In internationalization , CJK is a collective term for the Chinese ,
Japanese , and Korean languages, all of which use Chinese characters
and derivatives (collectively, CJK CHARACTERS) in their writing
systems. Occasionally, Vietnamese is included, making the abbreviation
CJKV, since Vietnamese historically used
Collectively, the CJKV characters often include hànzì in Chinese , kanji , kana in Japanese , hanja , hangul in Korean , and Hán tự , chữ Nôm in Vietnamese .
* 1 Character repertoire * 2 Encoding * 3 Legal status * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
Chinese is written almost exclusively in Chinese characters. It
requires over 3,000 characters for general literacy , but up to 40,000
characters for reasonably complete coverage. Japanese uses fewer
characters — general literacy in
Other scripts used for these languages, such as bopomofo and the Latin -based pinyin for Chinese, hiragana and katakana for Japanese, and hangul for Korean, are not strictly "CJK characters", although CJK character sets almost invariably include them as necessary for full coverage of the target languages.
Until the early 20th century,
Literary Chinese was the written
language of government and scholarship in Vietnam. Popular literature
in Vietnamese was written in the chữ Nôm script, consisting of
The sinologist Carl Leban (1971) produced an early survey of CJK encoding systems.
The number of characters required for complete coverage of all these
languages' needs cannot fit in the 256-character code space of 8-bit
character encodings , requiring at least a 16-bit fixed width encoding
or multi-byte variable-length encodings. The 16-bit fixed width
encodings, such as those from
Although CJK encodings have common character sets, the encodings
often used to represent them have been developed separately by
different East Asian governments and software companies, and are
CJK character encodings should consist minimally of Han characters plus language-specific phonetic scripts such as pinyin , bopomofo , hiragana, katakana and hangul.
CJK character encodings include:
Big5 (the most prevalent encoding before
The CJK character sets take up the bulk of the assigned
All three languages can be written both left-to-right and top-to-bottom (right-to-left and top-to-bottom in ancient documents), but are usually considered left-to-right scripts when discussing encoding issues.
Libraries cooperated on encoding standards for
JACKPHY characters in
the early 1980s. According to
Ken Lunde , the abbreviation "CJK" was a
registered trademark of
Research Libraries Group (which merged with
Chinese character description languages
* ^ Ken Lunde, 1996 * ^ Justia listing
This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL , version 1.3 or later.
* DeFrancis, John . The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy . Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8248-1068-6 . * Hannas, William C. Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8248-1892-X (paperback); ISBN 0-8248-1842-3 (hardcover). * Lemberg, Werner: The CJK package for LATEX2ε—Multilingual support beyond babel. TUGboat, Volume 18 (1997), No. 3—Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Meeting. * Leban, Carl. Automated Orthographic Systems for East Asian Languages (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), State-of-the-art Report, Prepared for the Board of Directors, Association for Asian Studies. 1971. * Lunde, Ken . CJKV Information Processing. Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
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