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CAGAYAN VALLEY (Ilocano : _Tanap ti Cagayan_; Ibanag : _Tana' na Cagayan_; Itawis : _Tanap yo Cagayan_; Filipino : _Lambak ng Cagayan_) (designated as REGION II) is an administrative region in the Philippines located in the northeastern portion of Luzon . It is composed of five provinces : Batanes , Cagayan , Isabela , Nueva Vizcaya , and Quirino . The region has four cities: Cauayan , Ilagan , Santiago , and Tuguegarao .

Most of the region lies in a large valley in northeastern Luzon , between the Cordilleras and the Sierra Madre mountain ranges. The eponymous Cagayan River , the country's largest and second longest, runs through its center and flows out from its source in the Caraballo Mountains in the south to the Luzon Strait in the north, in the town of Aparri, Cagayan . The region encompasses the outlying islands of the Babuyan and Batanes to the north.

Cagayan Valley is the second largest region of the Philippines in terms of land area, second only to MIMAROPA.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Administrative divisions

* 3 Demographics

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Tilapia industry

* 5 Image gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

HISTORY

Archaeology indicates that Cagayan has been inhabited for half a million years, though no human remains of any such antiquity have yet appeared. The earliest inhabitants are the Agta , or Atta, food-gatherers who roam the forests without fixed abodes . A large tract of land has lately been returned to them. The bulk of the population are of Malay origin. For centuries before the coming of the Spanish, the inhabitants traded with Indians, Malays, Chinese, and Japanese. In the nineteenth century the prosperity found in tobacco cultivation caused many Ilokano to settle here. Tobacco is still a major factor in the economy of Cagayan, though a special economic zone and free port has been created to strengthen and diversify the provincial economy.

During Spanish times Cagayan Valley had a larger territory than what it has today. It included the territories of the above-mentioned provinces and the eastern parts of the Cordillera provinces of Apayao , Kalinga , Ifugao and Benguet . As the historian and missionary Jose Burgues, said, "The old Cagayan Valley comprises the province of Cagayan , Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya as well as the military Districts of Apayao , Itaves, Quiangan, Cayapa and Bintangan, plus the area of the Sierra Madre to the Pacific Ocean in the said trajectory."

During World War II at Balete Pass in Nueva Vizcaya, the retreating Japanese under General Tomoyuki Yamashita dug in and held on for three months against the American and Filipino forces who eventually drove them out; the pass is now called Dalton Pass in honor of General Dalton, USA, who was killed in the fighting.

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (March 2016)_

GEOGRAPHY

Northern Luzon topography showing Cagayan Valley

Cagayan Valley is the large mass of land in the northeastern region of Luzon , comprising the provinces of Cagayan , Isabela , Nueva Vizcaya , Quirino , and the Batanes group of islands. It is bordered to the west by the Cordillera mountain range, to the east by the Sierra Madre , to the south by the Caraballo Mountains , and to the north by the Luzon Strait .

The region contains two landlocked provinces, Quirino and Nueva Vizcaya, which are ruggedly mountainous and heavily forested. Nueva Vizcaya is the remnant of the southern province created when Cagayan Province was divided in two in 1839. They are ethnically and linguistically diverse, with a substrate of Agtas , Negritos who are food-gatherers with no fixed abodes , overlaid by Ilongots and others in a number of tribes, some of whom were fierce head-hunters (they have given up the practice), with the latest but largest element of the population being the Ilocanos , closely followed by the Ibanags .

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Cagayan Valley comprises five provinces , one independent city , three component cities , 89 municipalities , and 2,311 barangays.

PROVINCE CAPITAL POPULATION (2015) AREA DENSITY CITIES MUNI. BGY.

KM2 SQ MI /KM2 /SQ MI

BATANES Basco 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 17,246 219.01 84.56 79 200 0 6 29

CAGAYAN Tuguegarao 7001347000000000000♠34.7% 1,199,320 9,295.75 3,589.11 130 340 1 28 820

ISABELA Ilagan 7001462000000000000♠46.2% 1,593,566 12,414.93 4,793.43 130 340 3 34 1,055

NUEVA VIZCAYA Bayombong 7001131000000000000♠13.1% 452,287 3,975.67 1,535.01 110 280 0 15 275

QUIRINO Cabarroguis 7000550000000000000♠5.5% 188,991 2,323.47 897.10 81 210 0 6 132

TOTAL 3,451,410 28,228.83 10,899.21 120 310 4 89 2,311

• Figures for Isabela include the _independent component city_ of Santiago .

CITY/MUNICIPALITY POPULATION (2015) AREA DENSITY CLASS INCOME CLASS PROVINCE

KM2 SQ MI /KM2 /SQ MI

ABULUG 32,497 162.60 62.78 200 520 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

AGLIPAY 27,787 161.70 62.43 170 440 Municipality 3rd Quirino

ALCALA 38,883 187.20 72.28 210 540 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

ALFONSO CASTAñEDA 7,940 375.40 144.94 21 54 Municipality 4th Nueva Vizcaya

ALICIA 71,504 154.10 59.50 460 1,200 Municipality 1st Isabela

ALLACAPAN 33,571 306.80 118.46 110 280 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

AMBAGUIO 15,250 156.26 60.33 98 250 Municipality 5th Nueva Vizcaya

ANGADANAN 43,061 204.40 78.92 210 540 Municipality 3rd Isabela

APARRI 65,649 286.64 110.67 230 600 Municipality 1st Cagayan

ARITAO 37,225 265.60 102.55 140 360 Municipality 2nd Nueva Vizcaya

AURORA 35,017 115.56 44.62 310 800 Municipality 3rd Isabela

BAGABAG 35,501 183.90 71.00 190 490 Municipality 2nd Nueva Vizcaya

BAGGAO 82,782 920.60 355.45 90 230 Municipality 1st Cagayan

BALLESTEROS 34,299 120.00 46.33 290 750 Municipality 4th Cagayan

BAMBANG 53,433 345.00 133.21 150 390 Municipality 1st Nueva Vizcaya

BASCO 8,579 49.46 19.10 170 440 Municipality 5th Batanes

BAYOMBONG 61,512 136.00 52.51 450 1,200 Municipality 1st Nueva Vizcaya

BENITO SOLIVEN 29,624 184.40 71.20 160 410 Municipality 4th Isabela

BUGUEY 30,175 164.50 63.51 180 470 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

BURGOS 23,784 73.10 28.22 330 850 Municipality 4th Isabela

CABAGAN 50,174 430.40 166.18 120 310 Municipality 1st Isabela

CABARROGUIS 30,582 260.20 100.46 120 310 Municipality 3rd Quirino

CABATUAN 39,413 72.00 27.80 550 1,400 Municipality 3rd Isabela

CALAYAN 16,702 164.50 63.51 100 260 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

CAMALANIUGAN 24,923 76.50 29.54 330 850 Municipality 4th Cagayan

CAUAYAN CITY 129,523 336.40 129.88 390 1,000 Component City 3rd Isabela

CLAVERIA 29,921 194.80 75.21 150 390 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

CORDON 42,926 144.00 55.60 300 780 Municipality 3rd Isabela

DELFIN ALBANO 26,614 189.00 72.97 140 360 Municipality 4th Isabela

DIADI 18,122 181.20 69.96 100 260 Municipality 4th Nueva Vizcaya

DIFFUN 52,569 320.10 123.59 160 410 Municipality 2nd Quirino

DINAPIGUE 5,005 574.40 221.78 8.7 23 Municipality 1st Isabela

DIVILACAN 5,687 889.49 343.43 6.4 17 Municipality 2nd Isabela

DUPAX DEL NORTE 27,514 347.30 134.09 79 200 Municipality 4th Nueva Vizcaya

DUPAX DEL SUR 19,111 374.70 144.67 51 130 Municipality 2nd Nueva Vizcaya

ECHAGUE 79,094 680.80 262.86 120 310 Municipality 1st Isabela

ENRILE 35,834 184.50 71.24 190 490 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

GAMU 29,904 129.40 49.96 230 600 Municipality 4th Isabela

GATTARAN 56,661 707.50 273.17 80 210 Municipality 1st Cagayan

GONZAGA 38,892 567.43 219.09 69 180 Municipality 1st Cagayan

IGUIG 27,862 108.10 41.74 260 670 Municipality 4th Cagayan

ILAGAN CITY 145,568 1,166.26 450.30 120 310 Component City 2nd Isabela

ITBAYAT 2,867 83.13 32.10 34 88 Municipality 5th Batanes

IVANA 1,327 16.54 6.39 80 210 Municipality 6th Batanes

JONES 45,666 670.14 258.74 68 180 Municipality 1st Isabela

KASIBU 37,705 318.80 123.09 120 310 Municipality 4th Nueva Vizcaya

KAYAPA 23,714 482.90 186.45 49 130 Municipality 3rd Nueva Vizcaya

LAL-LO 44,506 702.80 271.35 63 160 Municipality 1st Cagayan

LASAM 39,135 213.70 82.51 180 470 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

LUNA 19,326 45.70 17.64 420 1,100 Municipality 5th Isabela

MACONACON 4,253 538.66 207.98 7.9 20 Municipality 3rd Isabela

MADDELA 38,499 918.57 354.66 42 110 Municipality 1st Quirino

MAHATAO 1,555 12.90 4.98 120 310 Municipality 6th Batanes

MALLIG 30,459 133.40 51.51 230 600 Municipality 4th Isabela

NAGTIPUNAN 23,484 1,607.40 620.62 15 39 Municipality 1st Quirino

PALANAN 17,260 880.24 339.86 20 52 Municipality 1st Isabela

PAMPLONA 23,596 173.30 66.91 140 360 Municipality 4th Cagayan

PEñABLANCA 48,584 1,193.20 460.70 41 110 Municipality 1st Cagayan

PIAT 23,597 139.60 53.90 170 440 Municipality 4th Cagayan

QUEZON 25,860 189.90 73.32 140 360 Municipality 4th Isabela

QUEZON 21,056 187.50 72.39 110 280 Municipality 4th Nueva Vizcaya

QUIRINO 24,501 126.20 48.73 190 490 Municipality 4th Isabela

RAMON 52,707 135.17 52.19 390 1,000 Municipality 2nd Isabela

REINA MERCEDES 26,998 57.14 22.06 470 1,200 Municipality 4th Isabela

RIZAL 17,994 124.40 48.03 140 360 Municipality 5th Cagayan

ROXAS 61,773 184.80 71.35 330 850 Municipality 1st Isabela

SABTANG 1,621 40.70 15.71 40 100 Municipality 6th Batanes

SAGUDAY 16,070 55.50 21.43 290 750 Municipality 5th Quirino

SAN AGUSTIN 22,880 278.40 107.49 82 210 Municipality 3rd Isabela

SAN GUILLERMO 20,200 325.49 125.67 62 160 Municipality 4th Isabela

SAN ISIDRO 24,861 71.90 27.76 20 52 Municipality 5th Isabela

SAN MANUEL 31,896 112.77 43.54 280 730 Municipality 4th Isabela

SAN MARIANO 55,370 1,469.50 567.38 38 98 Municipality 1st Isabela

SAN MATEO 64,505 120.60 46.56 530 1,400 Municipality 1st Isabela

SAN PABLO 25,384 637.90 246.29 40 100 Municipality 2nd Isabela

SANCHEZ-MIRA 24,541 198.80 76.76 120 310 Municipality 3rd Cagayan

SANTA ANA 32,906 441.30 170.39 75 190 Municipality 2nd Cagayan

SANTA FE 16,180 399.81 154.37 40 100 Municipality 3rd Nueva Vizcaya

SANTA MARIA 25,382 140.00 54.05 180 470 Municipality 4th Isabela

SANTA PRAXEDES 4,154 109.97 42.46 38 98 Municipality 5th Cagayan

SANTA TERESITA 19,038 166.98 64.47 110 280 Municipality 4th Cagayan

SANTIAGO CITY 134,830 275.00 106.18 490 1,300 Independent Component City 1st Isabela

SANTO NIñO 27,219 512.90 198.03 53 140 Municipality 2nd Cagayan

SANTO TOMAS 23,005 60.70 23.44 380 980 Municipality 4th Isabela

SOLANA 82,502 234.60 90.58 350 910 Municipality 1st Cagayan

SOLANO 59,517 139.80 53.98 430 1,100 Municipality 1st Nueva Vizcaya

TUAO 61,535 215.50 83.21 290 750 Municipality 1st Cagayan

TUGUEGARAO CITY 153,502 144.80 55.91 1,100 2,800 Component City 1st Cagayan

TUMAUINI 67,650 467.30 180.43 140 360 Municipality 1st Isabela

UYUGAN 1,297 16.28 6.29 80 210 Municipality 6th Batanes

VILLAVERDE 18,507 81.50 31.47 230 600 Municipality 5th Nueva Vizcaya

1 Santiago City is administratively and legally independent from the province of Isabela as stated in Section 25 of the LGC.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Population census of Cagayan Valley

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1990 2,340,545 —

2000 2,813,159 +1.86%

2010 3,229,163 +1.39%

2015 3,451,410 +1.28%

Source: National Statistics Office

Population percentage (2015)

* Batanes: 17,246 (0.5%) * Cagayan: 1,199,320 (34.7%) * Isabela: 1,593,566 (46.2%) * Nueva Vizcaya: 452,287 (13.1%) * Quirino: 188,991 (5.5%)

ECONOMY

Rice fields in Nueva Vizcaya

The province of Isabela and the city of Santiago are notably the most progressive province and city in Cagayan Valley, respectively. Isabela was the Top 10 Richest Province in the Philippines in 2011, being the only province of Northern Luzon to be included in the list. In 2013 and 2014, two of the most dominant mall operators in the country, Robinsons Land and SM Prime strengthened their presence in the region with the opening of its pioneer malls, the Robinsons Place Santiago in Santiago City and the first SM Supermall in the region, the SM City Cauayan in Cauayan City . The two companies is set to further penetrate the retail industry in the region by constructing more malls, the Robinsons Place Tuguegarao , SM City Tuguegarao and SM Center Tuguegarao Downtown , respectively.

Cagayan has several attractions which include beaches, swimming, snorkeling, skin-diving, fishing in the river and the sea, hiking in primeval forest, mountain-climbing, archaeological sites, the collection of the provincial museum, the Callao Caves, and many churches.

The Cagayan Economic Zone Authority (CEZA) is in Santa Ana, Cagayan .

TILAPIA INDUSTRY

On January 11, 2008, the Cagayan Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) stated that tilapia (species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe ) production grew and Cagayan Valley is now the Philippines ’ tilapia capital ( Saint Peter ’s fish). Production supply grew 37.25% since 2003, with 14,000 metric tons (MT) in 2007. The recent aquaculture congress found that the growth of tilapia production was due to government interventions: provision of fast-growing species, accreditation of private hatcheries to ensure supply of quality fingerlings, establishment of demonstration farms, providing free fingerlings to newly constructed fishponds, and the dissemination of tilapia to Nueva Vizcaya (in Diadi town). Nueva Vizcaya Governor Luisa Lloren Cuaresma entered into similar aquaculture endeavors in addition to tilapia production. Isabela province is the richest in harvest among the other provinces in Region 2.

IMAGE GALLERY

*

Sierra Madre mountains at Palanan *

Eastern coast of Isabela *

Tuguegarao Cathedral *

Northern coast of Cagayan *

Northern end of the Sierra Madre with Palaui Island in the background *

Batanes coastline in Batan Island

SEE ALSO

* List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Cagayan Valley

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Census of Population (2015). _Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population_. PSA . Retrieved 20 June 2016. * ^ Cagayan Valley Archived 2013-05-11 at the Wayback Machine ., Department of Tourism - Region 2, retrieved 06-21-2012 * ^ _Descripcion del Valle de Cagayan_, 1897, Jose Burgues * ^ "List of Regions". National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 9 January 2011. * ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Provinces". _Philippine Statistics Authority _. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2016. * ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Cities". _Philippine Statistics Authority_. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2016. * ^ "Republic Act No. 7160 LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved 5 November 2013. * ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). _2010 Census and Housing Population_. National Statistics Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013. * ^ Top 10 Highest earning Philippine province, _Nobert Bermosa website_, retrieved 06-17-2012. * ^ "Profiles". _Department of Trade and Industry _. Retrieved 6 March 2016. The region is hailed as the “ Tilapia Capital of the Philippines” The main crops are rice, corn, and tobacco. Fishing is prevalent in the coast of Cagayan, Isabela, Batanes and Magat Dam in Isabela. * ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive,