C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet . It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet . It is named cee (pronounced /siː/ ) in English .
* 1 History * 2 Later use
* 3 Use in writing systems
* 3.1 English * 3.2 Other languages * 3.3 Other systems * 3.4 Digraphs
* 4 Related characters
* 4.1 Ancestors, descendants and siblings * 4.2 Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols
* 5 Computing codes * 6 Other representations * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
"C" comes from the same letter as "G". The Semites named it gimel . The sign is possibly adapted from an Egyptian hieroglyph for a staff sling , which may have been the meaning of the name gimel. Another possibility is that it depicted a camel, the Semitic name for which was gamal. Barry B. Powell , a specialist in the history of writing, states "It is hard to imagine how gimel = "camel" can be derived from the picture of a camel (it may show his hump, or his head and neck!)".
Etruscan language , plosive consonants had no contrastive
voicing , so the Greek 'Γ ' (Gamma) was adopted into the Etruscan
alphabet to represent /k/. Already in the
Western Greek alphabet
Other alphabets have letters homoglyphic to 'c' but not analogous in use and derivation, like the Cyrillic letter Es (С, с) which derives from the lunate sigma , named due to its resemblance to the crescent moon.
When the Roman alphabet was introduced into Britain, ⟨c⟩ represented only /k/, and this value of the letter has been retained in loanwords to all the insular Celtic languages : in Welsh , Irish , Gaelic , ⟨c⟩ represents only /k/. The Old English Latin-based writing system was learned from the Celts, apparently of Ireland; hence ⟨c⟩ in Old English also originally represented /k/; the Modern English words kin, break, broken, thick, and seek, all come from Old English words written with ⟨c⟩: cyn, brecan, brocen, þicc, and séoc. But during the course of the Old English period, /k/ before front vowels (/e/ and /i/) were palatalized , having changed by the tenth century to , though ⟨c⟩ was still used, as in cir(i)ce, wrecc(e)a. On the continent, meanwhile, a similar phonetic change had also been going on (for example, in Italian ).
In Vulgar Latin, /k/ became palatalized to in Italy and Dalmatia; in
France and the Iberian peninsula, it became . Yet for these new sounds
⟨c⟩ was still used before the letters ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩. The
letter thus represented two distinct values. Subsequently, the Latin
phoneme /kʷ/ (spelled ⟨qv⟩) de-labialized to /k/ meaning that the
Romance languages had /k/ before front vowels. In addition,
Norman used the letter ⟨k⟩ so that the sound /k/ could be
represented by either ⟨k⟩ or ⟨c⟩, the latter of which could
represent either /k/ or /ts/ depending on whether it preceded a front
vowel letter or not. The convention of using both ⟨c⟩ and ⟨k⟩
was applied to the writing of English after the
Norman Conquest ,
causing a considerable re-spelling of the Old English words. Thus
while Old English candel, clif, corn, crop, cú, remained unchanged,
Cent, cæ´ᵹ (cé´ᵹ), cyng, brece, séoce, were now (without any
change of sound) spelled 'Kent', 'keȝ', 'kyng', 'breke', and 'seoke';
even cniht ('knight') was subsequently changed to 'kniht' and þic
('thick') changed to 'thik' or 'thikk'. The Old English 'cw' was also
at length displaced by the French 'qu' so that the Old English cwén
('queen') and cwic ('quick') became
Middle English 'quen' 'quik',
respectively. The sound , to which Old English palatalized /k/ had
advanced, also occurred in French, chiefly from
Thus, to show etymology, English spelling has advise, devise (instead
of advize, devize), while advice, device, dice, ice, mice, twice,
etc., do not reflect etymology; example has extended this to hence,
pence, defence, etc., where there is no etymological reason for using
⟨c⟩. Former generations also wrote sence for sense. Hence, today
Romance languages and English have a common feature inherited from
USE IN WRITING SYSTEMS
The typical pronunciation of ⟨c⟩ in different European languages
In English orthography , ⟨c⟩ generally represents the "soft" value of /s/ before the letters ⟨e⟩ (including the Latin-derived digraphs ⟨ae⟩ and ⟨oe⟩, or the corresponding ligatures ⟨æ⟩ and ⟨œ⟩), ⟨i⟩, and ⟨y⟩, and a "hard" value of /k/ before any other letters or at the end of a word. However, there are a number of exceptions in English: "soccer " and "Celt " are words that have /k/ where /s/ would be expected.
The "soft" ⟨c⟩ may represent the /ʃ/ sound in the digraph ⟨ci⟩ when this precedes a vowel, as in the words 'delicious' and 'appreciate'.
The digraph ⟨ch ⟩ most commonly represents /tʃ/ , but can also represent /k/ (mainly in words of Greek origin) or /ʃ/ (mainly in words of French origin). For some dialects of English, it may also represent /x/ in words like loch, while other speakers pronounce the final sound as /k/ . The trigraph ⟨tch⟩ always represents /tʃ/ .
The digraph ⟨ck⟩ is often used to represent the sound /k/ after short vowels.
Romance languages French , Spanish , Italian , Romanian and
Portuguese , ⟨c⟩ generally has a "hard" value of /k/ and a "soft"
value whose pronunciation varies by language. In French, Portuguese,
and Spanish from
Balto-Slavic languages that use the
Among non-European languages that have adopted the
The letter ⟨c⟩ is also used as a transliteration of Cyrillic
⟨ц⟩ in the
As a phonetic symbol, lowercase ⟨c⟩ is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal plosive , and capital ⟨C⟩ is the X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal fricative .
There are several common digraphs with ⟨c⟩, the most common being ⟨ch ⟩, which in some languages (such as German ) is far more common than ⟨c⟩ alone. ⟨ch⟩ takes various values in other languages.
As in English, ⟨ck⟩, with the value /k/, is often used after
short vowels in other
ANCESTORS, DESCENDANTS AND SIBLINGS
* 𐤂 : Semitic letter
* Γ γ : Greek letter
* Phonetic alphabet symbols related to C:
ᶜ : Modifier letter small c
ᶝ : Modifier letter small c with curl
* ᴄ : Small capital c is used in the Uralic
* C with diacritics :
Ç ç ꞔ
DERIVED LIGATURES, ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS AND SYMBOLS
© : copyright symbol
℃ : degree Celsius
¢ : cent
₡ : colón (currency)
₢ : Brazilian cruzeiro (currency)
CHARACTER C C
UNICODE NAME LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C LATIN SMALL LETTER C
ENCODINGS DECIMAL HEX DECIMAL HEX
Unicode 67 U+0043 99 U+0063
UTF-8 67 43 99 63
EBCDIC family 195 C3 131 83
ASCII 1 67 43 99 63
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.
NATO phonetic Morse code
* ^ "C" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989);
Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English
Language, Unabridged (1993); "cee", op. cit.
* ^ Powell, Barry B. (27 Mar 2009). Writing: Theory and History of
the Technology of Civilization. Wiley Blackwell. p. 182. ISBN
* ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995). New Comparative Grammar of Greek and
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article C .
* Media related to C at Wikimedia Commons * The dictionary definition of C at Wiktionary * The dictionary definition of c at Wiktionary
* v * t * e
ALPHABETS (LIST )