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Caernarfonshire
Caernarfonshire
(Welsh: Sir Gaernarfon), historically spelled as Caernarvonshire or Carnarvonshire in English, is one of the thirteen historic counties, a vice-county and a former administrative county of Wales.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Creation 2.2 19th and 20th centuries

2.2.1 Governance

2.3 Coat of arms 2.4 Flag

3 See also 4 Bibliography 5 Places of interest 6 External links 7 References 8 See also

Geography[edit] The county is bounded to the north by the Irish Sea, to the east by Denbighshire, to the south by Cardigan Bay
Cardigan Bay
and Merionethshire, and to the west by Caernarfon
Caernarfon
Bay and the Menai Strait, separating it from Anglesey. The county has a largely mountainous surface. A large part of the Snowdonian Range lies in the centre and south-east of the county, including Snowdon
Snowdon
itself, the highest mountain in Wales
Wales
at 1,085 m (3,560 ft). The south-west of the county is formed by the Llŷn peninsula, with Bardsey Island
Bardsey Island
lying off its western end. The north of the county, between the mountains and Menai Strait, is a nearly level plain. The east of the county is part of Vale of Conwy, with the River Conwy
Conwy
forming much of the eastern boundary. Llandudno
Llandudno
and Creuddyn forms a small peninsula to the north-east across the Conwy
Conwy
estuary.[2] The principal towns of the county are Bangor, Betws-y-Coed, Caernarfon, Conwy, Llandudno, Porthmadog
Porthmadog
and Pwllheli. History[edit] Creation[edit] The county was originally created under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 following Edward I of England's conquest of the Principality of Wales
Wales
and included the cantrefi of: Llŷn, Arfon, Arllechwedd and the commote of Eifionydd
Eifionydd
(the northern portion of Dunoding).[3] The county was divided into ten hundreds based on the existing Welsh commotes: Cymydmaen (anglicised as Commitmaen), Creuddyn, Dinllaen, Eifionydd
Eifionydd
(Evionydd), Cafflogion (Gaflogion), Llechwedd Isaf (...Isav), Llechwedd Uchaf (...Uchav), Nant Conwy
Conwy
(Nant-Conway), Is Gwyrfai (Isgorvai) and Uwch Gwyrfai (Uchgorvai).[2][4] 19th and 20th centuries[edit] During the 19th century the population increased steadily, from 46,000 in the 1801 census to 137,000 in the 1901 census (figures given for the registration county).[5] Governance[edit] Under the Local Government Act 1888, an elected Carnarvonshire County Council taking over functions from the county's quarter sessions. The administrative county covered by the county council had identical borders to the geographic county. The administrative county was formally renamed Caernarvonshire on 1 July 1926.[6] The county contained five ancient boroughs. Three of these (Caernarfon, Conway and Pwllheli) were reformed in 1835 by the Municipal Corporations Act. Criccieth
Criccieth
established a special body of commissioners in 1873.[7][8] The remaining borough, the City of Bangor was not reformed until 1883.[9] Under the Public Health Act 1848 and the Local Government Act 1858 a number of towns were created Local Board Districts or Local Government Districts respectively, with local boards to govern their areas. Other towns became Improvement Commissioners' Districts by private act of parliament. In 1875 these, along with the municipal boroughs, became urban sanitary districts. At the same time the remainder of the county was divided into rural sanitary districts, some of which crossed county boundaries. The Local Government Act 1894 redesignated these as urban and rural districts. A county review order in 1934 made changes to the county's districts.[10]

Sanitary district 1875 - 1894 County district 1894 - 1934 Changes 1934 - 1974

City of Bangor (municipal borough) City of Bangor (municipal borough) Absorbed part of Ogwen RD 1934[10]

Bangor RSD (part) Ogwen RD Lost territory to Bangor MB, Nant Conway RD 1934[10]

Bethesda ICD (1854), LGD (1863)[11] Bethesda UD None

Carnarvon municipal borough Renamed Caernarvon in 1926[6] None

Carnarvon RSD (part) Gwyrfai RD Absorbed part of Glaslyn RD 1934[10]

Conway municipal borough Conway municipal borough Absorbed part of Conway RD[10]

Conway RSD Conway RD Abolished 1934[10]

Criccieth
Criccieth
ICD (1873) Criccieth
Criccieth
UD Absorbed part of Glaslyn RD 1934[10]

Festiniog RSD Glaslyn RD Abolished 1934[10]

Llandudno
Llandudno
ICD (1874)[12] Llandudno
Llandudno
UD Absorbed part of Conway RD 1934[10]

Llanfairfechan
Llanfairfechan
LGD (1872)[13] Llanfairfechan
Llanfairfechan
UD None

Llanrwst
Llanrwst
RSD (part) Geirionydd RD Formed Nant Conway RD by amalgamation with parts of Conway RD, Ogwen RD[10]

1898: Bettws-y-Coed
Bettws-y-Coed
UD[14] None

Penmaenmawr
Penmaenmawr
LGD (1866)[15] Penmaenmawr
Penmaenmawr
UD None

Pwllheli
Pwllheli
municipal borough Pwllheli
Pwllheli
municipal borough None

Pwllheli
Pwllheli
RSD Lleyn RD Absorbed part of Glaslyn RD 1934[10]

Ynyscynhaiarn LBD (1858)[16] Ynyscynhaiarn UD renamed Portmadoc
Portmadoc
UD 1915[17]

Absorbed part of Glaslyn RD 1934[10]

The civil parish of Llysfaen
Llysfaen
was a detached exclave of the county. On 1 April 1923 Llysfaen
Llysfaen
was transferred to the county of Denbighshire. Under the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
the administrative county of Caernarvonshire was abolished on 1 April 1974. It was largely split between the three districts of Aberconwy, Arfon and Dwyfor
Dwyfor
of Gwynedd (along with Merionethshire
Merionethshire
and Anglesey). The administrative entity of Caernarfonshire
Caernarfonshire
was very briefly revived in 1996, when the unitary area of Caernarfonshire
Caernarfonshire
and Merionethshire
Merionethshire
was created. It was, however, renamed Gwynedd
Gwynedd
almost immediately.[18][19] Since then Caernarfonshire
Caernarfonshire
has been divided between the unitary authorities of Gwynedd
Gwynedd
to the west and Conwy
Conwy
to the east. Coat of arms[edit] Caernarvonshire County Council received a grant of armorial bearings from the College of Arms
College of Arms
in 1949. The shield was a combination of the arms of two great native Princes of Wales. The gold and red quarters bearing lions were the arms of Llewelyn the Last
Llewelyn the Last
- now used as the arms of the Principality of Wales. Across this was placed a green fess or horizontal band, on which were three gold eagles, from the arms of Owain Gwynedd. According to the poet Michael Drayton, the eagles formed the device on the banner of the Caernarvonshire soldiers at the Battle of Agincourt. The crest above the shield was a generic castle, representing Caernarfon, Conwy
Conwy
and Criccieth
Criccieth
Castles. Behind the castle was the badge of the heir apparent: three ostrich feathers. The supporters were Welsh dragons with fish tails to show that Caernarvonshire was a Welsh maritime county. The supporter stood on a compartment of rocks for the rugged coast and mountains of the county. The motto Cadernid Gwynedd
Gwynedd
was adopted by the county council. This was derived from the Mabinogion, and can be translated as "The Strength of Gwynedd".[20] Flag[edit] The Flag of Caernarfonshire
Flag of Caernarfonshire
was registered with the Flag Institute
Flag Institute
in March 2012. The pattern of three gold eagles on a green background is a design with a long association with the county, having reputedly been flown by Caernarfonshire
Caernarfonshire
soldiers at the Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
in 1415. See also[edit]

Lord Lieutenant of Carnarvonshire - chronological list of Lords Lieutenant of Caernarvonshire Custos Rotulorum of Caernarvonshire - chronological list of Custodes rotulorum of Caernarvonshire Sheriff of Caernarvonshire - chronological list of Sheriffs of Caenarvonshire Caernarvonshire (UK Parliament constituency) - chronological list of MPs for former Caernarvonshire constituency

Bibliography[edit]

A.H. Dodd, The History of Caernarvonshire ( Caernarfonshire
Caernarfonshire
Historical Society, 1968). John Jones, Enwau Lleoedd Sir Gaernarfon (Caernarfon, 1913). Origin and meanings of place names in the county.

Places of interest[edit]

Ynys Enlli
Ynys Enlli
/ Bardsey Island
Bardsey Island
(grid reference SH1221); Caernarfon
Caernarfon
Castle (grid reference SH4762); Conwy
Conwy
Castle (grid reference SH7877); Criccieth
Criccieth
Castle (grid reference SH4937); Great Orme Tramway
Great Orme Tramway
(grid reference SH7883); Gwydir Castle, nr. Llanrwst
Llanrwst
(grid reference SH7961); Penrhyn Castle
Penrhyn Castle
(grid reference SH6071); Swallow Falls, Betws-y-Coed
Betws-y-Coed
(grid reference SH7657); Snowdon
Snowdon
Mountain Railway, Llanberis
Llanberis
(grid reference SH5859); Ty Mawr Wybrnant
Ty Mawr Wybrnant
(grid reference SH7752).

External links[edit]

The Caernarfonshire
Caernarfonshire
Association

References[edit]

^ Vision of Britain - 1831 Census ^ a b Samuel Lewis (editor) (1849). "Carnarvonshire". A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. British History Online. Retrieved 2008-07-27. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Waters, W. H., The Making of Caernarvonshire, Caernarvonshire Historical Society Transactions, 1942-43 ^ John Bartholomew (1887). "Carnarvonshire". Gazeteer of the British Isles. Vision of Britain. Retrieved 2008-07-27. [permanent dead link] ^ "Caernarfonshire". Vision of Britain. Retrieved 2008-07-27.  ^ a b Census of England and Wales
Wales
1931, County Report, Caernarvonshire ^ "No. 23923". The London Gazette. 1872-11-26. p. 5706.  ^ " Criccieth
Criccieth
Urban District Council, records". Access to Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 2008-07-27.  ^ "Bangor Borough Council records". Access to Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 2008-07-27.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Census of Wales
Wales
1931, part 2 ^ "No. 22768". The London Gazette. 1863-09-04. p. 4328.  ^ " Llandudno
Llandudno
Urban District Council records". Access to Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 2008-07-27. [permanent dead link] ^ " Llanfairfechan
Llanfairfechan
Urban District Council records". Access to Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 2008-07-27. [permanent dead link] ^ Census of England and Wales
Wales
1901, County Report, Carnarvonshire ^ " Penmaenmawr
Penmaenmawr
Urban District Council records". Access to Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 2008-07-27. [permanent dead link] ^ "No. 22092". The London Gazette. 1858-02-04. p. 550.  ^ Census of England and Wales
Wales
1921, County Report, Carnarvonshire ^ "The Porthmadog
Porthmadog
Harbour Revision Order 1998 Statutory Instrument 1998 No. 683". Office of Public Sector Information. 1998. Retrieved 2008-07-27.  ^ "The County of Gwynedd
Gwynedd
(Electoral Changes) Order 2002, Welsh Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 3274 (W.312)". Office of Public Sector Information. 2002. Retrieved 2008-07-27.  ^ C Wilfrid Scott-Giles, Civic Heraldry of England and Wales, 2nd edition, London, 1953

See also[edit]

List of Lord Lieutenants of Caernarvonshire List of High Sheriffs of Caernarvonshire Counties of Wales Unitary Authorities of Wales

v t e

Historic counties of Wales

Anglesey Brecknockshire Caernarfonshire Cardiganshire Carmarthenshire Denbighshire Flintshire Glamorganshire Merionethshire Monmouthshire Montgomeryshire Pembrok

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