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Byron Raymond "Whizzer" White (June 8, 1917 – April 15, 2002) was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.[2] Born and raised in Colorado, he played college football, basketball, and baseball for the University of Colorado, finishing as the runner up for the Heisman Trophy in 1937. He was selected in the first round of the 1938 NFL Draft by the Pittsburgh Pirates and led the National Football League in rushing yards in his rookie season. White was admitted to Yale Law School
Yale Law School
in 1939 and played for the Detroit Lions in the 1940 and 1941 seasons. During World War II, he served as an intelligence officer with the United States Navy. After the war, he graduated from Yale and clerked for Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson. White entered private practice in Denver, Colorado, working primarily as a transactional attorney. He served as the Colorado
Colorado
state chair of John F. Kennedy's 1960 presidential campaign and accepted appointment as the United States Deputy Attorney General
United States Deputy Attorney General
in 1961. In 1962, President Kennedy successfully nominated White to the Supreme Court, making White the first Supreme Court Justice from Colorado.[3] He retired in 1993 and was succeeded by Ruth Bader Ginsburg. White is the twelfth longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history. White viewed his own court decisions as based on the facts of each case rather than as representative of a specific legal philosophy. He wrote the majority opinion in cases such as Coker v. Georgia, Washington v. Davis
Washington v. Davis
and Bowers v. Hardwick. He wrote dissenting opinions in notable cases such as Miranda v. Arizona, Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, and Roe v. Wade.

Contents

1 Early years

1.1 College sports

2 Pro football and graduate school 3 Military service 4 Personal life 5 Legal career 6 Supreme Court

6.1 Substantive due process doctrine 6.2 Death penalty 6.3 Abortion 6.4 Civil rights 6.5 Relationships with other justices 6.6 Court operations and retirement

7 Later years and death 8 Awards and honors 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early years[edit] Born in Fort Collins, Colorado, White was the younger son of Maude Elizabeth (Burger) and Alpha Albert White, neither of whom attended high school.[4][5][6] He was raised in the nearby town of Wellington, where he obtained his high school diploma in 1934. After graduating at the top of his tiny high school class of six, White attended the University of Colorado
Colorado
in Boulder on a scholarship, offered to all Colorado
Colorado
high school valedictorians, as his older brother Sam had done.[3][6] He joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity[7] and served as student body president his senior year.[3] Graduating Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa
in 1938, he won a Rhodes Scholarship
Rhodes Scholarship
to the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
in England; after deferring it for a year to play pro football, he attended Hertford College, Oxford.[8] During this time in England, he became acquainted with Joe and John Kennedy, as their father Joseph Kennedy
Joseph Kennedy
was the U.S. ambassador to London.[3] College sports[edit] White was an All-American halfback[3] for the Colorado
Colorado
Buffaloes, where a newspaper columnist gave him the nickname "Whizzer",[9] which to his chagrin followed him throughout his legal and Supreme Court careers.[3] As a senior, White led Colorado
Colorado
to an undefeated 8–0 regular season in 1937, but they lost to favored Rice Institute of Houston
Houston
28–14 in the Cotton Bowl in Dallas
Dallas
on New Year's Day.[10] He was the runner-up (behind Yale quarterback Clint Frank) for the Heisman Trophy,[11] and also played basketball and baseball at CU. The basketball team advanced to the finals of the inaugural National Invitation Tournament at Madison Square Garden in March 1938.[12][13]. Pro football and graduate school[edit] White had originally planned to attend Oxford
Oxford
in 1938 and not play pro football.[14] He was selected fourth overall in the 1938 NFL draft, held in December 1937, by the NFL's Pittsburgh Pirates (now Steelers),[3][15] and became a Rhodes Scholar days later.[16] Oxford allowed White to delay his start to early 1939, so he accepted the Pittsburgh offer in August and played the 1938 season in the NFL.[14][17][18] He led the league in rushing as a 21-year-old rookie and was its highest-paid player.[3] He sailed to England in early 1939, with the intent of staying for three years.[19][20]

Of all the athletes I have known in my lifetime, I'd have to say Whizzer White came as close to anyone to giving 100 percent of himself when he was in competition.[21]

~- Pittsburgh Pirates/Steelers owner Art Rooney

With the outbreak of World War II
World War II
in late summer, White returned to the United States.[22] He was admitted to Yale Law School
Yale Law School
in early October 1939, a week after classes began,[23] and also played for the Detroit Lions
Detroit Lions
in 1940 and 1941.[24][25] In three NFL seasons, he played in 33 games. He led the league in rushing yards in 1938 and 1940, and he was one of the first "big money" NFL players, making $15,000 per year (equivalent to $260,000 in 2017).[3] His NFL career was cut short when he entered the U.S. Navy in 1942; after the war, he elected to finish law school rather than return to football. He was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame
College Football Hall of Fame
in 1954.[26] Military service[edit] During the war, White served as an intelligence officer in the U.S. Navy, stationed in the Pacific Theatre.[27][28][29] He had originally wanted to join the Marines, but was kept out due to being colorblind.[3] He wrote the intelligence report on the sinking of future President John F. Kennedy's PT-109.[26] White was awarded two Bronze Star medals,[3] and was discharged as a lieutenant commander. Personal life[edit] White first met his wife Marion (1921–2009), the daughter of the president of the University of Colorado, when she was in high school and he was a college football star.[30] During World War II, Marion served in the WAVES
WAVES
while her future husband was a Navy intelligence officer. They married in 1946 and had two children: a son named Charles Byron (Barney) and a daughter named Nancy.[3] His older brother Clayton Samuel "Sam" White (1912–2004) was also a high school valedictorian and Rhodes Scholar. He later became a physician and medical researcher, particularly on the effects of atomic bomb blasts.[6] Legal career[edit]

Byron White
Byron White
with Robert Kennedy in 1961

After World War II, he completed his studies at Yale Law School, graduating magna cum laude in 1946. After serving as a law clerk to Chief Justice Fred Vinson, White returned to Colorado. White practiced in Denver
Denver
for roughly fifteen years with the law firm now known as Davis Graham & Stubbs. This was a time in which the Denver
Denver
economy flourished, and White rendered legal service to the business community. White was for the most part a transactional attorney; he drafted contracts and advised insolvent companies, and he argued the occasional case in court.[26] During the 1960 presidential election, White put his football celebrity to use as chair of John F. Kennedy's campaign in Colorado. White had first met the candidate when White was a Rhodes scholar and Kennedy's father, Joseph Kennedy, was Ambassador to the Court of St. James.[3] During the Kennedy administration, White served as United States Deputy Attorney General, the number two man in the Justice Department, under Robert F. Kennedy. He took the lead in protecting the Freedom Riders in 1961, negotiating with Alabama Governor John Malcolm Patterson.[3] Supreme Court[edit]

Byron White
Byron White
swearing in new Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, as wife Virginia Lamp Thomas
Virginia Lamp Thomas
looks on in 1991

Message of President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
nominating Byron R. White to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court

Acquiring renown within the Kennedy Administration for his humble manner and sharp mind, he was appointed by Kennedy in 1962 to succeed Justice Charles Evans Whittaker, who retired for disability. Kennedy said at the time: "He has excelled at everything. And I know that he will excel on the highest court in the land."[3] The 44-year-old White was approved by a voice vote.[3] He would serve until his retirement in 1993. His Supreme Court tenure was the fourth-longest of the 20th century.[3] Upon the request of Vice President-Elect Al Gore, Justice White administered the oath of office on January 20, 1993 to the 45th U.S. Vice President. It was the only time White administered an oath of office to a Vice President. During his service on the high court, White wrote 994 opinions. He was fierce in questioning attorneys in court,[3] and his votes and opinions on the bench reflect an ideology that has been notoriously difficult for popular journalists and legal scholars alike to pin down. He was seen as a disappointment by some Kennedy supporters who wished he would have joined the more liberal wing of the court in its opinions on Miranda v. Arizona
Miranda v. Arizona
and Roe v. Wade.[8] White often took a narrow, fact-specific view of cases before the Court and generally refused to make broad pronouncements on constitutional doctrine or adhere to a specific judicial philosophy. He preferred to take what he viewed as a practical approach to the law to one based in any legal philosophy.[3][8] In the tradition of the New Deal, White frequently supported a broad view and expansion of governmental powers.[3][31] He consistently voted against creating constitutional restrictions on the police, dissenting in the landmark 1966 case of Miranda v. Arizona.[3] In his dissent in that case he noted that aggressive police practices enhance the individual rights of law-abiding citizens. His jurisprudence has sometimes been praised for adhering to the doctrine of judicial restraint.[32] Substantive due process doctrine[edit] Frequently a critic of the doctrine of "substantive due process", which involves the judiciary reading substantive content into the term "liberty" in the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment, White's first published opinion as a Supreme Court Justice, a sole dissent in Robinson v. California
Robinson v. California
(1962), foreshadowed his career-long distaste for the doctrine. In Robinson, he criticized the remainder of the Court's unprecedented expansion of the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of "cruel and unusual punishment" to strike down a California law providing for civil commitment of drug addicts. He argued that the Court was "imposing its own philosophical predilections" on the state in this exercise of judicial power, although its historic "allergy to substantive due process" would never permit it to strike down a state's economic regulatory law in such a manner. In the same vein, he dissented in the controversial 1973 case of Roe v. Wade. But White voted to strike down a state ban on contraceptives in the 1965 case of Griswold v. Connecticut, although he did not join the majority opinion, which famously asserted a "right of privacy" on the basis of the "penumbras" of the Bill of Rights. White and Justice William Rehnquist
William Rehnquist
were the only dissenters from the Court's decision in Roe, though White's dissent used stronger language, suggesting that Roe was "an exercise in raw judicial power" and criticizing the decision for "interposing a constitutional barrier to state efforts to protect human life." White, who usually adhered firmly to the doctrine of stare decisis, remained a critic of Roe throughout his term on the bench and frequently voted against abortion promotion, including in Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
in 1992.[33] White explained his general views on the validity of substantive due process at length in his dissent in Moore v. City of East Cleveland:

The Judiciary, including this Court, is the most vulnerable and comes nearest to illegitimacy when it deals with judge-made constitutional law having little or no cognizable roots in the language or even the design of the Constitution. Realizing that the present construction of the Due Process Clause represents a major judicial gloss on its terms, as well as on the anticipation of the Framers, and that much of the underpinning for the broad, substantive application of the Clause disappeared in the conflict between the Executive and the Judiciary in 1930s and 1940s, the Court should be extremely reluctant to breathe still further substantive content into the Due Process clause so as to strike down legislation adopted by a State or city to promote its welfare. Whenever the Judiciary does so, it unavoidably pre-empts for itself another part of the governance of the country without express constitutional authority.

White parted company with Rehnquist in strongly supporting the Supreme Court decisions striking down laws that discriminated on the basis of sex, agreeing with Justice William J. Brennan
William J. Brennan
in 1973's Frontiero v. Richardson that laws discriminating on the basis of sex should be subject to strict scrutiny. However, only three justices joined Brennan's plurality opinion in Frontiero; in later cases gender discrimination cases would be subjected to intermediate scrutiny (see Craig v. Boren). White wrote the majority opinion in Bowers v. Hardwick
Bowers v. Hardwick
(1986), which upheld Georgia's anti-sodomy law against a substantive due process attack.[3]

The Court is most vulnerable and comes nearest to illegitimacy when it deals with judge-made constitutional law having little or no cognizable roots in the language or design of the Constitution.... There should be, therefore, great resistance to ... redefining the category of rights deemed to be fundamental. Otherwise, the Judiciary necessarily takes to itself further authority to govern the country without express constitutional authority.

White's opinion in Bowers typified White's fact-specific, deferential style of deciding cases: White's opinion treated the issue in that case as presenting only the question of whether homosexuals had a fundamental right to privacy, even though the statute in Bowers potentially applied to heterosexual sodomy (see Bowers, 478 U.S. 186, 188, n. 1. Georgia, however, conceded during oral argument that the law would be inapplicable to married couples under the precedent set forth in Griswold v. Connecticut.[34]). A year after White's death, Bowers was overruled in Lawrence v. Texas
Lawrence v. Texas
(2003). Death penalty[edit] White took a middle course on the issue of the death penalty: he was one of five justices who voted in Furman v. Georgia
Furman v. Georgia
(1972) to strike down several state capital punishment statutes, voicing concern over the arbitrary nature in which the death penalty was administered. The Furman decision ended capital punishment in the U.S. until 1977, when Gary Gilmore, who decided not to appeal his death sentence, was executed by firing squad. White, however, was not against the death penalty in all forms: he voted to uphold the death penalty statutes at issue in Gregg v. Georgia
Gregg v. Georgia
(1976), even the mandatory death penalty schemes struck down by the Court. White accepted the position that the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution required that all punishments be "proportional" to the crime;[35] thus, he wrote the opinion in Coker v. Georgia
Coker v. Georgia
(1977), which invalidated the death penalty for rape of a 16-year-old married girl. However, his first reported Supreme Court decision was a dissent in Robinson v. California
Robinson v. California
(1962), in which he criticized the Court for extending the reach of the Eighth Amendment. In Robinson the Court for the first time expanded the constitutional prohibition of "cruel and unusual punishments" from examining the nature of the punishment imposed and whether it was an uncommon punishment − as, for example, in the cases of flogging, branding, banishment, or electrocution − to deciding whether any punishment at all was appropriate for the defendant's conduct. White said: "If this case involved economic regulation, the present Court's allergy to substantive due process would surely save the statute and prevent the Court from imposing its own philosophical predilections upon state legislatures or Congress." Consistent with his view in Robinson, White thought that imposing the death penalty on minors was constitutional, and he was one of the three dissenters in Thompson v. Oklahoma
Thompson v. Oklahoma
(1988), a decision that declared that the death penalty as applied to offenders below 16 years of age was unconstitutional as a cruel and unusual punishment. Abortion[edit] Along with Justice William Rehnquist, White dissented in Roe v. Wade (the dissenting decision was in the companion case, Doe v. Bolton), castigating the majority for holding that the U.S. Constitution "values the convenience, whim or caprice of the putative mother more than the life or potential life of the fetus."[36] Civil rights[edit] White consistently supported the Court's post-Brown v. Board of Education attempts to fully desegregate public schools, even through the controversial line of forced busing cases.[37] He voted to uphold affirmative action remedies to racial inequality in an education setting in the famous Regents of the University of California v. Bakke case of 1978. Though White voted to uphold federal affirmative action programs in cases such as Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. FCC, 497 U.S. 547 (1990) (later overruled by Adarand Constructors v. Peña, 515 U.S. 200 (1995)), White voted to strike down an affirmative action plan regarding state contracts in Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co. (1989). White dissented in Runyon v. McCrary
Runyon v. McCrary
(1976), which held that federal law prohibited private schools from discriminating on the basis of race. White argued that the legislative history of Title 42 U.S.C. § 1981 (popularly known as the " Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
Act") indicated that the Act was not designed to prohibit private racial discrimination, but only state-sponsored racial discrimination (as had been held in the Civil Rights Cases
Civil Rights Cases
of 1883). White was concerned about the potential far-reaching impact of holding private racial discrimination illegal, which if taken to its logical conclusion might ban many varied forms of voluntary self-segregation, including social and advocacy groups that limited their membership to blacks:[38] "Whether such conduct should be condoned or not, whites and blacks will undoubtedly choose to form a variety of associational relationships pursuant to contracts which exclude members of the other race. Social clubs, black and white, and associations designed to further the interests of blacks or whites are but two examples". Runyon was essentially overruled by 1989's Patterson v. McLean Credit Union, which itself was superseded by the Civil Rights Act of 1991. Relationships with other justices[edit] White said he was most comfortable on Rehnquist's court. He once said of Earl Warren, "I wasn't exactly in his circle."[3] On the Burger Court, the Chief Justice was fond of assigning important criminal procedure and individual rights opinions to White, because of his frequently conservative views on these questions. Court operations and retirement[edit]

White with other members of the Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals

White frequently urged the Supreme Court to consider cases when federal appeals courts were in conflict on issues of federal law, believing that resolving such was a primary role of the Supreme Court. Thus, White voted to grant certiorari more often than many of his colleagues; he also wrote numerous opinions dissenting from denials of certiorari. After White (along with fellow Justice Harry Blackmun, who also often voted for liberal grants of certiorari) retired, the number of cases heard each session of the Court declined steeply.[39] White disliked the politics of Supreme Court appointments,[26] but had great faith in representative democracy, responding to complaints about politicians and mediocrity in government with exhortations to "get more involved and help fix it."[40] He retired in 1993, during Bill Clinton's presidency, saying that "someone else should be permitted to have a like experience."[3] Clinton nominated (and the Senate approved) Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, a judge from the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit and a former Columbia University
Columbia University
law professor, to succeed him. Later years and death[edit] After retiring from the Supreme Court, White occasionally sat with lower federal courts.[3] He maintained chambers in the federal courthouse in Denver
Denver
until shortly before his death.[41]He also served for the Commission on Structural Alternatives for the Federal Courts of Appeals.[42] White died of pneumonia on April 15, 2002 at the age of 84. He was the last living Warren Court
Warren Court
Justice, and died the day before the fortieth anniversary of his swearing in as a Justice. From his death until the retirement of Sandra Day O'Connor, there were no living former Justices.[3] His remains are interred at All Souls Walk at the St. John's Cathedral in Denver.[43] Then-Chief Justice Rehnquist said White "came as close as anyone I have known to meriting Matthew Arnold's description of Sophocles: 'He saw life steadily and he saw it whole.' All of us who served with him will miss him."[3] Awards and honors[edit] The NFL Players Association gives the Byron "Whizzer" White NFL Man of the Year Award to one player each year for his charity work. Michael McCrary, who was involved in Runyon v. McCrary, grew up to be a professional football player and won the award in 2000. The federal courthouse in Denver
Denver
that houses the Tenth Circuit is named after White. White was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
in 2003 by President George W. Bush.[44] White was inducted into the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference
Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference
Hall of Fame on July 14, 2007,[45] in addition to being a member of the College Football Hall of Fame
College Football Hall of Fame
and the University of Colorado's Athletic Hall of Fame, where he is enshrined as "The Greatest Buff Ever".[46] One of White's former law clerks, Dennis J. Hutchinson, wrote an unofficial biography of him called The Man Who Once was Whizzer White.[47] See also[edit]

Biography portal World War II
World War II
portal United States portal

Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Supreme Court candidates List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
by court composition List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
by education List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
by time in office List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States United States Supreme Court cases during the Burger Court United States Supreme Court cases during the Rehnquist Court United States Supreme Court cases during the Warren Court List of NCAA major college football yearly rushing leaders List of NCAA major college football yearly scoring leaders List of NCAA major college football yearly total offense leaders

References[edit]

^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved April 26, 2010.  ^ Hutchinson, Dennis J. (1993). "The Man Who Once was Whizzer White". Chicago Unbound. 103. University of Chicago Law School. p. 43.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Joan Biskupic (April 15, 2002). Ex-Supreme Court Justice Byron White
Byron White
dies. USA Today. Retrieved October 20, 2008.  ^ Irish, Leon E. (Summer 2003). "Byron White: A Singular Life". Catholic University Law Review. 52: 883.  ^ Hutchinson, Dennis J. (1998). "The Man Who Once was Whizzer White: Wellington". New York Times. (book excerpt). Retrieved May 3, 2016.  ^ a b c Martin, Douglas (May 2, 2004). "Sam White, 91, researcher on effects of A-Bombs, dies". New York Times. (obituary). Retrieved May 3, 2016.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2009.  ^ a b c Christopher L. Tomlins (2005). The United States Supreme Court. Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved October 21, 2008.  ^ Jan Crawford Greenburg (2007). Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Control of the United States Supreme Court. Penguin Group. Retrieved October 20, 2008.  ^ "Rice wins 28-14; Whizzer White meets Mr. Lain". Chicago Sunday Tribune. Associated Press. January 2, 1938. p. 1, part 2.  ^ " Clint Frank
Clint Frank
voted U.S. gridder no. 1". Milwaukee Sentinel. Associated Press. December 1, 1937. p. 21.  ^ "Colorado, Temple in finals for cage title". Lodi News-Sentinel. California. United Press. March 16, 1938. p. 5.  ^ "Temple routs Colorado
Colorado
five, 60-36, in final". Chicago Daily Tribune. Associated Press. March 17, 1938. p. 20.  ^ a b "Whizzer winds up his career on gridiron". Sunday Spartanburg Herald Journal. South Carolina. Associated Press. December 4, 1938. p. 24.  ^ National Football League: NFL Draft History; see also 1938 NFL draft. ^ "Whizzer White Rhodes Scholar". Bend Bulletin. Oregon. United Press. December 21, 1937. p. 3.  ^ Burcky, Claire M. (August 1, 1938). "'Whizzer' finally decides to play with Pirates". Pittsburgh Press. p. 21.  ^ "Whizzer White accepts pro grid offer". Lodi News-Sentinel. California. United Press. August 2, 1938. p. 7.  ^ Sell, Jack (December 28, 1938). "Whizzer stops over here on way to Oxford". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 14.  ^ "Whizzer White leaves Pirates for Oxford, Eng,". Reading Eagle. Pennsylvania. United Press. December 28, 1938. p. 14.  ^ Tagliabue, Paul (2003). "A Tribute to Byron White". Yale Law Journal. Yale University. 112.  ^ "Whizzer White just hides out". Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. Associated Press. October 3, 1939. p. 12.  ^ " Byron White
Byron White
now student at Yale". Daily Times. Beaver and Rochester, Pennsylvania. October 4, 1939. p. 8.  ^ "Detroit signs "Whizzer" White". St. Petersburg Times. INS. August 20, 1940. p. 10.  ^ French, Bob (August 27, 1941). "Whizzer White still a student". Toledo Blade. Ohio. p. 22.  ^ a b c d Dennis J. Hutchinson, The Man Who Once Was Whizzer White: a Portrait of Justice Byron R. White, (Glencoe, The Free Press, 1998) ^ James, Rembert (September 15, 1943). "'Whizzer' White now on PT staff". Deseret News. Salt Lake City, Utah. Associated Press. p. 1.  ^ "Navy medal given to Whizzer White". Milwaukee Journal. United Press. June 15, 1944. p. 12, part 2.  ^ Alexander, John D. (June 29, 1945). "Whizzer White survives Bunker Hill". Deseret News. Salt Lake City, Utah. INS. p. 12.  ^ "Marion White, wife of late justice, dies at 87". The Denver
Denver
Post. January 22, 2009.  ^ (see New York v. United States, 488 U.S. 1041 (1992) (White, J., concurring in part and dissenting in part)). ^ See Hutchinson, Dennis (2003). "Two Cheers for Judicial Restraint: Justice White and the Role of the Supreme Court". U. Colo. L. Rev. 74: 1409.  ^ (See Thornburg v. American Coll. of Obst. & Gyn. 476 U.S. 747 (1986) (White, J., dissenting)) ^ Oral argument of Bowers v. Hardwick, available at Oyez.org, https://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1985/1985_85_140 ^ (see Harmelin v. Michigan, 501 U.S. 957 (1991) (White, J., dissenting)) ^ Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179 (1973). Findlaw.com. Retrieved 2011-09-10. ^ (See Milliken v. Bradley
Milliken v. Bradley
(White, J., dissenting)). ^ See Runyon, 427 U.S. 160, 212 (White, J., dissenting) ^ See David M. O'Brien, The Rehnquist Court's Shrinking Plenary Docket, 81 Judicature 58–65 (September/October 1997). ^ David C. Frederick, Justice White and the Virtue of Modesty, 55 Stanford L.Rev. 21, 27 (2002) ^ Greenhouse, Linda (2002-04-15). "Byron R. White, Supreme Court Justice for 31 Years, Dies at 84". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-10-05.  ^ "Appellate Study Commission Issues Final Report". Library.unt.edu. December 18, 1998. Retrieved 2017-06-17.  ^ Christensen, George A. (2008). "Here Lies the Supreme Court: Revisited". Journal of Supreme Court History. 33 (1): 17–41. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5818.2008.00177.x.  ^ Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Recipients, retrieved July 30, 2009 ^ "RMAC to honor 'Whizzer'". CUBuffs.com. February 25, 2007. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2007.  ^ "CU Athletic Hall of Fame — Justice Byron White". University of Colorado
Colorado
(Boulder) Athletic Department.  ^ Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-684-82794-8; ISBN 978-0-684-82794-0

Further reading[edit]

Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.  Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court Historical Society, Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1-56802-126-7.  Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L., eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0-7910-1377-4.  Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford
Oxford
Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-505835-6.  Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0-87187-554-3.  Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. p. 590. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1.  Woodward, Robert and Armstrong, Scott. The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court (1979). ISBN 978-0-380-52183-8; ISBN 0-380-52183-0. ISBN 978-0-671-24110-0; ISBN 0-671-24110-9; ISBN 0-7432-7402-4; ISBN 978-0-7432-7402-9.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Byron White

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Byron White.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Byron White

Byron White
Byron White
at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Oyez Project, U.S. Supreme Court media, Byron R. White Biography.com – Byron White Appearances on C-SPAN Byron White's season with the 1938 Pittsburgh Pirates University of Colorado
Colorado
Athletics Hall of Fame – Byron White C-SPAN
C-SPAN
– Life of Byron White, discussed by Dennis Hutchinson (2011) Byron White
Byron White
at Find a Grave

Legal offices

Preceded by Lawrence Walsh United States Deputy Attorney General 1961–1962 Succeeded by Nick Katzenbach

Preceded by Charles Whittaker Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1962–1993 Succeeded by Ruth Bader Ginsburg

v t e

Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice

Jay J. Rutledge Ellsworth J. Marshall Taney S. P. Chase Waite Fuller E. White Taft Hughes Stone Vinson Warren Burger Rehnquist J. Roberts

Seat 1

J. Rutledge T. Johnson Paterson Livingston Thompson Nelson Hunt Blatchford E. White Van Devanter Black Powell Kennedy

Seat 2

Cushing Story Woodbury Curtis Clifford Gray Holmes Cardozo Frankfurter Goldberg Fortas Blackmun Breyer

Seat 3

Wilson Washington Baldwin Grier Strong Woods L. Lamar H. Jackson Peckham Lurton McReynolds Byrnes W. Rutledge Minton Brennan Souter Sotomayor

Seat 4

Blair S. Chase Duvall Barbour Daniel Miller Brown Moody J. Lamar Brandeis Douglas Stevens Kagan

Seat 5

Iredell Moore W. Johnson Wayne

Seat 6

Todd Trimble McLean Swayne Matthews Brewer Hughes Clarke Sutherland Reed Whittaker White Ginsburg

Seat 7

Catron

Seat 8

McKinley Campbell Davis Harlan Pitney Sanford O. Roberts Burton Stewart O'Connor Alito

Seat 9

Field McKenna Stone R. Jackson Harlan II Rehnquist Scalia Gorsuch

Seat 10

Bradley Shiras Day Butler Murphy Clark T. Marshall Thomas

Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct

  Supreme Court of the United States

The Warren Court

Chief Justice: Earl Warren
Earl Warren
(1953–1969)

1962:

H. Black F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White

1962–1965:

H. Black Wm. O. Douglas T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Goldberg

1965–1967:

H. Black Wm. O. Douglas T. C. Clark J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Fortas

1967–1969:

H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Fortas T. Marshall

The Burger Court

Chief Justice: Warren Earl Burger (1969–1986)

1969:

H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White A. Fortas T. Marshall

1970–1971:

H. Black Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun

1971:

Wm. O. Douglas J. M. Harlan II Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr.

1972–1975:

Wm. O. Douglas Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist

1975–1981:

Wm. J. Brennan P. Stewart B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist J. P. Stevens

1981–1986:

Wm. J. Brennan B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. Wm. Rehnquist J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor

The Rehnquist Court

Chief Justice: William Hubbs Rehnquist (1986–2005)

1986–1987:

Wm. J. Brennan B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun L. F. Powell Jr. J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor A. Scalia

1988–1990:

Wm. J. Brennan B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor A. Scalia A. Kennedy

1990–1991:

B. White T. Marshall H. Blackmun J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor A. Scalia A. Kennedy D. Souter

1991–1993:

B. White H. Blackmun J. P. Stevens S. D. O'Connor A. Scalia A. Kennedy D. Souter C. Thomas

Byron White's football career

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Colorado
Colorado
Buffaloes starting quarterbacks

White Dowler Weidner Anderson Vogel Hatcher Walters Aunese Hagan Johnson Stewart Detmer Hessler Moschetti Colvin Ochs Pesavento Hodge Klatt Cox Jackson Hawkins Hansen Hirschman Webb Wood Liufau Gehrke Montez

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1938 NFL draft first-round selections

Corbett Davis Jim McDonald Boyd Brumbaugh Byron White Jack Robbins Alex Wojciechowicz Cecil Isbell George Karamatic Andy Farkas Joe Gray

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Pittsburgh Pirates / Steelers first-round draft picks

Shakespeare Basrak White Eakin Dudley Daley Podesto Duhart Blanchard Bechtol D. Edwards Gage Chandnois Avinger Modzelewski Marchibroda Lattner Varrichione Glick Davis Dawson Spikes Ferguson Martha Leftridge Taylor Greene Bradshaw Lewis Harris Thomas Swann Brown Cunningham Cole R. Johnson Hawthorne Malone Gary Abercrombie Rivera Lipps Sims Rienstra Woodson A. Jones Worley Ricketts Green Richardson Searcy Figures C. Johnson Bruener Stephens Scott Faneca T. Edwards Burress Hampton Simmons Polamalu Roethlisberger Miller Holmes Timmons Mendenhall Hood Pouncey Heyward DeCastro J. Jones Shazier Dupree Burns Watt

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Pittsburgh Pirates / Steelers starting quarterbacks

Tony Holm
Tony Holm
(1933) Warren Heller (1934) Johnny Gildea (1935–1937) Ed Matesic (1936) Max Fiske (1937–1938) Frank Filchock (1938) Byron White
Byron White
(1938) Hugh McCullough (1939) Billy Patterson (1940) Boyd Brumbaugh (1941) Coley McDonough (1941) Bill Dudley (1942, 1945–1946) Allie Sherman (1943) Roy Zimmerman (1943) John Grigas (1944) John McCarthy (1944) Buzz Warren (1945) Johnny Clement (1947–1948) Charley Seabright (1947) Ray Evans (1948) Joe Gasparella (1948) Joe Geri (1949–1951) Jim Finks
Jim Finks
(1949–1955) Chuck Ortmann
Chuck Ortmann
(1951) Bill Mackrides (1953) Ted Marchibroda
Ted Marchibroda
(1956) Jack Scarbath (1956) Earl Morrall
Earl Morrall
(1957–1958) Len Dawson
Len Dawson
(1957) Bobby Layne
Bobby Layne
(1958–1962) Rudy Bukich
Rudy Bukich
(1960–1961) Ed Brown (1962–1964) Bill Nelsen (1964–1967) Tommy Wade (1965) Ron C. Smith (1966) George Izo (1966) Kent Nix (1967–1968) Dick Shiner (1968–1969) Terry Hanratty (1969–1971, 1973–1974) Terry Bradshaw
Terry Bradshaw
(1970–1983) Joe Gilliam (1973–1974) Mike Kruczek (1976) Mark Malone (1981, 1984–1987) Cliff Stoudt (1983) David Woodley (1984–1985) Scott Campbell (1985) Bubby Brister (1986, 1988–1992) Steve Bono
Steve Bono
(1987) Todd Blackledge (1988–1989) Neil O'Donnell (1991–1995) Mike Tomczak (1993–1996, 1999) Jim Miller (1996) Kordell Stewart (1997–2002) Kent Graham (2000) Tommy Maddox
Tommy Maddox
(2002–2004) Ben Roethlisberger
Ben Roethlisberger
(2004–2017) Charlie Batch
Charlie Batch
(2005–2007, 2010–2012) Dennis Dixon
Dennis Dixon
(2009–2010) Byron Leftwich
Byron Leftwich
(2012) Michael Vick
Michael Vick
(2015) Landry Jones
Landry Jones
(2015–present)

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Portsmouth Spartans / Detroit Lions
Detroit Lions
starting quarterbacks

Chuck Bennett (1930) Glenn Presnell
Glenn Presnell
(1931–1933) Dutch Clark
Dutch Clark
(1932–1937) Vern Huffman
Vern Huffman
(1938) Dwight Sloan (1939) Byron White
Byron White
(1940–1941) Harry Hopp (1942) Frank Sinkwich
Frank Sinkwich
(1943–1944) Chuck Fenenbock (1945) Dave Ryan (1946) Clyde LeForce (1947–1949) Fred Enke (1948–1949) Frank Tripucka
Frank Tripucka
(1949) Bobby Layne
Bobby Layne
(1950–1958) Jim Hardy
Jim Hardy
(1952) Tom Dublinski (1953–1954) Harry Gilmer
Harry Gilmer
(1955) Tobin Rote
Tobin Rote
(1957–1959) Earl Morrall
Earl Morrall
(1959–1961, 1963–1964) Jim Ninowski (1960–1961) Milt Plum (1962–1967) George Izo (1965) Karl Sweetan (1966–1967) Bill Munson (1968–1970, 1973–1975) Greg Landry (1968–1978) Joe Reed (1975–1977, 1979) Gary Danielson
Gary Danielson
(1977–1978, 1980–1982, 1984) Jeff Komlo (1979, 1981) Eric Hipple
Eric Hipple
(1981–1986, 1989) John Witkowski (1984) Joe Ferguson (1985–1986) Chuck Long (1986–1988) Todd Hons (1987) Rusty Hilger (1988) Bob Gagliano (1989–1990) Rodney Peete
Rodney Peete
(1989–1993) Andre Ware
Andre Ware
(1990, 1992–1993) Erik Kramer (1991–1993) Dave Krieg (1994) Scott Mitchell (1994–1998) Don Majkowski
Don Majkowski
(1996) Charlie Batch
Charlie Batch
(1998–2001) Frank Reich (1998) Gus Frerotte
Gus Frerotte
(1999) Stoney Case (2000) Ty Detmer
Ty Detmer
(2001) Mike McMahon (2001–2002) Joey Harrington (2002–2005) Jeff Garcia
Jeff Garcia
(2005) Jon Kitna
Jon Kitna
(2006–2008) Dan Orlovsky
Dan Orlovsky
(2008) Daunte Culpepper
Daunte Culpepper
(2008–2009) Matthew Stafford
Matthew Stafford
(2009–present) Drew Stanton
Drew Stanton
(2009–2010) Shaun Hill
Shaun Hill
(2010)

v t e

1937 College Football All-America Team
College Football All-America Team
consensus selections

Backfield

QB Clint Frank HB Marshall Goldberg HB Byron White FB Sam Chapman

Line

E Andy Bershak E Chuck Sweeney T Ed Franco T Tony Matisi G Leroy Monsky G Joe Routt C Alex Wojciechowicz

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NFL annual rushing yards leaders

1932: Battles 1933: Musick 1934: Feathers 1935: Russell 1936: Leemans 1937: Battles 1938: B. White 1939: Osmanski 1940: B. White 1941: Manders 1942: Dudley 1943: Paschal 1944: Paschal 1945: Van Buren 1946: Dudley 1947: Van Buren 1948: Van Buren 1949: Van Buren 1950: Motley 1951: Price 1952: Towler 1953: Perry 1954: Perry 1955: Ameche 1956: Casares 1957: J. Brown 1958: J. Brown 1959: J. Brown 1960: J. Brown 1961: J. Brown 1962: Taylor 1963: J. Brown 1964: J. Brown 1965: J. Brown 1966: Sayers 1967: Kelly 1968: Kelly 1969: Sayers 1970: L. Brown 1971: Little 1972: Simpson 1973: Simpson 1974: Armstrong 1975: Simpson 1976: Simpson 1977: Payton 1978: Campbell 1979: Campbell 1980: Campbell 1981: Rogers 1982: McNeil 1983: Dickerson 1984: Dickerson 1985: Allen 1986: Dickerson 1987: C. White 1988: Dickerson 1989: Okoye 1990: Sanders 1991: Smith 1992: Smith 1993: Smith 1994: Sanders 1995: Smith 1996: Sanders 1997: Sanders 1998: Davis 1999: James 2000: James 2001: Holmes 2002: Williams 2003: Lewis 2004: Martin 2005: Alexander 2006: Tomlinson 2007: Tomlinson 2008: Peterson 2009: Johnson 2010: Foster 2011: Jones-Drew 2012: Peterson 2013: McCoy 2014: Murray 2015: Peterson 2016: Elliott 2017: Hunt

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NFL's 1940s All-Decade Team

Sammy Baugh Sid Luckman Bob Waterfield Tony Canadeo Bill Dudley George McAfee Charley Trippi Steve Van Buren Byron White Pat Harder Marion Motley Bill Osmanski Jim Benton Jack Ferrante Ken Kavanaugh Dante Lavelli Pete Pihos Mac Speedie Ed Sprinkle Al Blozis George Connor Frank "Bucko" Kilroy Buford "Baby" Ray Vic Sears Al Wistert Bruno Banducci Monk Edwards Garrard "Buster" Ramsey Bill Willis Len Younce Charley Brock Clyde "Bulldog" Turner Alex Wojciechowicz

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National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners

1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959: Douglas MacArthur 1960: Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
& Amos Alonzo Stagg 1961: John F. Kennedy 1962: Byron "Whizzer" White 1963: Roger Q. Blough 1964: Donold B. Lourie 1965: Juan T. Trippe 1966: Earl H. "Red" Blaik 1967: Frederick L. Hovde 1968: Chester J. LaRoche 1969: Richard Nixon 1970: Thomas J. Hamilton 1971: Ronald Reagan 1972: Gerald Ford 1973: John Wayne 1974: Gerald B. Zornow 1975: David Packard 1976: Edgar B. Speer 1977: Louis H. Wilson 1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy 1979: William P. Lawrence 1980: Walter J. Zable 1981: Justin W. Dart 1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) - All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink 1983: Jack Kemp 1984: John F. McGillicuddy 1985: William I. Spencer 1986: William H. Morton 1987: Charles R. Meyer 1988: Clinton E. Frank 1989: Paul Brown 1990: Thomas H. Moorer 1991: George H. W. Bush 1992: Donald R. Keough 1993: Norman Schwarzkopf 1994: Thomas S. Murphy 1995: Harold Alfond 1996: Gene Corrigan 1997: Jackie Robinson 1998: John H. McConnell 1999: Keith Jackson 2000: Fred M. Kirby II 2001: Billy Joe "Red" McCombs 2002: George Steinbrenner 2003: Tommy Franks 2004: William V. Campbell 2005: Jon F. Hanson 2006: Joe Paterno
Joe Paterno
& Bobby Bowden 2007: Pete Dawkins
Pete Dawkins
& Roger Staubach 2008: John Glenn 2009: Phil Knight
Phil Knight
& Bill Bowerman 2010: Bill Cosby 2011: Robert Gates 2012: Roscoe Brown 2013: National Football League
National Football League
& Roger Goodell 2014: Tom Catena
Tom Catena
& George Weiss 2015: Condoleezza Rice 2016: Archie Manning

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Theodore Roosevelt Award winners

1967: Eisenhower 1968: Saltonstall 1969: White 1970: Hovde 1971: Kraft Jr. 1972: Holland 1973: Bradley 1974: Owens 1975: Ford 1976: Hamilton 1977: Bradley 1978: Zornow 1979: Chandler 1980: Cooley 1981: Linkletter 1982: Cosby 1983: Palmer 1984: Lawrence 1985: Fleming 1986: Bush 1987: Zable 1988: Not presented 1989: Ebert 1990: Reagan 1991: Gibson 1992: Kemp 1993: Alexander 1994: Johnson 1995: Mathias 1996: Wooden 1997: Payne 1998: Dole 1999: Richardson 2000: Staubach 2001: Cohen 2002: Shriver 2003: de Varona 2004: Page 2005: Ride 2006: Kraft 2007: Tagliabue 2008: Glenn 2009: Albright 2010: Mitchell 2011: Dunwoody 2012: Allen 2013: Dungy 2014: Mills 2015: Jackson 2016: Ueberroth 2017: Brooke-Marciniak

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NFL season punting yards leaders

1939: Hall 1940: Hall 1941: White 1942: McAdams 1943: Baugh 1944: Younce 1945: Tinsley 1946: McKay 1947: Maley 1948: Jacobs 1949: Poillon 1950: Burk 1951: Gillom 1952: Landry 1953: Brady 1954: McGee 1955: Landry 1956: Burk 1957: Norton 1958: Chandler 1959: McGee 1960: Green 1961: Norton 1962: Villaneuva 1963: Villanueva 1964: Richter 1965: Lambert 1966: Green 1967: Lothridge 1968: Lothridge 1969: Studstill 1970: Van Heusen 1971: B. Lee 1972: Cockroft 1973: Wilson 1974: James 1975: Blanchard 1976: James 1977: James 1978: James 1979: Jennings 1980: Jennings 1981: Parsons 1982: Parsons 1983: Stark 1984: Arnold 1985: Camarillo 1986: Teltschik 1987: Hatcher 1988: Arnold 1989: Wagner 1990: Hansen 1991: Barnhardt 1992: Tuten 1993: Tuten 1994: Camarillo 1995: Hansen 1996: Horan 1997: Maynard 1998: Maynard 1999: Gardocki 2000: Gardocki 2001: Sauerbrun 2002: Sauerbrun 2003: Lechler 2004: Maynard 2005: A. Lee 2006: Baker 2007: A. Lee 2008: Lechler 2009: Lechler 2010: Jones 2011: Colquitt 2012: Zastudil 2013: Anger 2014: King 2015: Hekker 2016: Hekker 2017: Lechler

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 30387079 LCCN: n82158376 GND: 121219

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