CAFFEINE CITRATE, sold under the trade name CAFCIT among others, is a
medication used to treat a lack of breathing in premature babies .
Specifically it is given to babies who are born at less than 35 weeks
or weight less than 2 kilograms (4.4 lb) once other causes are ruled
out. It is given by mouth or slow injection into a vein .
Side effects can include problems feeding, increased heart rate, low
blood sugar , necrotizing enterocolitis , and kidney problems .
Testing blood caffeine levels is occasionally recommended. It is a
citrate salt of caffeine.
Caffeine citrate is in the xanthine family
of medication. It works by stimulating the respiratory centers in the
Caffeine was discovered in 1819. It is on the World Health
Organization\'s List of Essential Medicines , the most effective and
safe medicines needed in a health system . In the United Kingdom a 10
mg vial costs £4.90. The intravenous form may also be taken by
* 1 Medical uses
* 2 Mechanism
* 3 Manufacture
* 4 References
* 5 External links
Caffeine citrate is generally the preferred treatment for apnea of
prematurity . It has less side effects as compared to theophylline .
Caffeine citrate functions in much the same capacity as does
caffeine, but takes effect more quickly; its speed of dissociation is
faster than that of caffeine. Like its sister compound, it can be used
to dispel pain from a headache. However, caffeine sodium benzoate is
typically only used to treat severe migraines, not the citrate form.
In method of action, the preparation is exactly identical to that of
caffeine base as the citrate counter ion dissociates in water. Doses
of caffeine citrate, due to the added weight of the citrate moiety,
are understandably higher than with caffeine base, i.e., it takes a
larger dose to get the same amount of caffeine. The ratio of
therapeutic doses of caffeine base to its citrate salt is typically
1:2. Dosing should therefore be clearly distinguished.
The drug is prepared simply by combining anhydrous caffeine with
citric acid monohydrate and sodium citrate dihydrate.
* ^ A B C D E "Caffeine;
Caffeine and Sodium Benzoate Injection;
Caffeine Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists.
Retrieved 8 December 2016.
* ^ A B C D E WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health
Organization. 2009. p. X. ISBN 9789241547659 . Retrieved 8 December
* ^ Donn, Steven M.; Sinha, Sunil K. (2012). Manual of Neonatal
Respiratory Care. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 457. ISBN
* ^ Brown, Nathan (2015). In Silico Medicinal Chemistry:
Computational Methods to Support Drug Design. Royal Society of
Chemistry. p. 20. ISBN 9781782621638 .
* ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF).
World Health Organization. April 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
* ^ A B C D E Ainsworth, Sean B. (2014). Neonatal Formulary: Drug
Use in Pregnancy and the First Year of Life (7 ed.). John Wiley &
Sons. p. 120. ISBN 9781118819517 .