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CIRUS (Canadian-Indian Reactor Uranium System) was a research reactor at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Bhabha Atomic Research Center
(BARC) in Trombay
Trombay
near Mumbai, India. CIRUS was supplied by Canada
Canada
in 1954, but used heavy water (deuterium oxide) supplied by the United States. It was the second nuclear reactor to be built in India. It was modeled on the Canadian Chalk River National Research X-perimental (NRX) reactor.[1] The 40 MW reactor used natural uranium fuel, while using heavy water as a moderator.[2] It is a tank reactor type with a core size of 3.14 m (H) × 2.67 m (D). It first went critical July 10, 1960.[2] The reactor was not under IAEA
IAEA
safeguards (which did not exist when the reactor was sold), although Canada
Canada
stipulated, and the U.S. supply contract for the heavy water explicitly specified, that it only be used for peaceful purposes. Nonetheless, CIRUS produced some of India's initial weapons-grade plutonium stockpile,[3] as well as the plutonium for India's 1974 Pokhran-I
Pokhran-I
(Codename Smiling Buddha) nuclear test, the country's first nuclear test.[4] At a capacity factor of 50–80%, CIRUS can produce 6.6–10.5 kg of plutonium a year. CIRUS was shut down in September 1997 for refurbishment and was scheduled to resume operation in 2003. The reactor was brought back into operation two years late in 2005. During refurbishing, a low-temperature vacuum evaporation-based desalination unit was also coupled to the reactor to serve as demonstration of using waste heat from a research reactor for sea desalination. Even if the reactor has a life of twenty more years, India
India
had declared that this reactor would be shut down by 2010 in accordance with the Indo-US nuclear accord reached between Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
and US President George W. Bush.[4] The reactor was shut down on 31 December 2010.[5] References[edit]

India
India
portal Nuclear technology portal Energy portal

^ "Canadian-Indian Reactor, U.S." NTI. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ a b "Cirus reactor". Bhabha Atomic Research Center. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-09.  ^ Exporting Disaster ~ The Cost of Selling CANDU Reactors (3). Ccnr.org. Retrieved on 2013-12-06. ^ a b Gopal, Neena (2006-07-03). "PM to announce Cirus reactor shutdown". Gulfnews. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 2007-04-09.  ^ "Research N-reactor CIRUS to shutdown [sic] permanently on December 31". DNAIndia. 2010-12-18. 

v t e

Nuclear power in India

Uranium resources

Jaduguda uranium mine Tummalapalle uranium mine

Operational plants

Kaiga Kakrapar Koodankulam Madras (Kalpakkam) Narora Rajasthan (Kota) Tarapur

Research and testing

Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research Nuclear Fuel Complex Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
(BARC) CIRUS reactor Dhruva reactor Heavy Water Board Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
(IGCAR) Institute for Plasma Research
Institute for Plasma Research
(IPR) Pokhran Pokhran-II Smiling Buddha Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC)

Organisations

Atomic Energy Commission of India Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Ltd. (BHAVINI) Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy Homi Bhabha National Institute Nuclear Power Corporation of India
India
Ltd. (NPCIL) Indian Rare Earths Limited Uranium Corporation of India People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy

Other topics

Energy policy of India India's three stage nuclear power programme Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project U.S.- India
India
Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative

Electricity sector Solar power Wind power

Coordinates: 19°00′28″N 72°55′07″E / 19.00778°N 72.91861°E /

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