California Air Resources Board, also known as CARB or ARB, is the
"clean air agency" in the government of California. Established in
1967 when then-governor
Ronald Reagan signed the Mulford-Carrell Act,
combining the Bureau of Air Sanitation and the Motor Vehicle Pollution
Control Board, CARB is a department within the cabinet-level
California Environmental Protection Agency.
The stated goals of CARB include attaining and maintaining healthy air
quality; protecting the public from exposure to toxic air
contaminants; and providing innovative approaches for complying with
air pollution rules and regulations. CARB has also been instrumental
in driving innovation throughout the global automotive industry
through programs such as its ZEV mandate.
One of CARB's responsibilities is to define vehicle emissions
California is the only state permitted to issue emissions
standards under the federal Clean Air Act, subject to a waiver from
the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Other states may
choose to follow CARB or federal standards but may not set their
2 Organizational structure
2.1 Air Quality Planning and Science Division
2.1.1 Atmospheric Modeling & Support Section
3 Role in reducing greenhouse gases
3.1 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program
California zero-emissions vehicle
3.3 Low-carbon fuel standard
3.4 PHEV Research Center
4 See also
6 External links
CARB's governing board is made up of 14 members, soon to be 16 with 2
members being non-voting.
Six of the governor-appointed board members are chosen from regional
air pollution control or air quality management districts, including
one each from:
Bay Area AQMD (San Francisco Bay Area), currently John Gioia
San Diego County APCD, currently Ron Roberts
San Joaquin Valley
San Joaquin Valley APCD, currently Alexander Sherriffs, M.D.
South Coast AQMD, currently Judy Mitchell
A Sacramento-area district: Sacramento Metropolitan AQMD, Yolo-Solano
AQMD, Placer County APCD, Feather River AQMD, or El Dorado County
AQMD, currently Phil Serna
Three governor-appointed board members are experts in automotive
engineering, currently Dan Sperling; science, agriculture, or law,
currently John Eisenhut; and medicine, currently John R. Balmes, M.D..
The governor's three remaining appointees are members of the public,
including an expert in air pollution control or one of the fields
The two legislature-appointed board members work directly with
communities affected by air pollution. They are currently Diane
Takvorian and Dean Florez, appointed by the Assembly and Senate
CARB has nine major divisions:
Administrative Services Division
Mobile Source Control Division
Emissions Compliance, Automotive Regulations and Science Division
Monitoring and Laboratory Division
Office of Information Services
Air Quality Planning and Science Division
Toxics and Transportation Division
Industrial Strategies Division
Air Quality Planning and Science Division
California Air Resources Board Laboratory, Los Angeles, in 1973
The division assesses the extent of California's air quality problems
and the progress being made to abate them, coordinates statewide
development of clean air plans and maintains databases pertinent to
air quality and emissions. The division's technical support work
provides a basis for clean air plans and CARB's regulatory programs.
This support includes management and interpretation of emission
inventories, air quality data, meteorological data and of air quality
The Air Quality Planning and Science Division has five branches:
Emission Inventory Branch
Air Quality Data Branch
Air Quality & Transportation Planning Branch
Mobile Source Analysis Branch
Atmospheric Modeling & Support Section
The Atmospheric Modeling & Support Section is one of three
sections within the Modeling &
Meteorology Branch. The other two
sections are the Regional Air Quality Modeling Section and the
The air quality and atmospheric pollution dispersion models
routinely used by this Section include a number of the models
recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The
section uses models which were either developed by CARB or whose
development was funded by CARB, such as:
CALPUFF – Originally developed by the Sigma Research Company
(SRC) under contract to CARB. Currently maintained by the TRC Solution
Company under contract to the U.S. EPA.
CALGRID – Developed by CARB and currently maintained by
SARMAP – Developed by CARB and currently maintained by CARB.
Role in reducing greenhouse gases
Main article: Climate change in California
Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program
Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program (also known as Fueling
Alternatives) is funded by the
California Air Resources Board (CARB),
offered throughout the State of
California and administered by the
California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE).
California zero-emissions vehicle
The CARB ZEV program was enacted by the
California government to
promote the use of zero emission vehicles. The program goal is to
reduce the pervasive air pollution affecting the main metropolitan
areas in the state, particularly in Los Angeles, where prolonged
pollution episodes are frequent. The first ruling was the 1990
Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV I) Program.
The first definition has its origin in the
California ZEV rule,
adopted as part of the 1990 Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV I) Program
mandated by CARB. The ZEV regulation has evolved and been
modified several times since 1990, and several new partial or
low-emission categories were created and defined as
LEV (Low Emission Vehicle): The least stringent emission standard for
all new cars sold in
California beyond 2004.
ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle): 50% cleaner than the average new
2003 model year vehicle.
SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle): These vehicles emit
substantially lower levels of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of
nitrogen and particulate matter than conventional vehicles. They are
90% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle.
PZEV (Partial Zero Emission Vehicle): Meets SULEV tailpipe standards,
has a 15-year / 150,000 mile warranty, and zero evaporative emissions.
These vehicles are 80% cleaner than the average 2002 model year car.
PZEV (Advanced Technology PZEV): These are advanced technology
vehicles that meet
PZEV standards and include ZEV enabling technology.
They are 80% cleaner than the average 2002 model year car.
ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicle): Zero tailpipe emissions, and 98% cleaner
than the average new 2003 model year vehicle.
The Low-Emission Vehicle Program is currently under revision to define
modified ZEV regulations for 2015 models. CARB estimates
the ZEV program will result in 15% ZEV sales by 2025. The share
remained at 3% between 2014 and 2016. Battery vehicles receive 3 or 4
credits, while fuel cell cars receive 9. As of 2016[update], a credit
has a market value of $3-4,000, and some automakers have more credits
than required. CARB voted unanimously in March 2017 to require
automakers to average 54.5 mpg for new cars in 2025.
Low-carbon fuel standard
Main article: Low-carbon fuel standard
The Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) requires oil refineries and
distributors to ensure that the mix of fuel they sell in the
Californian market meets the established declining targets for
greenhouse gas emissions measured in
CO2-equivalent grams per unit of
fuel energy sold for transport purposes. The 2007 Governor's LCFS
directive calls for a reduction of at least 10% in the carbon
intensity of California's transportation fuels by 2020. These
reductions include not only tailpipe emissions but also all other
associated emissions from production, distribution and use of
transport fuels within the state. Therefore,
California LCFS considers
the fuel's full life cycle, also known as the "well to wheels" or
"seed to wheels" efficiency of transport fuels. The standard
is aimed to reduce the state’s dependence on petroleum, create a
market for clean transportation technology, and stimulate the
production and use of alternative, low-carbon fuels in California.
On April 23, 2009, CARB approved the specific rules for the LCFS that
will go into effect in January 2011. The rule proposal
prepared by its technical staff was approved by a 9-1 vote, to set the
2020 maximum carbon intensity reference value to 86 grams of carbon
dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced.
PHEV Research Center
Main article: PHEV Research Center
PHEV Research Center
PHEV Research Center was launched with funding from the California
Air Resources Board.
California Air Resources Board
California Air Districts
Bay Area Air Quality Management District
South Coast Air Quality Management District
California Statewide Truck and Bus Rule
Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program
Bioenergy Action Plan
California Center for Sustainable Energy
California Code of Regulations
California Energy Commission
California Environmental Protection Agency
California Public Utilities Commission
Carl Moyer Program
Climate change in California
Ecology of California
Greenhouse gas emissions by the United States
Million Solar Roofs
Million Solar Roofs (SB 1)
Plug-in hybrids in California
Pollution in California
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health regulation
Texas Low Emission Diesel standards
Upstream emission factor
US Emission standard
Vehicle acronyms and abbreviations
Ventura County Air Pollution Control District
Who Killed the Electric Car?
^ a b ""2015-16 Budget of California"". Retrieved January 1,
^ "Vehicle Emissions
California Waivers and Authorizations". United
States Environmental Protection Agency. August 2, 2016. Retrieved
November 25, 2016.
^ CARB's Divisions
^ a b ARB's Planning and Technical Support Division Archived
2006-09-23 at the Wayback Machine., arb.ca.gov; accessed February 28,
^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates:
an introduction to dispersion modeling (2nd ed.). CRC Press.
^ Beychok, Milton R. (2005).
Fundamentals of Stack Gas Dispersion
Fundamentals of Stack Gas Dispersion (4th
ed.). author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.
^ CALGRID Model
^ CARB's SARMAP Model Archived 2006-09-23 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Incentive Program for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles". California
Air Resources Board. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
^ "California's Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Program". Union of
Concerned Scientists. 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
^ a b c d Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009). "Two billion
cars: driving toward sustainability". Oxford University Press, New
York: 24, 189–191. ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7.
^ a b c d "Zero-Emission Vehicle Legal and Regulatory Activities: The
ZEV Program Timeline".
California Air Resources Board. 2011-10-14.
^ "Fact Sheet:
California Vehicle Emissions" (pdf).
Resources Board. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
^ Sherry Boschert (2006). "Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that will
Recharge America". New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, Canada:
15–28. ISBN 978-0-86571-571-4. See the box "Zero-Emission
Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate Timeline", pp. 23-28
^ Christine & Scott Gable. "What is a ZEV - Zero Emissions
Vehicle?". About.com: Hybrid Carts & Alt Fuels. Retrieved
California Air Resources Board Votes to Modify ZEV Program in
Short-Term; Complete Overhaul to Begin for New ZEV II". Green Car
Congress. 2008-03-27. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
^ "Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Program".
California Air Resources
Board. 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
^ Rory Carroll and Alexandria Sage (2016-09-01). "California's
zero-emission vehicle program is stuck in neutral". Archived from the
original on 2016-10-12. Retrieved 2017-07-26 – via Reuters. CS1
maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ "Low-Carbon Fuel Standard Program".
California Air Resources Board.
2009-04-14. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
^ a b "Proposed Regulation to Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard.
Volume I: Staff Report: Initial Statement of Reasons" (PDF).
California Air Resources Board. 2009-03-05. Retrieved
^ Wyatt Buchanan (2009-04-24). "Air Resources Board moves to cut
carbon use". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
The Associated Press
The Associated Press (2009-04-24). "Calif. Approves Nation's 1st
Low-Carbon Fuel Rule". New York Times. Retrieved
2009-04-25. [permanent dead link]
^ UNICA press release (2009-04-24). "Sugarcane Ethanol Passes Critical
Test in California". World-Wire. Archived from the original on
2009-04-26. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
California Air Resources Board website
CARB's Low-Emission Vehicle Regulations and Test Procedures
CARB web site page on Climate Change
CARB's Diesel Emission Control Strategies Verification
California charts course to fight global warming: California's
greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent over the next 12 years.
California air board announces plan for carbon-credit trading.
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