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The Info List - Caffeine Citrate


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Caffeine citrate, sold under the trade name Cafcit among others, is a medication used to treat a lack of breathing in premature babies.[1] Specifically it is given to babies who are born at less than 35 weeks or weight less than 2 kilograms (4.4 lb) once other causes are ruled out.[2] It is given by mouth or slow injection into a vein.[1] Side effects can include problems feeding, increased heart rate, low blood sugar, necrotizing enterocolitis, and kidney problems.[2][1] Testing blood caffeine levels is occasionally recommended.[1] It is a citrate salt of caffeine.[3] Caffeine citrate is in the xanthine family of medication.[2] It works by stimulating the respiratory centers in the brain.[1] Caffeine was discovered in 1819.[4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[5] In the United Kingdom a 10 mg vial costs £4.90.[6] The intravenous form may also be taken by mouth.[6]

Contents

1 Medical uses 2 Mechanism 3 Manufacture 4 References 5 External links

Medical uses[edit] Caffeine citrate is generally the preferred treatment for apnea of prematurity.[2] It has less side effects as compared to theophylline.[2] Caffeine citrate functions in much the same capacity as does caffeine, but takes effect more quickly; its speed of dissociation is faster than that of caffeine. Like its sister compound, it can be used to dispel pain from a headache. However, caffeine sodium benzoate is typically only used to treat severe migraines, not the citrate form. Mechanism[edit] In method of action, the preparation is exactly identical to that of caffeine base as the citrate counter ion dissociates in water. Doses of caffeine citrate, due to the added weight of the citrate moiety, are understandably higher than with caffeine base, i.e., it takes a larger dose to get the same amount of caffeine.[6] The ratio of therapeutic doses of caffeine base to its citrate salt is typically 1:2.[6] Dosing should therefore be clearly distinguished.[6] Manufacture[edit] The drug is prepared simply by combining anhydrous caffeine with citric acid monohydrate and sodium citrate dihydrate. References[edit]

^ a b c d e "Caffeine; Caffeine and Sodium Benzoate Injection; Caffeine Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2016.  ^ a b c d e WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. X. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.  ^ Donn, Steven M.; Sinha, Sunil K. (2012). Manual of Neonatal Respiratory Care. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 457. ISBN 9781461421559. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30.  ^ Brown, Nathan (2015). In Silico Medicinal Chemistry: Computational Methods to Support Drug Design. Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 20. ISBN 9781782621638. Archived from the original on 2016-12-29.  ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.  ^ a b c d e Ainsworth, Sean B. (2014). Neonatal Formulary: Drug Use in Pregnancy and the First Year of Life (7 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 120. ISBN 9781118819517. Archived from the original on 2016-12-30. 

External links[edit]

[1] in the NCI Metathesaurus

v t e

Purine receptor modulators

Receptor (ligands)

P0 (adenine)

Agonists: 8-Aminoadenine Adenine

P1 (adenosine)

Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine 2-Cl-IB-MECA 2'-MeCCPA 4'-O-β-D-Glucosyl-9-O-(6''-deoxysaccharosyl)olivil 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine Adenosine ADP AMP Apadenoson ATL-146e ATP BAY 60–6583 Binodenoson Capadenoson CCPA CGS-21680 CP-532,903 Evodenoson GR 79236 LUF-5835 LUF-5845 N6-Cyclopentyladenosine Namodenoson Neladenoson dalanate Piclidenoson Regadenoson SDZ WAG 994 Selodenoson Sonedenoson Tecadenoson UK-432,097

Antagonists: 8-Chlorotheophylline 8-Phenyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine 8-Phenyltheophylline Acefylline Aminophylline ATL-444 Bamifylline Cafedrine Caffeine Caffeine citrate Cartazolate CGH-2466 CGS-15943 Choline theophyllinate CPX CVT-6883 Dimethazan DMPX DPCPX Dyphylline Enprofylline Etazolate Fenethylline IBMX Isovaleric acid Istradefylline KF-26777 MRE3008F20 MRS-1220 MRS-1334 MRS-1706 MRS-1754 MRS-3777 Paraxanthine Pentoxifylline Preladenant Propentofylline Proxyphylline PSB-10 PSB-11 PSB-36 PSB-603 PSB-788 PSB-1115 Reversine Rolofylline SCH-442,416 SCH-58261 Theacrine Theobromine Theodrenaline Theophylline Tozadenant Tracazolate VUF-5574 ZM-241,385

P2 (nucleotide)

P2X (ATP)

Agonists: 2-Me-SATP α,β-Me-ATP Adenosine ADP AMP Ap4A Ap5A ATP ATPγS BzATP Cibacron blue CTP D-β,γ-Me-ATP GTP HT-AMP Ivermectin L-β,γ-Me-ATP MRS-2219 PAPET-ATP UTP Zinc

Antagonists: 5-BDBD A-317491 A-438079 A-740003 A-804598 A-839977 AF-353 AZ-10606120 AZ-11645373 BBG Calcium Calmidazolium Chelerythrine Copper Emodin (Rheum officinale) Evans Blue GW-791343 HMA Ip5I isoPPADS JNJ-47965567 KN-04 KN-62 Magnesium MRS-2159 NF-023 NF-110 NF-157 NF-279 NF-449 Opiranserin (VVZ-149) Oxidized-ATP Phenol Red Phenolphthalein PPADS PPNDS PSB-12062 Puerarin (Radix puerariae) Purotoxin 1 RB-2 Ro 0437626 Ro 51 RO-3 Sodium ferulate (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum wallichii) Suramin TC-P 262 Tetramethylpyrazine (ligustrazine) (Ligusticum wallichii) TNP-ATP Zinc

P2Y

Agonists: 2-Me-SADP 2-Me-SATP 2-Thio-UTP 5-Br-UDP 5-OMe-UDP α,β-Me-ATP Adenosine ADP ADPβS Ap3A AR-C 67085MX ATP ATPγS CTP dATP Denufosol Diquafosol IDP ITP INS-365 INS-37217 MRS-2365 MRS-2690 MRS-2693 MRS-2768 MRS-2957 MRS-4062 NF-546 PAPET-ATP PSB-0474 PSB-1114 UDP UDPβS UDP-galactose UDP-glucose UDP-N-acetylglucosamine Up3U UTP UTPγS

Antagonists: 2-Me-SAMP A3P5PS AMPαS Ap4A AR-C 66096 AR-C 67085MX AR-C 69931MX AR-C 118925XX ATP BzATP C1330-7 Cangrelor Clopidogrel Elinogrel Ip5I MRS-2179 MRS-2211 MRS-2279 MRS-2395 MRS-2500 MRS-2578 NF-157 NF-340 PIT PPADS Prasugrel PSB-0739 RB-2 Regrelor Suramin Ticagrelor Ticlopidine UDP

Transporter (blockers)

CNTs

6-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone Adenosine dMeThPmR Estradiol KGO-2142 KGO-2173 MeThPmR Phloridzin Progesterone

ENTs

Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Cilostazol Dilazep Dipyridamole Estradiol Ethanol Hexobendine NBMPR Pentoxifylline Progesterone Propentofylline

PMAT

Decynium-22

Enzyme (inhibitors)

XO

Allopurinol Amflutizole Benzbromarone Caffeic acid Cinnamaldehyde Cinnamomum osmophloeum Febuxostat Myo-inositol Kaempferol Myricetin Niraxostat Oxipurinol Phytic acid Pistacia integerrima Propolis Quercetin Tisopurine Topiroxostat

Others

Aminopterin Azathioprine Methotrexate Mycophenolic acid Pemetrexed Pralatrexate Many others

Others

Precursors: Adenine Adenosine AMP ADP ATP Cytosine Cytidine CMP CDP CTP Guanine Guanosine GMP GDP GTP Hypoxanthine Inosine IMP IDP ITP Ribose Uracil Uridine UMP UDP UTP

Others: Chrysophanol (rhubarb)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators

Pharmacy and pharmacology port

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