This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of
1 List of Emperors
Constantinian dynasty (306–363)
1.2 Non-dynastic (363–364)
Valentinian dynasty (364–379)
Theodosian dynasty (379–457)
2 See also 3 References
List of Emperors
For Roman emperors before Constantine I, see List of Roman emperors.
Name Reign Notes
Constantinian dynasty (306–363) See also: Constantinian dynasty
Constantine I "the Great"
(Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Αʹ ὁ Μέγας, Latin: Gaius
Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus)
19 September 324 –
22 May 337
(Κωνστάντιος [Βʹ], Flavius Iulius Constantius)
22 May 337 –
5 October 361
Born on 7 August 317, as the second surviving son of Constantine I, he
inherited the eastern third of
Julian "the Apostate"
(Ἰουλιανὸς "ὁ Παραβάτης", Flavius Claudius
5 October 361 –
28 June 363
Born in May 332, grandson of
Jovian (Ἰοβιανός, Flavius Iovianus) 28 June 363 – 17 February 364 Born c. 332. Captain of the guards under Julian, elected by the army upon Julian's death. Died on journey back to Constantinople
Valentinian dynasty (364–379) See also: Valentinian dynasty
Valentinian I (Οὐαλεντιανός, Flavius Valentinianus) 26 February 364 – 17 November 375 Born in 321. An officer under Julian and Jovian, he was elected by the army upon Jovian's death. He soon appointed his younger brother Valens as Emperor of the East. Died of cerebral haemorrhage
Valens (Οὐάλης, Flavius Iulius Valens) 28 March 364 – 9 August 378 Born in 328. A soldier of the Roman army, he was appointed Emperor of the East by his elder brother Valentinian I. Killed at the Battle of Adrianople
(Γρατιανός, Flavius Gratianus)
9 August 378 –
19 January 379
Born on 18 April/23 May 359, the son of Valentinian I. Emperor of the
West, he inherited rule of the East upon the death of
Theodosian dynasty (379–457) See also: Theodosian dynasty
(Ἀρκάδιος, Flavius Arcadius)
17 January 395 –
1 May 408
Born in 377/378, the eldest son of Theodosius I. On the death of
Theodosius II (Θεοδόσιος Βʹ, Flavius Theodosius) 1 May 408 – 28 July 450 Born on 10 April 401, the only son of Arcadius. Succeeded upon the death of his father. As a minor, the praetorian prefect Anthemius was regent in 408–414. He died in a riding accident.
Pulcheria (Πουλχερία, Aelia Pulcheria) 28 July 450 – July 453 Born on 19 January 398 or 399. One of the daughters of Arcadius. She reigned with her husband Marcian.
Marcian (Μαρκιανός, Flavius Marcianus Augustus) 450 – January 457 Born in 396. A soldier and politician, he became emperor after being wed by the Augusta Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II, following the latter's death. Died of gangrene.
Leo I "the Thracian"
(Λέων Αʹ ὁ Θρᾷξ, ὁ Μακέλλης, ὁ Μέγας,
Flavius Valerius Leo)
7 February 457 –
18 January 474
Born in Dacia ca. 400, and of
Leo II (Λέων Βʹ, Flavius Leo) 19 January – 10 November 474 Born 468, he was the grandson of Leo I by Leo's daughter Ariadne and her Isaurian husband, Zeno. He was raised to Caesar on 18 November 473. Leo ascended the throne after the death of his Grandfather, on 19 January 474. He crowned his father Zeno as co-emperor and effective regent on 10 November 474. He died shortly after, on 10 November 474.
(Ζήνων, Flavius Zeno)
10 November 474 –
9 April 491
Born ca. 425 in Isauria, originally named Tarasicodissa. As the leader
of Leo I's Isaurian soldiers, he rose to comes domesticorum, married
the emperor's daughter Ariadne and took the name Zeno, and played a
crucial role in the elimination of
Basiliscus (Βασιλίσκος, Flavius Basiliscus) 9 January 475 – August 476 General and brother-in-law of Leo I, he seized power from Zeno but was again deposed by him. Died in 476/477
Anastasius I Dicorus
(Ἀναστάσιος Αʹ ὁ Δίκορος, Flavius Anastasius)
11 April 491 –
9 July 518
Born ca. 430 at Dyrrhachium, he was a palace official (silentiarius)
when he was chosen as her husband and Emperor by Empress-dowager
Ariadne. He was nicknamed "Dikoros" (Latin: Dicorus), because of his
heterochromia. Anastasius reformed the tax system and the Byzantine
coinage and proved a frugal ruler, so that by the end of his reign he
left a substantial surplus. His
(Ἰουστῖνος Αʹ, Flavius Iustinus)
July 518 –
1 August 527
Born c. 450 at Bederiana (Justiniana Prima), Dardania. Officer and
commander of the
(Ἰουστῖνος Βʹ, Flavius Iustinus Iunior)
14 November 565 –
5 October 578
Born c. 520. Nephew of Justinian I, he seized the throne on the death
Tiberius II Constantine (Τιβέριος Βʹ, Flavius Tiberius Constantinus) 5 October 578 – 14 August 582 Born c. 535, commander of the Excubitors, friend and adoptive son of Justin. Was named Caesar and regent in 574. Succeeded on Justin II's death.
(Μαυρίκιος, Flavius Mauricius Tiberius)
14 August 582 –
22 November 602
Born in 539 at Arabissus, Cappadocia. Became an official and later a
general. Married the daughter of Tiberius II and succeeded him upon
his death. Named his son Theodosius as co-emperor in 590. Deposed by
Phocas (Φωκᾶς, Flavius Phocas) 23 November 602 – 4 October 610 Subaltern in the Balkan army, he led a rebellion that deposed Maurice. Increasingly unpopular and tyrannical, he was deposed and executed by Heraclius.
(Ἡράκλειος, Flavius Heraclius)
5 October 610 –
11 February 641
Born c. 575 as the eldest son of the Exarch of Africa,
formally Constantine Heraclius
(Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος, Constantinus
11 February 641 –
Born in 626 to Heraclius' second wife Martina, named co-emperor in
638. Succeeded to throne with Constantine III following the death of
Heraclius. Sole emperor after the death of Constantine III, under the
regency of Martina, but was forced to name
Twenty Years' Anarchy
General from Isauria, he deposed
Tiberius III Apsimar
(Τιβέριος Γʹ Ἀψίμαρος)
Admiral of Germanic origin, originally named Apsimar. He rebelled
December 711 –
3 June 713
A general of Armenian origin, he deposed
Anastasios II (Ἀναστάσιος Βʹ) June 713 – November 715 Originally named Artemios. A bureaucrat and secretary under Philippikos, he was raised to the purple by the soldiers who overthrew Philippikos. Deposed by another military revolt, he led an abortive attempt to regain the throne in 718 and was killed.
May 715 –
25 March 717
A fiscal official, he was proclaimed emperor by the rebellious
Leo III "the Isaurian"
(Λέων Γʹ ὁ Ἴσαυρος)
25 March 717 –
18 June 741
Born c. 685 in Germanikeia, Commagene, he became a general. Rose in
rebellion and secured the throne in spring 717. Repelled the Second
Arab Siege of
June 741/742 –
2 November 743
General and son-in-law of Leo III, Count of the
Leo IV "the Khazar" (Λέων Δʹ ὁ Χάζαρος) 14 September 775 – 8 September 780 Born on 25 January 750 as the eldest son of Constantine V. Co-emperor since 751, he succeeded upon his father's death.
Constantine VI (Κωνσταντῖνος ΣΤʹ) 8 September 780 – August 797 Born in 771, the only child of Leo IV. Co-emperor in 776, sole emperor upon Leo's death in 780, until 790 under the regency of his mother, Irene of Athens. He was overthrown on Irene's orders, blinded and imprisoned, probably dying of his wounds shortly after.
Irene of Athens
(Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία)
August 797 –
31 October 802
Born c. 752 in Athens, she married Leo IV. Regent for her son
Staurakios (Σταυράκιος) 26 July 811 – 2 October 811 Only son of Nikephoros I, crowned co-emperor in December 803. Succeeded on his father's death; however, he had been heavily wounded at Pliska and left paralyzed. He was forced to resign, and retired to a monastery where he died soon after.
Michael I Rangabe
(Μιχαὴλ Αʹ Ῥαγγαβέ)
2 October 811 –
22 June 813
Son-in-law of Nikephoros I, he succeeded
Leo V "the Armenian" (Λέων Εʹ ὁ Ἀρμένιος) 11 July 813 – 25 December 820 General of Armenian origin, born c. 775. He rebelled against Michael I and became emperor. Appointed his son Symbatios co-emperor under the name of Constantine on Christmas 813. Revived Byzantine Iconoclasm. Murdered by a conspiracy led by Michael the Amorian.
Amorian dynasty (820–867)
Theophilos (Θεόφιλος) 2 October 829 – 20 January 842 Born in 813, as the only son of Michael II. Co-emperor since 821, he succeeded on his father's death.
Basil I "the Macedonian" (Βασίλειος Αʹ ὁ Μακεδὼν) 867 – 2 August 886 Born in the Theme of Macedonia ca. 811, he rose in prominence through palace service, becoming a favourite of Michael III. He overthrew Michael and established the Macedonian dynasty. He led successful wars in the East against the Arabs and the Paulicians, and recovered southern Italy for the Empire.
Leo VI "the Wise" (Λέων ΣΤʹ ὁ Σοφὸς) 886 – 11 May 912 Born on 19 September 866, likely either son of Basil I or Michael III, Leo was known for his erudition. His reign saw a height in Saracen (Muslim) naval raids, culminating in the Sack of Thessalonica, and was marked by unsuccessful wars against the Bulgarians under Simeon I.
Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος) 11 May 912 – 6 June 913 Son of Basil I, Alexander was born in 870 and raised to co-emperor in 879. Sidelined by Leo VI, Alexander dismissed his brother's principal aides on his accession. He died of exhaustion after a polo game.
Romanos I Lekapenos
(Ῥωμανὸς Αʹ Λεκαπηνὸς)
17 December 920 –
16 December 944
An admiral of lowly origin, Romanos rose to power as a protector of
Nikephoros II Phokas
(Νικηφόρος Βʹ Φωκᾶς)
16 August 963 –
11 December 969
The most successful general of his generation, Nikephoros II was born
ca. 912 to the powerful Phokas clan. After the death of Romanos II, he
rose to the throne with the support of the army and people as regent
for the young emperors
John I Tzimiskes (Ἰωάννης Αʹ Κουρκούας ὁ Τσιμισκὴς) 11 December 969 – 10 January 976 Nephew of Nikephoros Phokas, Tzimiskes was born ca. 925. A successful general, he fell out with his uncle and led a conspiracy of disgruntled generals who murdered him. Tzimiskes succeeded Nikephoros as emperor and regent for the young sons of Romanos II. As ruler, Tzimiskes crushed the Rus' in Bulgaria and ended the Bulgarian tsardom before going on to campaign in the East, where he died.
Zoe "the Purple-born" (Ζωὴ Πορφυρογέννητη) 15 November 1028 – June 1050 The daughter of Constantine VIII, she succeeded on her father's death, as the only surviving member of the Macedonian dynasty, along with her sister Theodora. Her three husbands, Romanos III (1028–1034), Michael IV (1034–1041) and Constantine IX (1042–1050) ruled alongside her.
Romanos III Argyros (Ῥωμανὸς Γʹ Ἀργυρὸς) 15 November 1028 – 11 April 1034 Born in 968, the elderly aristocrat Romanos was chosen by Constantine VIII on his deathbed as Zoe's husband and succeeded on the throne after Constantine's death a few days later.
Michael IV "the Paphlagonian"
(Μιχαὴλ Δʹ ὁ Παφλαγὼν)
11 April 1034 –
10 December 1041
Born in 1010, he became a lover of Zoe even while Romanos III was
alive, and succeeded him upon his death as her husband and emperor.
Aided by his older brother, the eunuch John the Orphanotrophos, his
reign was moderately successful against internal rebellions, but his
attempt to recover
Michael V "the Caulker" (Μιχαὴλ Εʹ ὁ Καλαφάτης) 10 December 1041 – 20 April 1042 Born in 1015, he was the nephew and adopted son of Michael IV. During his reign he tried to sideline Zoe, but a popular revolt forced him to restore her as empress on 19 April 1042, along with her sister Theodora. He was deposed the next day, castrated and tonsured, dying on 24 August 1042.
19 April 1042 –
after 31 August 1056
The younger sister of Zoe, born in 984, she was raised as co-ruler on
19 April 1042. After Zoe married her third husband, Constantine IX, in
June 1042, Theodora was again sidelined. After Zoe died in 1050 and
Constantine in 1055, Theodora assumed full governance of the Empire
and reigned until her death. She nominated
Constantine IX Monomachos
(Κωνσταντῖνος Θʹ Μονομάχος)
11 June 1042 –
7/8 or 11 January 1055
Born ca. 1000 of noble origin, he had an undistinguished life but was
Isaac I Komnenos
(Ἰσαάκιος Αʹ Κομνηνὸς)
5 June 1057 –
22 November 1059
Born c. 1005. A successful general, he rose in revolt leading the
eastern armies and was declared Emperor; he was recognized after the
Constantine X Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Ιʹ Δούκας) 24 November 1059 – 22 May 1067 Born in 1006, he became a general and close ally of Isaac Komnenos, and succeeded him as emperor on his abdication. Named his sons Michael, Andronikos and Konstantios as co-emperors
Michael VII Doukas
(Μιχαὴλ Ζʹ Δούκας)
22 May 1067 –
24 March 1078
Born in 1050 as the eldest son of Constantine X. Co-emperor since
1059, he succeeded on his father's death. Due to his minority he was
under the regency of his mother, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, in
1067–1068, and relegated to junior emperor under her second husband
Romanos IV Diogenes
Romanos IV Diogenes (Ῥωμανὸς Δʹ Διογένης) 1 January 1068 – 24 October 1071 Born in 1032, a successful general he married empress-dowager Eudokia Makrembolitissa and became senior emperor as guardian of her sons by Constantine X. Deposed by the Doukas partisans after the Battle of Manzikert, blinded in June 1072 and exiled. He died soon after.
Nikephoros III Botaneiates
(Νικηφόρος Γʹ Βοτανειάτης)
31 March 1078 –
4 April 1081
Born in 1001, he was the strategos of the Anatolic Theme. He rebelled
against Michael VII and was welcomed into the capital. He weathered
several revolts, but was overthrown by the
Alexios I Komnenos
(Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνὸς)
4 April 1081 –
15 August 1118
Born in 1056, a nephew of Isaac I Komnenos. A distinguished general,
he overthrew Nikephoros III. His reign was dominated by wars against
John II Komnenos (Ἰωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνὸς) 15 August 1118 – 8 April 1143 Born on 13 September 1087 as the eldest son of Alexios I. Co-emperor since 1092, he succeeded upon his father's death. His reign was focused on wars with the Turks. A popular and frugal ruler, he was known as "John the Good". Named his eldest son Alexios co-emperor in 1122, but he died before him.
Manuel I Komnenos (Μανουὴλ Αʹ Κομνηνὸς) 8 April 1143 – 24 September 1180 Born on 28 November 1118 as the fourth and youngest son of John II, he was chosen as emperor over his elder brother Isaac by his father on his deathbed. An energetic ruler, he launched campaigns against the Turks, humbled Hungary, achieved supremacy over the Crusader states, and tried unsuccessfully to recover Italy. His extravagance and constant campaigning, however, depleted the Empire's resources.
Alexios II Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος B' Κομνηνὸς) 24 September 1180 – October 1183 Born on 14 September 1169 as the only son of Manuel I. In 1180–1182 under the regency of his mother, Maria of Antioch. She was overthrown by Andronikos I Komnenos, who became co-emperor and finally had Alexios II deposed and killed.
Andronikos I Komnenos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Αʹ Κομνηνὸς)
11 September 1185
Born c. 1118, a nephew of John II by his brother Isaac. A general, he
was imprisoned for conspiring against John II, but escaped and spent
15 years in exile in various courts in eastern Europe and the Middle
East. He seized the regency from
Maria of Antioch
Isaac II Angelos (Ἰσαάκιος Βʹ Ἄγγελος) 1185 – March 1195 Born in September 1156, Isaac came to the throne at the head of a popular revolt against Andronikos I. His reign was marked by revolts and wars in the Balkans, especially against a resurgent Bulgaria. He was deposed, blinded and imprisoned by his elder brother, Alexios III.
Alexios III Angelos
(Ἀλέξιος Γʹ Ἄγγελος)
March 1195 –
17/18 July 1203
Born in 1153, Alexios was the elder brother of Isaac II. His reign was
marked by misgovernment and the increasing autonomy of provincial
magnates. He was deposed by the
Isaac II Angelos
(Ἰσαάκιος Βʹ Ἄγγελος)
18 July 1203 –
27/28 January 1204
Restored to his throne by the Crusaders, actual rule fell to his son
Alexios IV. Due to their failure to deal with the Crusaders' demands,
he was deposed by
Alexios V Doukas
Alexios IV Angelos
(Ἀλέξιος Δʹ Ἄγγελος)
1 August 1203 –
27/28 January 1204
Born in 1182, the son of Isaac II. He enlisted the
Alexios V Doukas
Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea, 1204–1261) See also: Laskaris and Empire of Nicaea
Theodore I Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Αʹ Λάσκαρις)
Born c. 1174, he rose to prominence as a son-in-law of Alexios III.
His brother Constantine
Laskaris (or Theodore himself, it is
uncertain) was elected emperor by the citizens of
John III Doukas Vatatzes (Ἰωάννης Γʹ Δούκας Βατάτζης) 15 December 1221/1222– 3 November 1254 Born c. 1192, he became the son-in-law and successor of Theodore I in 1212. A capable ruler and soldier, he expanded his state in Bithynia, Thrace and Macedonia at the expense of the Latin Empire, Bulgaria and the rival Greek state of Epirus.
Theodore II Laskaris (Θεόδωρος Βʹ Λάσκαρις) 3 November 1254– 18 August 1258 Born in 1221/1222 as the only son of John III, he succeeded on his father's death. His reign was marked by his hostility towards the major houses of the aristocracy, and by his victory against Bulgaria and the subsequent expansion into and Albania.
John IV Laskaris
(Ἰωάννης Δʹ Λάσκαρις)
18 August 1258–
25 December 1261
Born on 25 December 1250 as the only son of Theodore II, he succeeded
on his father's death. Due to his minority, the regency was exercised
at first by
Michael VIII Palaiologos (Μιχαὴλ Ηʹ Παλαιολόγος) 1 January 1259– 11 December 1282 Born in 1223, great-grandson of Alexios III, grandnephew of John III by marriage. Senior emperor alongside John IV in 1259, sole emperor since 25 December 1261.
Andronikos II Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος) 11 December 1282– 24 May 1328 Son of Michael VIII, he was born on 25 March 1259. Named co-emperor in September 1261, crowned in 1272, he succeeded as sole emperor on Michael's death. Favouring monks and intellectuals, he neglected the army, and his reign saw the collapse of the Byzantine position in Asia Minor. He named his son Michael IX co-emperor. In a protracted civil war, he was first forced to recognize his grandson Andronikos III as co-emperor and was then deposed outright. He died on 13 February 1332.
Andronikos III Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Γʹ Παλαιολόγος)
24 May 1328–
15 June 1341
Son of Michael IX, he was born on 25 March 1297 and named co-emperor
in 1316. Rival emperor since July 1321, he deposed his grandfather
Andronikos II in 1328 and ruled as sole emperor until his death.
Supported by John Kantakouzenos, his reign saw defeats against the
John V Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Εʹ Παλαιολόγος) 15 June 1341– 12 August 1376 Only son of Andronikos III, he had not been crowned co-emperor or declared heir at his father's death, a fact which led to the outbreak of a destructive civil war between his regents and his father's closest aide, John VI Kantakouzenos, who was crowned co-emperor. The conflict ended in 1347 with Kantakouzenos recognized as senior emperor, but he was deposed by John V in 1354, during another civil war. Matthew Kantakouzenos, raised by John VI to co-emperor, was also deposed in 1357. John V appealed to the West for aid against the Ottomans, but in 1371 he was forced to recognize Ottoman suzerainty. He was deposed in 1376 by his son Andronikos IV.
John VI Kantakouzenos (Ἰωάννης ΣΤʹ Καντακουζηνός) 8 February 1347– 4 December 1354 A maternal relative of the Palaiologoi, he was declared co-emperor on 26 October 1341, and was recognized as senior emperor for ten years after the end of the civil war on 8 February 1347. Deposed by John V in 1354, he became a monk, dying on 15 June 1383.
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Δʹ Παλαιολόγος)
12 August 1376–
1 July 1379
Son of John V and grandson of John VI, he was born on 2 April 1348 and
raised to co-emperor c. 1352. He deposed his father on 12 August 1376
and ruled until overthrown in turn in 1379. He was again recognized as
co-emperor in 1381 and given
John V Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Εʹ Παλαιολόγος) 1 July 1379– 14 April 1390 Restored to senior emperor, he was reconciled with Andronikos IV in 1381, re-appointing him co-emperor. He was overthrown again in 1390 by his grandson, John VII.
John VII Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Ζʹ Παλαιολόγος)
14 April 1390–
17 September 1390
Son of Andronikos IV, he was born in 1370, and named co-emperor under
his father in 1377–79. He usurped the throne from his grandfather
John V for five months in 1390, but with Ottoman mediation he was
reconciled with John V and his uncle, Manuel II. He held
John V Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Εʹ Παλαιολόγος) 17 September 1390– 16 February 1391 Restored to senior emperor, he ruled until his death in February 1391.
Manuel II Palaiologos
(Μανουὴλ Βʹ Παλαιολόγος)
16 February 1391–
21 July 1425
Second son of John V, he was born on 27 June 1350. Raised to
co-emperor in 1373, he became senior emperor on John V's death and
ruled until his death. He journeyed to the West European courts
seeking aid against the Turks, and was able to use the Ottoman defeat
Battle of Ankara
John VIII Palaiologos (Ἰωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) 21 July 1425– 31 October 1448 Eldest surviving son of Manuel II, he was born on 18 December 1392. Raised to co-emperor c. 1416, he succeeded his father on his death. Seeking aid against the resurgent Ottomans, he ratified the Union of the Churches in 1439.
Constantine XI Palaiologos
(Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑʹ Παλαιολόγος)
6 January 1449–
29 May 1453
The fourth son of Manuel II, he was born on 8 February 1405. As Despot
Claimants in exile
Name Reign Comments
Family tree of the Byzantine emperors List of Roman emperors List of Trapezuntine emperors List of Roman usurpers List of Byzantine usurpers List of Roman and Byzantine empresses
^ a b Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, Last Centuries of Byzantium,
1261-1453, Cambridge University Press, Second Edition, 1993, p. 72:
Hereditary succession to the throne was a custom or a convenience in
Byzantium, not an inviolable principle. Emperors, particularly in the
later period, would take pains to nominate their sons as co-emperors,
for the rule of a dynasty made for stability and continuity. But in
theory, the road to the throne was a carriere ouverte aux talents
[career open to talents]..."
^ Hooker, Richard (1 October 2007). "European Middle Ages: The
Byzantine Empire". Washington State University. Archived from the
original on 24 February 1999. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
^ p. 183, Karayannopoulous, Yanis, "State Organization, Social
Structure, Economy, and Commerce," History of Humanity - Scientific
and Cultural Development from the Seventh to the Sixteenth Centuries,
Vol. IV, M. A. Al-Bakhit, L. Bazin, S. M. Cissoko and M. S. Asimov,
Editors, UNESCO, Paris (2000)
^ Gregory, Timothy E.; Cutler, Anthony (1991). "Constantine I the
Great". In Kazhdan, Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium.
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 498–500.
^ Gregory, Timothy E. (1991). "Constantius II". In Kazhdan, Alexander.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press. p. 524. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
^ Gregory, Timothy E. (1991). "Constans". In Kazhdan, Alexander. The
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University
Press. p. 496. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
^ Gregory, Timothy E.; Cutler, Anthony (1991). "Leo I". In Kazhdan,
Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press. pp. 1206–1207.
^ Carr, John (2015). Fighting Emperors of Byzantium. Pen and Sword.
p. 55. ISBN 9781473856400.
^ Lee, A. D. (2013). From Rome to
v t e
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