised in pulmonology; Marino specialised in traumatology, hyperbaric medicine and spinal cord injuries; Businco specialised in oncology; and Microcitemico, specialised in thalassemia, Genetic diseases
Genetic diseases
and rare diseases. There are in addition many private hospitals. Despite its dry climate, thanks to the regional system of dams, every inhabitant of Cagliari
Cagliari
may have 363 litres (96 US gal) per day of safe drinking water. Waste sorting is still at a low level: only 33.4 percent of waste is separated. Transport[edit]

The statue of King Carlo Felice in Piazza Yenne, the starting point for all of Sardinia's main roads

Airport[edit]

Check-in area of Cagliari- Elmas
Elmas
International Airport

The city is served by the Cagliari- Elmas
Elmas
International Airport,[90] located a few kilometres from the centre of Cagliari. A railway line connects the city to the airport; walkways join the railway station to the air terminal. The terminal is also connected to the city by highway SS 130 and by a bus service run by the ARST company[91] to the central bus station in Matteotti square, in the centre of the city. There are other airports not too far from the city: Deciomannu Airport, a NATO
NATO
military airport and three fields for air sports, Serdiana (used in particular for skydiving[92]), Castiadas and Decimoputzu. Roads[edit]

Cable-stayed bridge of the Monserrato
Monserrato
University Campus interchange SS 554

The following national roads begin in Cagliari:

Carlo Felice to Sassari
Sassari
- Porto Torres
Porto Torres
(motorway-like until Oristano) and to Olbia
Olbia
(SS131 Central Nuorese Branch). Iglesiente, to Iglesias and Carbonia. Orientale Sarda, which connects Cagliari
Cagliari
to Tortolì and Olbia, ending in Palau, across from Corsica. Sulcitana, connecting Cagliari
Cagliari
with Sulcis
Sulcis
along the coast. Cagliaritana del Gerrei, to Ballao and Ogliastra. Provincial Road 17 connects Poetto
Poetto
Villasimius.

Ports[edit] The port of Cagliari
Cagliari
is divided in two sector, the old port and the new international container terminal. The port system of Cagliari- Sarroch
Sarroch
is the third for freight traffic in Italy
Italy
with a movement of about 34 million tons.[93] Cagliari
Cagliari
has scheduled services by passenger ship to Civitavecchia, Naples, Palermo
Palermo
and Trapani. In Cagliari
Cagliari
there are also two other small touristic ports, Su Siccu (Lega Navale) and Marina
Marina
Piccola. Railways[edit] See also: Cagliari
Cagliari
railway station

MetroCagliari

The Ferrovie dello Stato
Ferrovie dello Stato
railway station in Cagliari
Cagliari
has services to Iglesias, Carbonia, Olbia, Golfo Aranci, Sassari
Sassari
and Porto Torres.[94] The nearby commune of Monserrato
Monserrato
is the terminal railway station of a narrow gauge line to Arbatax
Arbatax
and Sorgono. Urban and suburban mobility[edit] Bus and trolleybus services, managed by CTM [95] (more than 30 lines) and ARST,[96] connect internal destinations in the city and in the metropolitan area; Cagliari
Cagliari
is one of the few Italian cities with an extensive trolleybus network, whose fleet has been partially renovated in 2012. A metro-like tram service on its own rail, MetroCagliari, operates between Piazza Repubblica and the new University campus near Monserrato
Monserrato
(line 1) and from Monserrato
Monserrato
San Gottardo and Settimo San Pietro (line 2). A line between Piazza Repubblica and Piazza Matteotti, the city transport hub (with train, urban and extra-urban bus stations), is planned. Trenitalia, the primary train operator in Italy, operates a metro train service between Cagliari
Cagliari
Central Station and Decimomannu, which connects the airport with the city center. A public bike-sharing service is operating with pick-up points at Via Sonnino - Palazzo Civico, Piazza Repubblica, Piazza Giovanni 23, and Marina
Marina
Piccola. Twin towns – sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Cagliari
Cagliari
is twinned with:

Buenos Aires, Argentina Nanyuki, Kenya Pisa, Italy Vercelli, Italy Turin, Italy Padua, Italy, 2002 Biella, Italy, 2003

Consulates[edit] In Cagliari
Cagliari
there are at present (2014) the following consulates:[97]

 Belgium  Belarus  Denmark  Estonia  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Lithuania  Malta  Monaco  Norway  Netherlands   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in Quartu Sant'Elena  Czech Republic  Spain  Sweden   Switzerland  Hungary  Uruguay

Notes[edit]

Italy
Italy
portal

^ Long name (defunct): Casteddu de Càlaris

References[edit]

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Cagliari
art (Italian Language Schools and Courses to Learn Italian in Italy.)". It-schools.com. Retrieved 2010-04-20.  ^ "Nell'Italia delle tasse Milano stacca tutti - Guarda il reddito del tuo Comune". Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 2013-10-15.  ^ a b sistemi e grafiche netsoul srl www.netsoul.net. "Universitр degli studi di Cagliari". unica.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Chiesa di Cagliari". Chiesadicagliari.it. 2015-03-05. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Archdiocese of Cagliari". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 23 January 2015.  ^ Claudian, De Bello Gildonico, IV A.D.: city located in front of Libya (Africa), founded by the powerful Tyro, Karalis extends in length, between the waves, with a small bumpy hill, disperses headwinds. It follows a port in the mid of the sea, and all strong winds are softened in the shelter of the pond.(521.Urbs Lybiam contra Tyrio fundata potenti 521. Tenditur in longum Caralis, tenuemque per undas 522. Obvia dimittit fracturum flamina collem. 523. Efficitur portus medium mare: tutaque ventis 524. Omnibus, ingenti mansuescunt stagna recessu) ^ Livy
Livy
xxiii. 40, 41. ^ Id. xxx. 39. ^ Attilio Mastino (a cura di), Storia della Sardegna antica, Il Maestrale, Nuoro,2005 ^ ii. 6. § 35. ^ xli. 6, 12, 17. ^ Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Commentarii de Bello Civili
Commentarii de Bello Civili
i. 30. ^ Hirt. B. Afr. 98. ^ Cassius Dio xlviii. 30. ^ Pliny iii. 7. s. 13; Strabo
Strabo
v. p. 224; Pomponius Mela, ii. 7; Antonine Itinerary
Antonine Itinerary
pp. 80, 81, 82, etc. ^ Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, 3.15 and 5.12 ^ Claud. B. Gild. 520-24. ^ Pliny l. c.; Ptolemy iii. 3. § 8. ^ a b c Casula 1994, p. 209-210. ^ Casula 1994, p. 210-212. ^ Casula 1994, p. 304. ^ "Guide to Cagliari, Villasimius, Costa Rei" (PDF). CharmingSardinia. February 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-07-11.  ^ Casula 1994, p. 468. ^ a b Comune
Comune
Cagliari
Cagliari
News, Bombe su Cagliari: cronologia di una strage ^ http://www.online-literature.com/dh_lawrence/sea-and-sardinia/2/ Ch. 2 and 3 ^ R. Pracchi; A. Terrosu Asole, eds. (1971). Atlante della Sardegna. Cagliari: Editrice la Zattera.  ^ [1] Archived February 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Parco Molentargius
Molentargius
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Elmas
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Cagliari
Biblioteca Provinciale Ragazzi". Provincia.cagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Sardegna Biblioteche - Attività - Biblioteca regionale". Sardegnabiblioteche.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ " Comune
Comune
di Cagliari MEM - Mediateca del Mediterraneo: Biblioteca Comunale Generale e di Studi Sardi - Archivio Storico - Mediateca". Comune.cagliari.it. Archived from the original on 2015-02-09. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ Miscellaneous codex preserved in the Civic Library of Cagliari, edited by Francesco Alziator, 1954 ^ Jacinto Arnal de Bolea, El Forastero, Emprenta A. Galgerin, Càller, 1636, republished by the editor Marìa Dolores, Garcìa Sànchez, CFS/CUEC, Cagliari, 2011 ^ "Teatro Lirico Web-site". Teatroliricodicagliari.it. Retrieved 2010-04-20.  ^ [4] Archived September 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Scuola d'Arte Drammatica Cagliari
Cagliari
- Tetatro stabile d'arte contemporanea Akròama". Scuoladiteatrocagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Teatro delle Saline". Teatrodellesaline.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Akròama T.L.S. - Contemporary Art Theatre". Akroama.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Compagnia Teatrale LAPOLA". Lapola.eu. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ [5] Archived October 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Centro Internazionale del Fumetto - Cagliari". Centrointernazionalefumetto.com. Archived from the original on 2015-02-11. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Musei - Soprintendenza Archeologia della Sardegna". Archeocaor.beniculturali.it. 2012-06-24. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ " Comune
Comune
di Cagliari Museo d'Arte Siamese Stefano Cardu". Comune.cagliari.it. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ [6] Archived October 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Pinacoteca Nazionale di Cagliari
Cagliari
- Home". Pinacoteca.cagliari.beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Galleria Comunale d'Arte Cagliari". Galleriacomunalecagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Ateneo - unica.it - Universitŕ degli studi di Cagliari". unica.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Camù Centri d'Arte e Musei". Camuweb.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ [7] Archived September 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Museo del Duomo di Cagliari". Museoduomodicagliari.it. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Museo del Tesoro di Sant'Eulalia - Musei - I luoghi dell'arte e della cultura - Luoghi - Cagliari
Cagliari
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Cagliari
- Home". Asdtennisclubcagliari.it. 2015-04-29. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Amsicora - Cagliari" (in Italian). Amsicoracagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Rarinantes Cagliari". Rarinantescagliari.it. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Cagliaritana Nuoto". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Home". Ippodromocagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Centro Universitario Sportivo Cagliari : Homepage". Cuscagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Home - Soprintendenza per i Beni Architettonici, Paesaggistici, Storici, Artistici ed Etnoantropologici per le province di Cagliari
Cagliari
e Oristano". Sbappsaecaor.beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "La Soprintendenza archivistica - Soprintendenza Archivistica per la Sardegna". Sa-sardegna.beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Home - Soprintendenza Archeologia della Sardegna". Archeocaor.beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Home-Page Sito web del Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo". Beniculturali.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Ragioneria Generale dello Stato - Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze". Rgs.mef.gov.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Classifica Atenei Statali 2012". Censismaster.it. Archived from the original on 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Aou Cagliari
Cagliari
- Presidi sanitari - Presidio Policlinico Monserrato". Aoucagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu - Home page". Aobrotzu.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "Cagliariairport - it". Sogaer.it. 2013-03-01. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "ARST - - Home" (in Italian). Arst.sardegna.it. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Skydive Sardegna en". Skydivesardegna.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ http://www.porto.cagliari.it/images/pdf/dati-2014[permanent dead link] st.pdf ^ "Acquista il biglietto con le nostre offerte". Trenitalia.com. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "CTM Cagliari". Ctmcagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ "ARST - - Home". Arst.sardegna.it. Retrieved 2015-05-03.  ^ http://www.corpoconsolaresardegna.it/consolati/

Literature[edit] In English:

Andrews Robert, The Rough Guide to Sardinia, Publisher: Rough Guide Ltd, 2010, ISBN 1848365403. Dyson, Stephen L. - Roland Jr. Robert, Archaeology and History in Sardinia
Sardinia
from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages: Shepherds, Sailors, and Conquerors, 2007. Freytag-Berndt, Sardinia
Sardinia
Travel Map. Lawrence D. H., Sea and Sardinia Parker, Philip M., The 2011 Economic and Product Market Databook for Cagliari, Italy, Icon Group International, 2011 ISBN 9781157065692 Stein Eliot, Sardinia: Cagliari
Cagliari
& the South, Publisher: Footprint Travel Guides, United Kingdom, 2012, ISBN 1908206535

In Italian:

Alziator Francesco, La città del sole, editrice La Zattera, Cagliari, 1963. Atzeni Enrico, Cagliari
Cagliari
preistorica, editrice CUEC, Cagliari, 2003. Barreca Ferrucio, La Sardegna fenicia e punica, editore Chiarella, Sassari, 1984 Boscolo Alberto, La Sardegna bizantina e altogiudicale, editotr Chiarella, Sassari, 1982 Francesco Cesare Casula (1994). La storia di Sardegna. Sassari: Delfino Editore. ISBN 88-7138-063-0.  Cossu Giuseppe, Della città di Cagliari, notizie compendiose sacre e profane, Stamperia Reale, Cagliari
Cagliari
1780 Del Piano Lorenzo, La Sardegna nell'ottocento, editore Chiarella, Sassari, 1984 Gallinari Luciano, Il Giudicato
Giudicato
di Cagliari
Cagliari
tra XI e XIII secolo. Proposte di interpretazioni istituzionali, in Rivista dell'Istituto di Storia dell'Europa Mediterranea, n°5, 2010 Hunno Baeza Roderigo, Il Caralis Panegyricus, edited by Francesco Alziator, Tipografia, Mercantile Doglio, Cagliari, 1954. Manconi Francesco, La Sardegna al tempo degli Asburgo, Il Maestrale, Nuoro, 2010, ISBN 9788864290102 Manconi Francesco, Una piccola provincia di un grande impero, CUEC, Cagliari, 2012, ISBN 8884677882 Manconi Francesco (edited by), La società sarda in età spagnola, Edizioni della Torre, Cagliari, 2003, 2 vol. Mastino Attilio, Storia della Sardegna Antica, Il Maestrale, Nuoro, 2005, ISBN 9788889801635 Maxia Agata Rosa, La grammatica del dialetto cagliaritano, editrice Della Torre, Cagliari, 2010 Meloni Piero, La Sardegna Romana, Chiarella, Sassari, 1980 Porru Vincenzo Raimondo, Saggio di gramatica sul dialetto sardo meridionale, Stamperia Reale, Cagliari, 1811. Scano Dionigi, Forma Karalis, a cura del Comune
Comune
di Cagliari, pref. di E. Endrich, Cagliari, Società Editrice Italiana, 1934, (oggi in ed. anast. Cagliari, La zattera, 1970; Cagliari, 3T, 1989). Sole Carlino, La Sardegna sabauda nel settecento, edizione Chiarella, Sassari, 1984 Sorgia Giancarlo, La Sardegna spagnola, editore Chiarella, Sassari, 1983 Spano Giovanni, Guida della città e dintorni di Cagliari, ed. Timon, Cagliari, 1861 Spanu Luigi, Cagliari
Cagliari
nel seicento, editrice Il Castello, Cagliari, 1999 Thermes Cenza, Cagliari, amore mio : guida storica, artistica, sentimentale della citta di Cagliari, editrice 3T, Cagliari, 1980-81. Thermes Cenza, E a dir di Cagliari..., editrice G. Trois, Cagliari, 1997. Zedda Corrado, Pinna Raimondo, Fra Santa Igia e il Castro Novo Montis de Castro. La questione giuridica urbanistica a Cagliari
Cagliari
all'inizio del XIII secolo, Archivio Storico Giuridico Sardo di Sassari", n.s., 15 (2010–2011), pp. 125–187  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutCagliariat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website (in Italian) Cagliari
Cagliari
Tourist Board website

v t e

Comuni
Comuni
of the Metropolitan City of Cagliari

Assemini Cagliari Capoterra Decimomannu Elmas Maracalagonis Monserrato Pula Quartu Sant'Elena Quartucciu Sarroch Selargius Sestu Settimo San Pietro Sinnai Uta Villa San Pietro

v t e

Regional capitals of Italy

   

L'Aquila, Abruzzo Aosta, Aosta
Aosta
Valley Bari, Apulia Potenza, Basilicata

Catanzaro, Calabria Naples, Campania Bologna, Emilia-Romagna Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Rome, Lazio Genoa, Liguria Milan, Lombardy Ancona, Marche

Campobasso, Molise Turin, Piedmont Cagliari, Sardinia Palermo, Sicily

Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Florence, Tuscany Perugia, Umbria Venice, Veneto

v t e

Phoenician cities and colonies

Algeria

Cirta Malaca Igigili Hippo Regius Icosium Iol Tipasa Timgad

Cyprus

Kition Dhali Marion

Greece

Callista Paxi Rhodes

Italy

Karalis Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Panormus Solki Soluntum Tharros

Lebanon

Amia Ampi Arqa Baalbek Berut Botrys Gebal Sarepta Sur Sydon Tripolis

Libya

Leptis Magna Oea Sabratha

Malta

Gozo Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Maleth Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ

Mauritania / Morocco

Cerne  /  Arambys Caricus Murus Chellah Lixus Tingis

Israel

Achziv Acre Arsuf Caesarea

Portugal

Olissipona Ossonoba

Spain

Abdera Abyla Akra Leuke Gadir Herna Ibossim Sa Caleta, Ibiza Mahón Malaca Onoba Qart Hadašt Rusadir Sexi Tyreche

Syria

Amrit Arwad Safita Shuksi Ugarit

Tunisia

Carthage Hadrumetum Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Kerkouane Leptis Parva Sicca Thanae Thapsus Utica

Turkey / others

Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

v t e

Cities in Italy
Italy
by population

1,000,000+

Rome Milan

500,000+

Naples Turin Palermo Genoa

200,000+

Bari Bologna Catania Florence Messina Padua Trieste Venice Verona

100,000+

Ancona Andria Arezzo Bergamo Bolzano Brescia Cagliari Ferrara Foggia Forlì Giugliano Latina Livorno Modena Monza Novara Parma Perugia Pescara Piacenza Prato Ravenna Reggio Calabria Reggio Emilia Rimini Salerno Sassari Syracuse Taranto Terni Trento Udine Vicenza

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134322

.