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CADBURY, formerly CADBURY\'S, is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International (originally Kraft Foods ) since 2010. It is the second-largest confectionery brand in the world after Wrigley\'s . Cadbury
Cadbury
is internationally headquartered in Uxbridge
Uxbridge
, West London
London
, and operates in more than 50 countries worldwide. It is famous for its Dairy Milk chocolate, the Creme Egg and Roses selection box, and many other confectionery products. One of the best-known British brands, in 2013 The Daily Telegraph named Cadbury
Cadbury
among Britain's most successful exports.

Cadbury
Cadbury
was established in Birmingham
Birmingham
, England
England
in 1824, by John Cadbury
Cadbury
who sold tea, coffee and drinking chocolate. Cadbury
Cadbury
developed the business with his brother Benjamin, followed by his sons Richard and George. George developed the Bournville
Bournville
estate, a model village designed to give the company's workers improved living conditions. Dairy Milk chocolate, introduced in 1905, used a higher proportion of milk within the recipe compared with rival products. By 1914, the chocolate was the company's best-selling product. Cadbury, alongside Rowntree\'s and Fry , were the big three British confectionery manufacturers throughout much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Cadbury
Cadbury
was granted its first Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in 1854. It has been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
since 1955. Cadbury
Cadbury
merged with J. S. Fry "> An 1885 advertisement for Cadbury's Cocoa

In 1824, John Cadbury , a Quaker , began selling tea , coffee and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham
Birmingham
, England. From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold mainly to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. In 1847, John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as " Cadbury
Cadbury
Brothers".

The brothers opened an office in London, and in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria . The company went into decline in the late 1850s.

John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861. At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, and the company was losing money. By 1866, Cadbury
Cadbury
was profitable again. The brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, and by increasing the quality of their products. Cadbury
Cadbury
Factory, Bournville
Bournville
is located on the south side of Birmingham, England
England

The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean. The firm began exporting its products in the 1850s. In the 1880s the firm began to produce chocolate confectioneries.

In 1878, the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham. The move to the countryside was unprecedented in business. Better transport access for milk that was inward shipped by canal , and cocoa that was brought in by rail from London, Southampton and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham
Birmingham
West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester
Worcester
and Birmingham
Birmingham
Canal
Canal
, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres (5.9 ha) of countryside 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next to the Stirchley Street railway station , which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville
Bournville
and opened the Bournville factory the following year.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres (49 ha) of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would 'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'. By 1900 the estate included 314 cottages and houses set on 330 acres (130 ha) of land. As the Cadbury
Cadbury
family were Quakers
Quakers
there were no pubs in the estate.

In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury
Cadbury
introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars. In 1899 Cadbury
Cadbury
became a private limited company .

1900–1969

The packing room at Bournville, circa 1903

In 1905, Cadbury
Cadbury
launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate. From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper. It was a great sales success, and became the company's best selling product by 1914. The stronger Bournville
Bournville
Cocoa line was introduced in 1906. Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville
Bournville
Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company's rapid pre-war expansion. In 1910, Cadbury
Cadbury
sales overtook those of Fry for the first time.

Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War . More than 2,000 of Cadbury's male employees joined the British Armed Forces , and to support the British war effort, Cadbury
Cadbury
provided chocolate, books and clothing to the troops. George Cadbury handed over two company-owned buildings for use as hospitals – “The Beeches” and “Fircroft”, and the management of both hospitals earned the War Office’s highest award. Factory girls, dubbed ‘The Cadbury Angels’, volunteered to do the laundry of injured soldiers recovering in the hospitals. After the war, the Bournville
Bournville
factory was redeveloped and mass production began in earnest. In 1918, Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in Hobart
Hobart
, Tasmania
Tasmania
.

In 1919, Cadbury
Cadbury
merged with J. S. Fry "> Cadbury's Somerdale Factory located in Keynsham
Keynsham
near Bristol, south west England (1921–2010)

Cadbury
Cadbury
soon expanded its product range with Flake (1920), Creme eggs (1923), Fruit and Nut (1928), and Crunchie (1929) (originally under the Fry's label). By 1930 Cadbury
Cadbury
had become the 24th-largest British manufacturing company as measured by estimated market value of capital. Cadbury
Cadbury
took direct control of the under-performing Fry in 1935. Dairy Milk Whole Nut arrived in 1933, and Roses were introduced in 1938.

Chocolate
Chocolate
ceased to be a luxury product and became affordable to the working classes for the first time. By the mid-1930s, Cadbury estimated that 90 percent of the British population could afford to buy chocolate. By 1936, Dairy Milk accounted for 60 percent of the UK milk chocolate market.

During World War II
World War II
, parts of the Bournville
Bournville
factory were turned over to war work, producing milling machines and seats for fighter aircraft . Workers ploughed football fields to plant crops. As chocolate was regarded as an essential food, it was placed under government supervision for the entire war. The wartime rationing of chocolate ended in 1950, and normal production resumed. Cadbury subsequently invested in new factories and had an increasing demand for their products. In 1952 the Moreton factory was built.

Cadbury
Cadbury
has been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Queen Elizabeth II since 1955. In 1967 Cadbury
Cadbury
acquired an Australian confectioner, MacRobertson\'s , beating a rival bid from Mars . As a result of the takeover, Cadbury
Cadbury
built a 60 percent market share in the Australian market.

SCHWEPPES MERGER (1969)

The Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes logo used until the demerger in 2008

Cadbury
Cadbury
merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in 1969. Head of Schweppes, Lord Watkinson , became chairman, and Adrian Cadbury became deputy chairman and managing director . The benefits of the merger were to prove elusive.

The merger put an end to Cadbury's close links to its Quaker founding family and its perceived social ethos by instilling a capitalist venturer philosophy in management.

In 1978, the company acquired Peter Paul , the third largest chocolate manufacturer in the United States for $58 million, which gave it a 10 percent share of the world's largest confectionery market. The highly successful Wispa
Wispa
chocolate bar was launched in the North East of England
England
in 1981, and nationwide in 1984. In 1982, trading profits were greater outside of Britain than in the UK for the first time.

In 1986, Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes sold its Beverages and Foods division to a management buyout known as Premier Brands for £97 million. This saw the company divest itself of such brands as Typhoo Tea
Tea
, Kenco , Smash and Hartley Chivers jam. The deal also saw Premier take the licence for production of Cadbury
Cadbury
brand biscuits and drinking chocolate.

Meanwhile, Schweppes switched its alliance in the UK from Pepsi to Coca-Cola, taking a 51 percent stake in the joint venture Coca-Cola Schweppes. The acquisition of Canada Dry doubled its worldwide drinks market share, and it took a 30 percent stake in Dr Pepper . As a result of these acquisitions, Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes became the third largest soft drinks manufacturer in the world.

In August 1988, the company sold its U.S. confectionery operations to Hershey\'s for $284.5 million cash plus the assumption of $30 million in debt.

Snapple , Mistic and Stewart\'s (formerly Cable Car Beverage) were sold by Triarc to Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes in 2000 for $1.45 billion. In October of that same year, Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes purchased Royal Crown from Triarc.

Schweppes Demerger

In March 2007, it was revealed that Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes was planning to split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on its main chocolate and confectionery market; the other on its US drinks business. The demerger took effect on 2 May 2008, with the drinks business becoming Dr Pepper Snapple Group . In December 2008 it was announced that Cadbury
Cadbury
was to sell its Australian beverage unit to Asahi Breweries .

2003 NAME REBRAND

In 2003, Cadbury
Cadbury
dropped the 's' from its name and renamed the brand to Cadbury. The company found that it was a much more suited, rounded name than the previous "Cadbury's". This change was announced on 19 December 2002.

2007–2010

In October 2007, Cadbury
Cadbury
announced the closure of the Somerdale Factory , in Keynsham
Keynsham
, Somerset, formerly part of Fry's. Between 500 and 700 jobs were affected by this change. Production transferred to other plants in England
England
and Poland.

In 2008 Monkhill Confectionery, the Own Label trading division of Cadbury
Cadbury
Trebor Bassett was sold to Tangerine Confectionery for £58 million cash. This sale included factories at Pontefract, Cleckheaton and York and a distribution centre near Chesterfield, and the transfer of around 800 employees.

In mid-2009 Cadbury
Cadbury
replaced some of the cocoa butter in their non-UK chocolate products with palm oil . Despite stating this was a response to consumer demand to improve taste and texture, there was no "new improved recipe" claim placed on New Zealand labels. Consumer backlash was significant from environmentalists and chocolate lovers in both Australia and New Zealand, with consumers objecting to both the taste from the cheaper formulation, and the use of palm oil given its role in the destruction of rainforests. By August 2009, the company announced that it was reverting to the use of cocoa butter in New Zealand and Australia, although palm oil is still listed as an ingredient in Cadbury's flavoured sugar syrup based fillings (where it referred to as 'vegetable oil'). In addition, Cadbury
Cadbury
stated they would source cocoa beans through Fair Trade channels. In January 2010 prospective buyer Kraft pledged to honour Cadbury's commitment.

ACQUISITION BY KRAFT FOODS

On 7 September 2009, Kraft Foods made a £10.2 billion (US$16.2 billion) indicative takeover bid for Cadbury. The offer was rejected, with Cadbury
Cadbury
stating that it undervalued the company. Kraft launched a formal, hostile bid for Cadbury
Cadbury
valuing the firm at £9.8 billion on 9 November 2009. The UK Business Secretary Peter Mandelson
Peter Mandelson
warned Kraft not to try to "make a quick buck" from the acquisition of Cadbury.

On 19 January 2010, it was announced that Cadbury
Cadbury
and Kraft Foods had reached a deal and that Kraft would purchase Cadbury
Cadbury
for £8.40 per share, valuing Cadbury
Cadbury
at £11.5bn (US$18.9bn). Kraft, which issued a statement stating that the deal will create a "global confectionery leader", had to borrow £7 billion (US$11.5bn) in order to finance the takeover.

The Hershey Company , based in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, manufactures and distributes Cadbury-branded chocolate (but not its other confectionery) in the United States and has been reported to share Cadbury's "ethos". Hershey had expressed an interest in buying Cadbury
Cadbury
because it would broaden its access to faster-growing international markets. But on 22 January 2010, Hershey announced that it would not counter Kraft's final offer.

The acquisition of Cadbury
Cadbury
faced widespread disapproval from the British public, as well as groups and organisations including trade union Unite , who fought against the acquisition of the company which, according to Prime Minister Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
, was very important to the British economy . Unite estimated that a takeover by Kraft could put 30,000 jobs "at risk", and UK shareholders protested over the mergers and acquisitions advisory fees charged by banks. Cadbury's M by 2002 this had reached £68.75 per square foot.

PRODUCTION SITES

Bournville

Bournville
Bournville
employs almost 1,000 people. In 2014, Mondelez announced a £75 million investment in the site.

Bournville
Bournville
is home to Mondelez's Global Centre of Excellence for Chocolate
Chocolate
research and development, so every new chocolate product created by the company anywhere in the world starts life at the Birmingham
Birmingham
plant.

MARKETS

UNITED KINGDOM

Cadbury
Cadbury
FOUNDED 1824

HEADQUARTERS Bournville
Bournville
, Birmingham
Birmingham
, England
England

WEBSITE www.cadbury.co.uk

The confectionery business in the UK is called Cadbury
Cadbury
(formerly Cadbury
Cadbury
Trebor Bassett) and, as of August 2004, had eight factories and 3,000 staff in the UK. Mondelez also sells biscuits bearing the Cadbury
Cadbury
brand, such as Cadbury Fingers . Cadbury
Cadbury
also owns Trebor Bassett, Fry's and Maynards

Ice cream based on Cadbury
Cadbury
products, like 99 Flake , is made under licence by Frederick\'s Dairies . Cadbury
Cadbury
cakes and chocolate spread are manufactured under licence by Premier Foods , but the cakes were originally part of Cadbury
Cadbury
Foods Ltd with factories at Blackpole in Worcester
Worcester
and Moreton on the Wirral , with distribution depots throughout the UK.

Other Kraft subsidiaries in the UK include: Cadbury
Cadbury
Two LLP, Cadbury UK Holdings Limited, Cadbury
Cadbury
US Holdings Limited, Cadbury
Cadbury
Four LLP, Cadbury
Cadbury
Holdings Limited, and Cadbury
Cadbury
One LLP.

IRELAND

Main article: Cadbury Ireland

Cadbury Ireland Limited is based in Coolock in Dublin
Dublin
, where the headquarters of Cadbury Ireland are located, and Tallaght
Tallaght
. The third is in Rathmore, County Kerry . Products made by Cadbury
Cadbury
in Ireland include Cadbury Dairy Milk Range, Cadbury
Cadbury
Twirl, Cadbury
Cadbury
Cadbury Snacks Range Flake and Boost (formerly Moro). Cadbury
Cadbury
used to produce the Time Out bar in Ireland for the European market however this production was moved to Poland.

UNITED STATES

Cadbury
Cadbury
FOUNDED December 2002

HEADQUARTERS Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey , United States

PRODUCTS Trident , Certs , Chiclets
Chiclets
, Halls (cough drop)

WEBSITE www.cadbury.co.uk

Cadbury
Cadbury
Adams produces candy , gum , breath mints and cough drops . It is headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey . The company was formed after the then Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes purchased the Adams brand from Pfizer in December 2002 for US$4.2 billion.

American Chicle was purchased by Warner-Lambert in 1962; Warner-Lambert renamed the unit Adams in 1997 and merged with Pfizer in 2000.

In 1978, Cadbury
Cadbury
merged with Peter Paul , makers of Mounds and Almond Joy . In 1988, The Hershey Company acquired the U.S. rights to their chocolate business. Accordingly, although the Cadbury
Cadbury
group's chocolate products have been sold in the U.S. since 1988, the products are manufactured by Hershey, causing complaints by consumers, who claim they are inferior to the originals. Before the May 2008 demerger, the North American business also contained beverage unit Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes Americas Beverages . In 1982, Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes purchased the Duffy-Mott Company.

Cadbury
Cadbury
Adams' products include:

* Maynards

* Wine Gums (original and Sour) * Swedish Fish * Swedish Berries * Juicy Squirts (Sours, Citrus, and Berry) * Original Gummies * Fuzzy Peach * Sour Chillers * Sour Patch Kids * Mini Fruit Gums * Sour Cherry Blasters * Fruit Mania * Bassett's Liquorice Allsorts

* Gum

* Black Jack chewing gum * Bubbaloo bubble gum * Bubblicious bubble gum * Chiclets
Chiclets
* Clorets * Dentyne * Freshen Up Gum * Sour Cherry Gum (Limited) * Sour Apple Gum (Limited) * Stride * Trident

* Other

* Certs breath mints * Halls (cough drop)

* Discontinued products

* Beemans chewing gum * Cinn*a*Burst gum * Clove gum * Fruit*a*Burst gum * Mint*a*Burst gum * Sparkies

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND

Factory in Dunedin
Dunedin
Milk processing plant at Cooee, Burnie, Tasmania.

Cadbury's products were first imported into Australia as early as 1853 when 3 cases of Cadbury's cocoa and chocolate were advertised for sale in Adelaide. Cadbury’s first overseas order in 1881 was made for the Australian market. In 1919, as part of its plans to expand internationally, the company decided to build a factory in Australia. In 1920 Claremont, Tasmania
Tasmania
was chosen for the location because of its close proximity to the city of Hobart, good source of inexpensive hydro-electricity and plentiful supply of high-quality fresh milk. The first products from the factory were sold in 1922. The Claremont factory was modelled on Bournville, with its own village and sporting facilities. Cadbury
Cadbury
operates three Australian factories as well as one in New Zealand; two in Melbourne
Melbourne
, Victoria (Ringwood and Scoresby), one in Hobart
Hobart
, Tasmania
Tasmania
(Claremont), and one in Dunedin
Dunedin
, New Zealand. Cadbury
Cadbury
also operates a milk processing plant in Cooee, Tasmania
Tasmania
. Claremont factory was once a popular tourist attraction and operated daily tours; however, the factory ceased running full tours mid-2008, citing health and safety reasons. Cadbury
Cadbury
has been upgrading its manufacturing facility at Claremont, Tasmania, Australia, since 2001

On 27 February 2009, the confectionery and beverages businesses of Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes in Australia were formally separated and the beverages business began operating as Schweppes Australia Pty Ltd. In April 2009, Schweppes Australia was acquired by Asahi Breweries .

In late June 2012, Cadbury
Cadbury
introduced Marvellous Creations a new chocolate range with three flavours – Peanut Toffee Cookie, Jelly Crunchie Bits or Jelly Popping Candy
Candy
Beanies covered in Dairy Milk Chocolate.

On 16 February 2017, it was reported that Cadbury
Cadbury
would be closing its factory in Dunedin, New Zealand by March 2018. This is estimated to lead to the loss of 350 jobs. Amanda Banfield, Mondelez's vice-president for Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, clarified that the closure was done due to Mondelez's decision to shift chocolate manufacturing to Cadbury's Australian factories. However, Mondelez has also confirmed that Dunedin's Cadbury World tourist attraction would remain open due to its popularity with tourists.

Following four weeks of consultations with local Cadbury
Cadbury
employee, the Mayor of Dunedin
Dunedin
Dave Cull , and local trade union representatives, Banfield confirmed that the closure would go ahead the following year due to the lack of viable options to continue production in New Zealand. She also confirmed that Cadbury
Cadbury
would offer a redundancy support package to staff and would also sponsor staff willing to move to Australia to work. Mondelez also confirmed that it was looking for a third-party manufacturer to continue making Cadbury's New Zealand brands Pineapple Lumps, Jaffas, Chocolate
Chocolate
Fish and Buzz Bar.

In 2015 the Australian Cadbury, factory located in Hobart
Hobart
, reduced its work force by 80 and in 2017 closed its visitor's centre.

Within Australia there is debate regarding halal certification . Many of Cadbury's products are halal certified. This certification has generated controversy.

CANADA

Cadbury
Cadbury
Canada produces and imports several products that are sold under the Cadbury
Cadbury
and Maynards labels, including the following:

* Cadbury
Cadbury

* Dairy Milk (various flavours) * Crunchie * Crispy Crunch * Starbar as Wunderbar * Cadbury
Cadbury
Coconut * Mr. Big * Caramilk * Flake * Creme Egg * Mini Eggs * Pep

* Maynards

* Wine Gums * Sour Wine Gums * Swedish Berries * Swedish Fish * Sour Patch Kids * Juicy Squirts

Cadbury
Cadbury
Canada is now part of Mondelez Canada and products are featured on the Snackworks website.

INDIA

Cadbury
Cadbury
FOUNDED 19 July 1948

HEADQUARTERS Mumbai
Mumbai
, India

KEY PEOPLE Anand Kripalu , Managing Director

PRODUCTS Cadbury Dairy Milk , 5-star, Perk, Gems, Eclairs, Oreo
Oreo
and Bournvita

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 2000

WEBSITE www.cadbury.co.uk

In 1948, Cadbury
Cadbury
India began its operations in India by importing chocolates. On 19 July 1948, Cadbury
Cadbury
was incorporated in India. It now has manufacturing facilities in Thane , Induri ( Pune
Pune
) and Malanpur ( Gwalior
Gwalior
), Hyderabad
Hyderabad
, Bangalore
Bangalore
and Baddi ( Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
) and sales offices in New Delhi
New Delhi
, Mumbai
Mumbai
, Kolkata
Kolkata
and Chennai
Chennai
. The corporate head office is in Mumbai
Mumbai
. The head office is presently situated at Pedder Road , Mumbai, under the name of " Cadbury
Cadbury
House". This monumental structure at Pedder Road has been a landmark for the citizens of Mumbai
Mumbai
since its creation. Since 1965 Cadbury
Cadbury
has also pioneered the development of cocoa cultivation in India. For over two decades, Cadbury
Cadbury
has worked with the Kerala Agricultural University to undertake cocoa research.

Currently, Cadbury
Cadbury
India operates in five categories – Chocolate confectionery, Beverages, Biscuits, Gum and Candy. Its products include Cadbury Dairy Milk , Dairy Milk Silk, Bournville
Bournville
, 5-Star, Temptations, Perk, Eclairs , Bournvita , Celebrations, Gems, Bubbaloo, Cadbury Dairy Milk Shots, Toblerone, Halls , Bilkul, Tang , and Oreo
Oreo
.

It is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery business with a market share of over 70%.

On 21 April 2014, Cadbury
Cadbury
India changed its name to Mondelez India Foods Limited.

In 2017, Cadbury/Mondelez agreed to pay a $13 million FCPA penalty for making illicit payments to government officials to obtain licenses and approvals to build a factory in Baddi.

MALTA

In 2012, Alf Mizzi chocolate Buttons ; the boxed chocolate brand Milk Tray ; and the twist-wrapped chocolates Heroes .

As well as Cadbury's chocolate, the company also owns Maynards and Halls, and is associated with several types of confectionery including former Trebor and Bassett's brands or products such as Liquorice Allsorts , Jelly Babies , Flumps , Mints , Black Jack chews, Trident gum , and Softmints. Global sales of Cadbury
Cadbury
products amounted to £491M in the 52 weeks to 16 August 2014. A Cadbury
Cadbury
Wispa chocolate bar that has been split in half. These are available in the UK.

Notable product introductions include:

* 1866: Cocoa Essence * 1875: Easter Eggs
Easter Eggs
* 1897: Milk Chocolate
Chocolate
and Fingers * 1905: Dairy Milk * 1908: Bournville
Bournville
* 1914: Fry\'s Turkish Delight * 1915: Milk Tray * 1920: Flake * 1923: Creme Egg (launched as Fry's) * 1926: Cadbury Dairy Milk Fruit the mixture is then transported to factories at Bournville
Bournville
(formerly Somerdale) to be turned into milk chocolate.

It was not until around six months after the leak was detected that Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes officially notified the Food Standards Agency
Food Standards Agency
, which recalled more than a million chocolate bars.

In December 2006, the company announced that the cost of dealing with the contamination reached £30 million.

In April 2007, Birmingham
Birmingham
City Council announced that it will be persecuting Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes in relation to three alleged offences of breaching food safety legislation. At that time, the Health Protection Agency identified 31 people who had been infected with Salmonella Montevideo. One of the alleged victims had to be kept on a hospital isolation ward for five days after eating a Cadbury's caramel bar. An investigation that was carried by Herefordshire Council led to a further six charges being brought. The company pleaded guilty to all nine charges, and was fined one million pounds at Birmingham
Birmingham
Crown Court—the sentencing of both cases was brought together. Analysts have said the fine is not material to the group, with mitigating factors limiting the fine being that the company quickly admitted its guilt and said it had been mistaken that the infection did not pose a threat to health.

2007 RECALLS

On 10 February 2007, Cadbury
Cadbury
recalled a range of products due to a labelling error. The products were produced in a factory handling nuts, potential allergens, but this was not made clear on the packaging. As a precaution, all items were recalled.

On 14 September 2007, Cadbury
Cadbury
Schweppes investigated a manufacturing error over allergy warning, recalling for the second time in two years thousands of chocolate bars. A printing mistake at Somerdale Factory resulted in the omission of tree nut allergy labels from 250g Dairy Milk Double Chocolate
Chocolate
bars.

2008 MELAMINE CONTAMINATION IN CHINA

On 29 September 2008, Cadbury
Cadbury
withdrew all of its 11 chocolate products made in its three Beijing factories, on suspicion of contamination with melamine . The recall affected the mainland China markets, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Australia. Products recalled included Dark Chocolate, a number of products in the 'Dairy Milk' range and Chocolate
Chocolate
Éclairs.

2009 HYDROGENATION

Cadbury
Cadbury
continues to use hydrogenated oils in many of its signature products. Although trans fats are present, the nutrition labels round the values down to zero.

2014 PORK TRACES IN MALAYSIA

Cadbury
Cadbury
recalled two chocolate products after it was tested positive for traces of pork DNA, namely Cadbury Dairy Milk Hazelnut and Cadbury Dairy Milk Roast Almond. The traces were found during a periodic check for non-halal ingredients in food products by the Ministry of Health in Malaysia which on 24 May 2014 said two of three samples of the company's products may contain pork traces.

On 2 June 2014, Malaysia's Department of Islamic Development (JAKIM) declared that the sample did not contain pig DNA, as claimed in earlier reports. This statement was made after new tests were conducted.

JAKIM reportedly said in a statement that they tested 11 samples of Cadbury Dairy Milk Hazelnut, Cadbury Dairy Milk Roast Almond and other products from the company's factory but none of them tested positive for pork. The investigation followed reports that unscheduled checks had shown that two chocolates produced by Mondelez International Inc., the parent company of Cadbury, violated Islamic law and led to a boycott of all its products in the country.

2017 "EASTER" CONTROVERSY

In 2017 the Church of England
England
condemned the company and the National Trust for rebranding their annual "Easter Egg Trails" to " Cadbury
Cadbury
Egg Hunts". Prime Minister Theresa May
Theresa May
called the rebranding "absolutely ridiculous", however Cadbury
Cadbury
dismissed the criticism, a spokesperson saying "It is clear to see that within our communications we visibly state the word Easter. It is included a number of times across promotional materials." An ensuing controversy followed in Australia, where Cadbury
Cadbury
was accused of removing the word 'Easter' from the packaging of its Easter eggs. Cadbury
Cadbury
Australia rebutted that Easter was mentioned on "the back of pack", and that its eggs were obviously Easter eggs.

SEE ALSO

* United Kingdom portal * London
London
portal * Companies portal * Food portal

* Cadbury
Cadbury
World, Birmingham
Birmingham
* Cadbury
Cadbury
World, Dunedin
Dunedin
* Eyebrows (advertisement) * Gorilla (advertisement)

GENERAL:

* Big Chocolate
Chocolate

REFERENCES

* ^ "Company Profile for Cadbury
Cadbury
PLC (CBY)". Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2008. * ^ http://www.confectionerynews.com/Markets/Top-10-confectionery-brands-globally * ^ "GTA 5: a Great British export". The Telegraph. 26 November 2015. * ^ Richardson, Tim (2002). "Sweets: A History of Temptation". p. 255. Bantam Press * ^ A B C "Royal Warrant Holders: Cadbury". Royalwarrant.org. * ^ Paton, Maynard (2 January 2004). "Twenty Years Of The FTSE 100". The Motley Fool . Retrieved 10 February 2010. * ^ " Cadbury
Cadbury
PLC (UK): Offer by Kraft Foods Inc. (USA) declared Wholly Unconditional – Changes In FTSE Indices". FTSE Group . 2 February 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2010. * ^ A B C D E F G H I Dellheim, Charles (February 1987). "The Creation of a Company Culture: Cadburys, 1861–1931". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
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