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Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar "Ptolemy, Beloved of his Father, Beloved of his Mother, Caesar"; June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), better known by the nicknames Caesarion
Caesarion
(/sɪˈzɛəriən/; Καισαρίων, Kaisaríōn ≈ Little Caesar; Latin: Caesariō) and Ptolemy Caesar (/ˈtɒlɪmi ˈsiːzər/; Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaios Kaisar; Latin: Ptolemaeus Caesar), was the last Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt. He was the final member of the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
of Egypt, who reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
of Egypt, from September 2, 44 BC. He held the position of sole ruler between the death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to August 23, 30 BC, the time his death was ordered by Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus. It is unknown whether Octavian's order was carried out successfully. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, and possibly the only biological son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Pharaoh 3 Downfall 4 Depictions 5 Egyptian names 6 Ancestry 7 Caesarion
Caesarion
as fictional character 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Early life[edit]

Limestone stela of a high priest of god Ptah. It bears the cartouches of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesarion. From Egypt. Ptolemaic Period. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Caesarion
Caesarion
was born in Egypt
Egypt
on June 23, 47 BC. His mother Cleopatra insisted that he was the son of Julius Caesar. Caesarion
Caesarion
was said to have inherited Caesar's looks and manner, but Caesar apparently did not officially acknowledge him. Caesar's supporter Gaius Oppius wrote a pamphlet which attempted to prove that Caesar could not have fathered Caesarion. Nevertheless, Caesar may have allowed Caesarion
Caesarion
to use his name.[1] The matter became contentious when Caesar's adopted son Octavian
Octavian
came into conflict with Cleopatra. In some medical literature Caesarion
Caesarion
is said to have suffered from epilepsy, a neurological condition apparently inherited from his father Julius Caesar.[2] This thesis has recently been refuted by paleopathologist Francesco M. Galassi and surgeon Hutan Ashrafian, who have shown how the first mention of potential epileptic attacks can only be found in 20th century novels, instead of ancient primary sources, and how this controversial assumption has been mistakenly used in the historico-medical debate on Julius Caesar's alleged epilepsy to strengthen the notion that the dictator really suffered from that disease.[3] Caesarion
Caesarion
spent two of his infant years, from 46 to 44 BC, in Rome, where he and his mother were Caesar's guests. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
hoped that her son would eventually succeed his father as the head of the Roman Republic as well as of Egypt. After Caesar's assassination on March 15, 44 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Caesarion
Caesarion
returned to Egypt. Caesarion
Caesarion
was named co-ruler by his mother on September 2, 44 BC at the age of three, although he was pharaoh in name only, with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
keeping actual authority all to herself. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
compared her relationship to her son with the Egyptian goddess Isis
Isis
and her divine child Horus.[1] During the tense period leading up to the final conflict between Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius) and Octavian
Octavian
(future Emperor Augustus), the two of them initially shared control of the Republic in a triumvirate with Lepidus. Lepidus was forced into retirement by Octavian
Octavian
in 36 BC. Octavian
Octavian
and Mark Antony
Mark Antony
were then left in control of the Western and Eastern provinces respectively. There is no historical record of Caesarion
Caesarion
between 44 BC until the Donations of Antioch in 36 BC. Two years later he also appears at the Donations of Alexandria. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
and Antony staged both "Donations" to donate lands dominated by Rome
Rome
and Parthia
Parthia
to Cleopatra's children: the 11-year-old Caesarion
Caesarion
(presumed to have been fathered by Julius Caesar) and the four year-old twins Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II initially in 36 BC, and in 34 BC including the two year-old Ptolemy Philadelphus (all three fathered by Marc Antony). Octavian gave public approval to the Donations of Antioch in 36 BC, which have been described as an Antonian strategy to rule the East making use of Cleopatra's unique royal Seleucid
Seleucid
lineage in the regions donated.[4] Pharaoh[edit] In 34 BC, Antony granted further eastern lands and titles to Caesarion and to his own three children with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in the Donations of Alexandria. Caesarion
Caesarion
was proclaimed to be a god, a son of [a] god, and "King of Kings". This grandiose title was "unprecedented in the management of Roman client-king relationships" and could be seen as "threatening the 'greatness' of the Roman people".[5] Antony also declared Caesarion
Caesarion
to be Caesar's true son and heir. This declaration was a direct threat to Octavian
Octavian
(whose claim to power was based on his status as Julius Caesar's grandnephew and adopted son). These proclamations partly caused the fatal breach in Antony's relations with Octavian, who used Roman resentment over the Donations to gain support for war against Antony and Cleopatra.[6] Downfall[edit]

This mid-1st-century-BC Roman wall painting in Pompeii, Italy, showing Venus
Venus
holding a cupid is most likely a depiction of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
as Venus
Venus
Genetrix, with her son Caesarion
Caesarion
as the cupid, similar in appearance to the now lost statue of Cleopatra erected by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in the Temple of Venus
Venus
Genetrix (within the Forum of Caesar). The owner of the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii
Pompeii
walled off the room with this painting, most likely in immediate reaction to the execution of Caesarion
Caesarion
on orders of Augustus in 30 BC, when artistic depictions of Caesarion
Caesarion
would have been considered a sensitive issue for the ruling regime.[7][8]

After the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
at the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
seems to have groomed Caesarion
Caesarion
to take over as "sole ruler without his mother."[1] She may have intended to go into exile, perhaps with Antony, who may have hoped that he would be allowed to retire as Lepidus had. Caesarion
Caesarion
reappears in the historical record in 30 BC, when Octavian
Octavian
invaded Egypt
Egypt
and searched for him. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
may have sent Caesarion, at the time 17 years old, to the Red Sea
Red Sea
port of Berenice for safety, possibly as part of plans for an escape to India; he may have been sent years earlier, but the sources are unclear. Plutarch
Plutarch
does say that Caesarion
Caesarion
was sent to India, but also that he was lured back by false promises of the kingdom of Egypt:

Caesarion, who was said to be Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar, was sent by his mother, with much treasure, into India, by way of Ethiopia. There Rhodon, another tutor like Theodorus, persuaded him to go back, on the ground that [Octavian] Caesar invited him to take the kingdom.[9]

Octavian
Octavian
captured the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
on August 1, 30 BC, the date that marks the official annexation of Egypt
Egypt
to the Roman Republic. Around this time Mark Antony
Mark Antony
and Cleopatra
Cleopatra
died, traditionally said to be by suicide though murder has been suggested.[10] Details of the narratives in Plutarch
Plutarch
are generally challenged and not taken literally.[11] Caesarion's guardians, including his tutor, either were themselves lured by false promises of mercy into returning him to Alexandria
Alexandria
or perhaps even betrayed him; the records are unclear. Octavian
Octavian
is supposed to have had Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Caesarion
Caesarion
executed in Alexandria, following the advice of Arius Didymus, who said "Too many Caesars is not good" (a pun on a line in Homer).[12] It is popularly thought that he was strangled, but the exact circumstances of his death (or even whether he lived to old age in hiding under a reinvented identity) have not been documented.[citation needed] Octavian
Octavian
then assumed absolute control of Egypt. The year 30 BC was considered the first year of the new ruler's reign according to the traditional chronological system of Egypt. Depictions[edit]

A relief of Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
and Caesarion
Caesarion
at the temple of Dendera, Egypt

Roman painting from Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her[13]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)

Few images of Caesarion
Caesarion
survive. He is thought to be depicted in a partial statue found in the harbor of Alexandria
Alexandria
in 1997. He is also portrayed twice in relief, as an adult pharaoh, with his mother on the Temple of Hathor
Hathor
at Dendera. His infant image appears on some bronze coins of Cleopatra.[14] Egyptian names[edit] In addition to his Greek name and nicknames, Caesarion
Caesarion
also had a full set of royal names in the Egyptian language:

Iwapanetjer entynehem - "Heir of the God who saves" Setepenptah - "Chosen of Ptah" Irmaatenre - "Carrying out the rule of Ra" or "Sun of Righteousness" Sekhemankhamun - "Living Image of Amun"[15]

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Caesarion

16. Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
I

8. Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
II

4. Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
the Elder

18. Quintus Marcius Rex

9. Marcia

2. Julius Caesar

20. Lucius Aurelius Cotta the Elder

10. Lucius Aurelius Cotta

5. Aurelia Cotta

11. Rutilia

1. Caesarion

24. Ptolemy VIII Physcon

12. Ptolemy IX Lathyros

25. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III of Egypt

6. Ptolemy XII Auletes

26. Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
(= 24)

13. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
IV of Egypt

27. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III of Egypt
Egypt
(= 25)

3. Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
of Egypt

28. Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
(= 24)

14. Ptolemy X Alexander I

29. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III of Egypt
Egypt
(= 25)

7. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
V of Egypt

30. Ptolemy IX Lathyros
Ptolemy IX Lathyros
(= 12)

15. Berenice III of Egypt

31. Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Selene I

Caesarion
Caesarion
as fictional character[edit]

Caesarion
Caesarion
is the main character of the historical novel Cleopatra's Heir by Gillian Bradshaw (2002, ISBN 0765302284). In the cartoon album Asterix
Asterix
and Son, Cleopatra
Cleopatra
leaves an infant Caesarion
Caesarion
in the care of the invincible Gaul Asterix, to protect him from being murdered by Brutus. Caesarion
Caesarion
is depicted in several episodes of the TV series Rome. He first appears in the episode "Caesarion" as a newborn child and plays a major role in the final episode "De Patre Vostro (About Your Father)", in which he is rescued from death by Titus Pullo, leaving with him to an unknown future. The series strongly implies that Pullo, who had sex with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
before she met Caesar, is the boy's real father. The title of the final episode, the last words we hear Pullo say to Caesarion
Caesarion
before the series ends, alludes to this. Caesarion
Caesarion
is a lead character in Michael Livingston's 2015 historical fantasy novel The Shards of Heaven.[16][17] He is a character in Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome
Rome
series, in particular in the final book titled Anthony and Cleopatra. He is a character in the 1963 film Cleopatra, depicted mainly as a child throughout. Caesarion
Caesarion
plays a small role in the 2017 video game Assassin’s Creed: Origins.

See also[edit]

Gens Julia

Notes[edit]

^ Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern invention; the Greeks distinguished them by epithet (e.g. "Philopator") or nickname (e.g. "Auletes"). The number given here is the present consensus, but there has been some disagreement in the 19th century about which of the later Ptolemies should be counted as reigning. Since older sources may give a number one higher or lower, epithets are the most reliable way of determining which Ptolemy is being referred to in any given case.

References[edit]

^ a b c Duane W. Roller, Cleopatra: A Biography, Oxford University Press US, 2010, pp.70-3 ^ Hughes JR. Dictator Perpetuus. Julius Caesar–did he have seizures? If so, what was the etiology? Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Oct; 5(5): 765-64. ^ Francesco M. Galassi, Hutan Ashrafian, Julius Caesar's Disease. A New Diagnosis. Pen and Sword Books, 2016, pp. 45-46. ^ Rolf Strootman, ‘Queen of Kings: Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
and the Donations of Alexandria’, in: M. Facella and T. Kaizer eds., Kingdoms and Principalities in the Roman Near East. Occidens et Oriens 19 (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2010) 139–158 ^ Meyer Reinhold, Studies in classical history and society, Oxford University Press US, 2002, p. 58. ^ Stanley Mayer Burstein, The Reign of Cleopatra, University of Oklahoma Press, 2007, p. 29. ^ Roller, Duane W. (2010). Cleopatra: a biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195365535, p. 175. ^ Walker, Susan. " Cleopatra
Cleopatra
in Pompei?" in Papers of the British School at Rome, 76 (2008): 35-46 and 345-8 (pp. 35, 42-44). ^ Plutarch, Life of Antony ^ Pat Brown, The Murder of Cleopatra: History's Greatest Cold Case, Prometheus Books (February 19, 2013) ^ The Victorian scholar Arthur Hugh Clough, who updated the poet John Dryden's superb translation of Plutarch
Plutarch
to give us the best available version in English, remarked in an introduction: "It cannot be denied that [Plutarch] is careless about numbers, and occasionally contradicts his own statements. A greater fault, perhaps, is his passion for anecdote; he cannot forbear from repeating stories, the improbability of which he is the first to recognise." Morrow, Lance. "Smithsonian Magazine", July 2004. Retrieved on 26 Feb 2015. ^ David Braund et al, Myth, history and culture in republican Rome: studies in honour of T.P. Wiseman, University of Exeter Press, 2003, p. 305. The original line was "ουκ αγαθόν πολυκοιρανίη" ("ouk agathon polukoiranie"): "too many leaders are not good", or "the rule of many is a bad thing". (Homer's Iliad, Bk. II. vers. 204 and 205) In Greek "ουκ αγαθόν πολυκαισαρίη" ("ouk agathon polukaisarie") is a variation on "ουκ αγαθόν πολυκοιρανίη" ("ouk agathon polukoiranie"). "Καισαρ" (Caesar) replacing "κοίρανος", meaning leader. ^ Roller, Duane W. (2010). Cleopatra: a biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195365535, pp. 178-179. ^ Sear, Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. II. ^ Chronicle of the Pharaohs, by Peter Clayton (1994), ISBN 0-500-05074-0 ^ " The Shards of Heaven
The Shards of Heaven
by Michael Livingston". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 29, 2016.  ^ "Review: The Shards of Heaven
The Shards of Heaven
by Michael Livingston". Kirkus Reviews. September 3, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2016. 

External links[edit]

Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Caesarion
entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith

Caesarion Ptolemaic dynasty Born: 47 BC Died: 30 BC

Preceded by Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
Philopator Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt 44–30 BCE with Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Succeeded by Egypt
Egypt
annexed by Rome

v t e

Hellenistic rulers

Argeads

Philip II Alexander III the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Antigonids

Antigonus I Monophthalmus Demetrius I Poliorcetes Antigonus II Gonatas Demetrius II Aetolicus Antigonus III Doson Philip V Perseus Philip VI (pretender)

Ptolemies

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra
Cleopatra
I Syra (regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III Ptolemy IX Lathyros Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII
Philopator Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Kings of Cyrene

Magas Demetrius the Fair Ptolemy VIII Physcon Ptolemy Apion

Seleucids

Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus III Ceraunus Antiochus III the Great Seleucus IV Philopator Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Demetrius I Soter Alexander I Balas Demetrius II Nicator Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus

Lysimachids

Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos

Antipatrids

Cassander Philip IV Alexander V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Attalids

Philetaerus Eumenes I Attalus I Eumenes II Attalus II Attalus III Eumenes III

Greco-Bactrians

Diodotus I Diodotus II Euthydemus I Demetrius I Euthydemus II Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Demetrius II Eucratides I Plato Eucratides II Heliocles I

Indo-Greeks

Demetrius I Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Apollodotus I Demetrius II Antimachus II Menander I Zoilos I Agathokleia Lysias Strato I Antialcidas Heliokles II Polyxenos Demetrius III Philoxenus Diomedes Amyntas Epander Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso Nicias Menander II Artemidoros Hermaeus Archebius Telephos Apollodotus II Hippostratos Dionysios Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Strato III

Kings of Bithynia

Boteiras Bas Zipoetes I Nicomedes I Zipoetes II Etazeta (regent) Ziaelas Prusias I Prusias II Nicomedes II Nicomedes III Nicomedes IV Socrates Chrestus

Kings of Pontus

Mithridates I Ctistes Ariobarzanes Mithridates II Mithridates III Pharnaces I Mithridates IV Philopator Philadephos Mithridates V Euergetes Mithridates VI Eupator Pharnaces II Darius Arsaces Polemon I Pythodorida Polemon II

Kings of Commagene

Ptolemaeus Sames II Mithridates I Antiochus I Mithridates II Antiochus II Mithridates III Antiochus III Antiochus IV

Kings of Cappadocia

Ariarathes I Ariarathes II Ariamnes II Ariarathes III Ariarathes IV Ariarathes V Orophernes Ariarathes VI Ariarathes VII Ariarathes VIII Ariarathes IX Ariobarzanes I Ariobarzanes II Ariobarzanes III Ariarathes X Archelaus

Kings of the Cimmerian Bosporus

Paerisades I Satyros II Prytanis Eumelos Spartokos III Hygiainon (regent) Paerisades II Spartokos IV Leukon II Spartokos V Paerisades III Paerisades IV Paerisades V Mithridates I Pharnaces Asander with Dynamis Mithridates II Asander with Dynamis Scribonius’ attempted rule with Dynamis Dynamis with Polemon Polemon with Pythodorida Aspurgus Mithridates III with Gepaepyris Mithridates III Cotys I

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus
Horus
Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus
Horus
Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 67910474 LCCN: n85216105 ISNI: 0000 0000 2555 1

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