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Buxton
Buxton
is a spa town in Derbyshire, in the East Midlands
East Midlands
region of England. It has the highest elevation – about 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level – of any market town in England.[1][nb 1] Close to the county boundary with Cheshire
Cheshire
to the west and Staffordshire
Staffordshire
to the south, Buxton
Buxton
is described as "the gateway to the Peak District
Peak District
National Park".[1] A municipal borough until 1974, Buxton
Buxton
was then merged with other localities lying primarily to the north, including Glossop, to form the local government district and borough of High Peak within the county of Derbyshire. Despite being in the East Midlands, economically Buxton
Buxton
is within the sphere of influence of Greater Manchester. The population of the town was 22,115 at the 2011 Census. Buxton
Buxton
landmarks include Poole's Cavern, an extensive limestone cavern open to the public, and St Ann's Well, fed by the geothermal spring bottled and sold internationally by Buxton
Buxton
Mineral Water Company. Also in the town is the Buxton
Buxton
Opera House, which hosts several music and theatre festivals each year. The Devonshire Campus of the University of Derby
Derby
is housed in one of the town's historic buildings. Buxton
Buxton
is twinned with two towns: Oignies
Oignies
in France and Bad Nauheim
Bad Nauheim
in Germany.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Roman settlement 1.2 Spa town
Spa town
boom

2 Geography and geology

2.1 Climate

3 Notable architecture

3.1 Other architecture

4 Culture

4.1 Buxton
Buxton
Festival 4.2 Other festivals

5 Economy

5.1 Quarrying

6 Education 7 Sport and civic organisations 8 Media 9 Public transport 10 Famous Buxtonians

10.1 19th c. 10.2 20th c. 10.3 Sport

11 See also 12 Sources

12.1 Notes 12.2 References 12.3 Further reading

13 External links

History[edit] Roman settlement[edit] The Romans developed a settlement known as Aquae Arnemetiae[1] (or the spa of the goddess of the grove). The discovery of coins indicates that the Romans were in Buxton
Buxton
throughout their occupation.[3] The origins of the town's name are uncertain. It may be derived from the Old English
Old English
for Buck Stone or for Rocking Stone.[4] The town grew in importance in the late 18th century when it was developed by the Dukes of Devonshire, with a resurgence a century later as the Victorians were drawn to the reputed healing properties of the waters.[citation needed] Spa town
Spa town
boom[edit]

People filling up bottles with water at St Ann's Well

Buxton
Buxton
Wells, from a 1610 map

Built on the River Wye, and overlooked by Axe Edge Moor, Buxton
Buxton
has a history as a spa town due to its geothermal spring[5] which rises at a constant temperature of 28 °C. The spring waters are piped to St Ann's Well (a shrine to St. Anne
St. Anne
since medieval times) opposite the Crescent near the town centre.[6] The Dukes of Devonshire have been closely involved with Buxton
Buxton
since 1780, when the 5th Duke used the profits from his copper mines to develop the town as a spa in the style of Bath. Their ancestor Bess of Hardwick had taken one of her four husbands, the Earl of Shrewsbury, to "take the waters" at Buxton
Buxton
shortly after he became the gaoler of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1569, and they took Mary there in 1573.[citation needed] She called Buxton
Buxton
"La Fontagne de Bogsby", and stayed at the site of the Old Hall Hotel. The area features in the poetry of W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
and the novels of Jane Austen
Jane Austen
and Emily Brontë.[5]

Buxton
Buxton
in 1965 with shoppers and tourists filling Spring Gardens

Instrumental in the popularity of Buxton
Buxton
was the recommendation by Erasmus Darwin
Erasmus Darwin
of the waters at Buxton
Buxton
and Matlock to Josiah Wedgwood I. The Wedgwood family often went to Buxton
Buxton
on holiday and recommended the area to their friends.[citation needed] Two of Charles Darwin's half-cousins, Edward Levett Darwin and Reginald Darwin, settled there.[7] The arrival of the railway in 1863 stimulated the town's growth: the population of 1,800 in 1861 had grown to over 6,000 by 1881.[8] Geography and geology[edit] Built on the boundary of the Lower Carboniferous
Carboniferous
limestone and the Upper Carboniferous
Carboniferous
shale, sandstone and gritstone, the early settlement (of which only the parish church of St Anne, built in 1625, remains) was largely of limestone construction[citation needed]. The present buildings, of locally quarried sandstone, mostly date from the late 18th century.[citation needed] At the southern edge of the town the River Wye has carved an extensive limestone cavern, known as Poole's Cavern. More than 330 yards (300 metres) of its chambers are open to the public. The cavern contains Derbyshire's largest stalactite and there are unique 'poached egg' stalagmites. A notorious local highwayman called Poole gave the cavern its name.[9] Climate[edit] At about 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level[10], Buxton
Buxton
is the highest market town in England.[nb 1] Due to this relatively high elevation, Buxton
Buxton
tends to be cooler than surrounding towns, with daytime temperature typically around 2 °C lower than Manchester. A Met Office
Met Office
weather station has collected climate date for the town since 1908, with digitised data from 1959 available online. In June 1975, the town was hit by a freak snowstorm that stopped play during a cricket match.[11]

Climate data for Buxton, elevation: 1001ft[12] (1981–2010) Extremes (1959 – present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.0 (55.4) 15.3 (59.5) 20.0 (68) 23.9 (75) 25.2 (77.4) 29.0 (84.2) 31.0 (87.8) 32.7 (90.9) 25.5 (77.9) 21.1 (70) 15.7 (60.3) 13.7 (56.7) 32.7 (90.9)

Average high °C (°F) 5.2 (41.4) 5.3 (41.5) 7.7 (45.9) 10.5 (50.9) 14.2 (57.6) 16.8 (62.2) 18.9 (66) 18.5 (65.3) 15.5 (59.9) 11.6 (52.9) 8.0 (46.4) 5.5 (41.9) 11.5 (52.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 2.8 (37) 4.7 (40.5) 6.9 (44.4) 10.1 (50.2) 12.9 (55.2) 15.0 (59) 14.6 (58.3) 12.1 (53.8) 8.8 (47.8) 5.6 (42.1) 3.2 (37.8) 8.3 (46.9)

Average low °C (°F) 0.5 (32.9) 0.2 (32.4) 1.7 (35.1) 3.2 (37.8) 5.9 (42.6) 8.9 (48) 11.0 (51.8) 10.7 (51.3) 8.7 (47.7) 5.9 (42.6) 3.1 (37.6) 0.8 (33.4) 5.1 (41.2)

Record low °C (°F) −14.4 (6.1) −13.3 (8.1) −11.1 (12) −8.0 (17.6) −2.9 (26.8) −0.4 (31.3) 2.2 (36) 2.5 (36.5) −0.6 (30.9) −6.2 (20.8) −9.3 (15.3) −14.0 (6.8) −14.4 (6.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 136.5 (5.374) 100.4 (3.953) 113.7 (4.476) 89.9 (3.539) 77.1 (3.035) 90.4 (3.559) 87.8 (3.457) 100.1 (3.941) 107.3 (4.224) 147.1 (5.791) 133.4 (5.252) 145.7 (5.736) 1,329.4 (52.339)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 17.0 13.6 15.5 12.6 11.9 12.6 12.7 13.5 12.7 16.2 16.3 16.4 171.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 41.2 63.1 93.8 140.2 180.2 166.4 178.5 167.6 123.8 91.4 51.0 37.7 1,334.8

Source #1: Met Office[13]

Source #2: KNMI[14]

Climate data for Buxton, elevation: 307m (1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 4.9 (40.8) 5.0 (41) 7.4 (45.3) 9.9 (49.8) 13.8 (56.8) 16.4 (61.5) 18.6 (65.5) 18.1 (64.6) 14.9 (58.8) 11.0 (51.8) 7.4 (45.3) 5.7 (42.3) 11.1 (52)

Average low °C (°F) −0.1 (31.8) −0.1 (31.8) 1.4 (34.5) 2.8 (37) 5.5 (41.9) 8.6 (47.5) 10.7 (51.3) 10.4 (50.7) 8.3 (46.9) 5.3 (41.5) 2.3 (36.1) 0.8 (33.4) 4.7 (40.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 139.2 (5.48) 101.0 (3.976) 119.5 (4.705) 84.6 (3.331) 73.8 (2.906) 90.3 (3.555) 76.7 (3.02) 93.3 (3.673) 101.9 (4.012) 137.9 (5.429) 135.8 (5.346) 145.9 (5.744) 1,299.9 (51.177)

Source: KNMI[15]

Notable architecture[edit] With the increasing popularity of Buxton's thermal waters in the 18th and 19th centuries, a number of buildings were commissioned to provide for the hospitality of tourists retreating to the town. The Old Hall Hotel
Old Hall Hotel
is one of the oldest buildings in Buxton. It was owned by the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, George Talbot. He and his wife, Bess of Hardwick, were the "gaolers" of Mary, Queen of Scots. She came to Buxton
Buxton
several times to take the waters, the last time in 1584. The present building dates from 1670 and has a five-bay front with a Tuscan doorway.[16]

Buxton Crescent
Buxton Crescent
and St Ann's Well

The Crescent was built between 1780 and 1784, modelled on Bath's Royal Crescent by John Carr along with the neighbouring irregular octagon and colonnade of the Great Stables. The Crescent features a grand assembly room with a fine painted ceiling. Nearby stands the elegant and imposing monument to Samuel Turner (1805–1878), treasurer of the Devonshire Hospital and Buxton
Buxton
Bath Charity, built in 1879 and accidentally lost for the latter part of the 20th century during construction work before being found and restored in 1994. The Crescent has been unoccupied for many years, but plans are in place for it to be converted into a hotel.[17]

Corbar Hill and the Dome

The neighbouring Great Stables were completed in 1789, but in 1859 were largely converted to a charity hospital for the 'sick poor' by Henry Currey, architect to the 7th Duke of Devonshire
Duke of Devonshire
and previously of St Thomas' Hospital
St Thomas' Hospital
in London. It became known as the Devonshire Royal Hospital in 1934. Later phases of the conversion following 1881 were by local architect Robert Rippon Duke including his design for The Devonshire Dome, which was the world's largest unsupported dome with a diameter of 144 feet (44 m), larger than the Pantheon at 141 feet (43 m), St Peter's Basilica
St Peter's Basilica
at 138 feet (42 m) in Rome, and St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral
at 112 feet (34 m). The record was surpassed by space frame domes such as the Georgia Dome
Dome
(840 feet (260 m)). The building and its surrounding Victorian villas are now part of the University of Derby.

The Natural Mineral Baths

Currey also designed The Natural Mineral Baths, opened in 1854 on the site of the original Roman baths, and The Pump Room, built in 1884 opposite The Crescent. The Natural Baths feature a barrel vaulted stained glass canopy — the largest stained glass window in Britain — designed by Brian Clarke, and were re-developed as an arcade in 1987.[18] Visitors could 'take the waters' at The Pump Room until 1981. Between 1981 and 1995 the building housed the unique Micrarium Exhibition.[19] The building is being refurbished as part of the National Lottery-funded Buxton Crescent
Buxton Crescent
and Thermal Spa re-development. Beside it, added in 1940, is St Ann's Well. When the railways arrived in Buxton
Buxton
in 1863, Buxton
Buxton
railway station was opened under the design of Joseph Paxton, previously gardener and architect to William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire. Paxton also designed the layout of the Park Road circular estate; he is perhaps most famous for his design of the Crystal Palace in London. Other architecture[edit] Buxton Opera House
Buxton Opera House
was designed by Frank Matcham
Frank Matcham
in 1903 and is the highest opera house in the country. Matcham was a prolific theatrical architect who designed several London
London
theatres, including the London Palladium, the London
London
Coliseum and the Hackney Empire. The opera house is attached to the Pavilion Gardens, Octagonal Hall (built in 1875) and the smaller Pavilion Arts Centre. The Pavilion Gardens, designed by Edward Milner, contain 93,000 m² of gardens and ponds and were opened in 1871. Opposite is an original Penfold octagonal post box.

Palace Hotel

The 122-room Palace Hotel, built in 1868, is a prominent feature of the Buxton
Buxton
skyline on the hill above the railway station. It was also designed by Currey.[20]

Corbar Cross[21][nb 2]

The town is overlooked by two landmarks. Atop Grinlow Hill, 1,441 feet (439 m) above sea level, is Grinlow Tower (locally also called "Solomon's Temple"), a two-storey granite, crooked, crenelated folly built in 1834 by Solomon Mycock to provide work for the town's unemployed and restored in 1996 after a lengthy closure to the public. In the other direction, on Corbar Hill, 1,433 feet (437 m) above sea level, is Corbar Cross, a tall, wooden cross. Originally given to the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
by the Duke of Devonshire
Duke of Devonshire
in 1950 to commemorate Holy Year, it was replaced in the 1980s. In 2010, during the visit of Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
to the UK, it was cut down as a protest against a long history of child abuse at the Catholic St Williams School in Market Weighton, Yorkshire.[22] The Buxton
Buxton
ecumenical group Churches Together organised several benefactors who replaced the cross with a smaller cross in May 2011.[21] Culture[edit]

Opera House, Buxton

Cultural events include the annual Buxton
Buxton
Festival, among other festivals and performances held in the Buxton
Buxton
Opera House, with shows running at other venues alongside this. Buxton
Buxton
Museum & Art Gallery offers year-round exhibitions. Buxton
Buxton
Festival[edit] The Buxton
Buxton
Festival, founded in 1979, is an opera and arts festival that runs for about three weeks in July at various venues including the Opera House.[23] The programme includes literary events in the mornings, concerts and recitals in the afternoon, and operas, many of them rarely performed, in the evenings.[24] There has been an increase in the quality of the operatic programme in recent years, after decades when, according to critic Rupert Christiansen, the festival featured "work of such mediocre quality that I just longed for someone to put it out of its misery."[25][26] Running alongside it is the Buxton Festival
Buxton Festival
Fringe, known as a warm-up for the Edinburgh Fringe. The Buxton
Buxton
fringe features drama, music, dance, comedy, poetry, art exhibitions and films in various venues around the town. In 2014 there were nearly 600 events from over 150 entrants.[27] Other festivals[edit] The week-long Four Four Time music festival is held every February and features a variety of rock, pop, folk, blues, jazz and world music.[28] The International Gilbert and Sullivan Festival, a three-week theatre festival from the end of July through most of August, was held in Buxton
Buxton
from 1994 to 2013; it moved to Harrogate
Harrogate
in 2014.[29] The Opera House has a year-long programme of drama, concerts, comedy and other events.[30] In September 2010, following a £2.5 million reconstruction, the former Paxton Suite in the Pavilion Gardens re-opened as a performance venue called the Pavilion Arts Centre. The centre, located behind the Opera House, includes a 369-seat auditorium. The stage area can be converted into a separate 93-seat studio theatre.[31][32] Buxton
Buxton
Museum & Art Gallery has a permanent collection of local artefacts, geological and archaeological samples (including the William Boyd Dawkins
William Boyd Dawkins
collection) and 19th- and 20th-century paintings, including works by Brangwyn, Chagall, Chahine and their contemporaries. There are also regular exhibitions by local and regional artists and various other events.[33] The Pavilion Gardens hosts regular arts, crafts, antiques and jewellery fairs.[34] Buxton's Well Dressing Festival takes place in the week running up to the second Saturday in July. The festival, in its current form, has been running since 1840 to celebrate the provision of fresh water to the high-point of the town's market place. As well as the dressing of the wells, the Festival involves a carnival procession and a funfair on the Market Place.[35] Well dressing
Well dressing
is an ancient custom unique to the Peak District
Peak District
and Derbyshire, and is thought to date back to Roman and Celtic times, when communities would dress wells to give thanks for fresh water supplies. Economy[edit] Buxton
Buxton
has a mixed economy including tourism, retail, quarrying, scientific research, light industry and mineral water bottling. The University of Derby
University of Derby
is a significant employer.[citation needed] The town is surrounded by the Peak District
Peak District
National Park and offers a range of cultural events; tourism is a major industry, with more than a million visitors to Buxton
Buxton
each year. Buxton
Buxton
is the main centre for overnight accommodation within the Peak District, with more than 64% of the park's visitor bed space.[36] The Buxton
Buxton
Mineral Water Company (owned by Nestlé) extracts and bottles mineral waters in Buxton.[37] A local newspaper, the Buxton Advertiser, is published weekly. Potters of Buxton
Buxton
is the oldest department store in the town and surrounding area, established in 1860.[38] Quarrying[edit] Several limestone quarries are located close to Buxton,[39] including the "Tunstead Superquarry", the largest producer of high-purity industrial limestone in Europe, which employs 400 people.[40] The quarrying sector also provides employment in limestone processing[41] and distribution.[42] Other industrial employers include the Health & Safety Laboratory, which engages in health and safety research and incident investigations and maintains over 350 staff locally.[36][43][44] Education[edit] The town hosts a University of Derby
University of Derby
campus at the site of the former Devonshire Royal Hospital, as well as the Buxton
Buxton
& Leek College formed by the August 2012 merger of the university with Leek College. Secondary schools in the town include Buxton Community School (at the former College Road site of Buxton
Buxton
College) and St. Thomas More Catholic School.[45] Other nearby schools include Buxton
Buxton
Junior School,[46] St. Anne's Catholic Primary School,[47] Harpur Hill Primary School,[48] Buxton
Buxton
Infant School,[49] John Duncan School, Fairfield Infant & Nursery School, Burbage Primary School, Dove Holes C. E. Primary School, Fairfield Endowed Junior School, Peak Dale Primary School, Leek College, Old Sams Farm Independent School, Hollinsclough C.E Primary School, Flash C.E. Primary School, Earl Sterndale C of E Primary School, Peak Forest
Peak Forest
C of E Primary School and Combs Infant School.[50] Sport and civic organisations[edit] In the high land above the town there are two small speedway stadia. Buxton
Buxton
Raceway (formerly High Edge Raceway), off the A53 Buxton
Buxton
to Leek road, is a motor sports circuit established in the early 1970s, hosting banger and stock car racing, as well as drifting events.[51] It was the original home of the speedway team Buxton
Buxton
High Edge Hitmen in the mid-1990s before the team moved to the custom-built track immediately to the north of the original circuit. The original track at High Edge Raceway[52] was amongst the shortest and trickiest tracks in the UK. The new track is of a more conventional shape and length. Buxton
Buxton
have been regular competitors in the Conference League.[53][54] Buxton
Buxton
has a football club, Buxton
Buxton
F.C., who play at the Silverlands; a cricket club, Buxton
Buxton
Cricket Club;[55] a Buxton
Buxton
Rugby Union club;[56] and a hockey club, Buxton
Buxton
Hockey Club.[57] In addition, four Hope Valley League football clubs are based in Buxton: Buxton
Buxton
Town, Peak Dale
Peak Dale
and Buxton
Buxton
Christians play at the Fairfield Centre, with Blazing Rag playing at the Kents Bank Recreation Ground.[citation needed] There are two 18-hole golf courses in Buxton. In the eastern suburb of Fairfield is the Buxton
Buxton
& High Peak club. Founded in 1887, it is the oldest in Derbyshire.[58] On the western edge of the town is the Cavendish Club (1925), designed by the renowned course architect Dr. Alister MacKenzie.[59]

View of Buxton
Buxton
from Solomon's Temple

The hillside around Solomon's Temple is a popular local bouldering venue with many small outcrops giving problems mainly in the lower grades. These are described in the 2003 guidebook High over Buxton: A Boulderer's Guide.[60] Hoffman Quarry at Harpur Hill, sitting prominently above Buxton, is a local venue for sport climbing.[61] Youth groups include the Kaleidoscope Youth Theatre at the Pavilion Arts Centre,[62] Buxton
Buxton
Squadron Air Cadets,[63] Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Army Cadet Force and the Sea Cadet Corps, in addition to units from the Scouts & Guide Association.[citation needed] Buxton
Buxton
is home to three Masonic Lodges, and one Royal Arch Chapter, which meet at the Masonic Hall in George Street. Phoenix Lodge of Saint Ann No.1235 was consecrated in 1865; Buxton
Buxton
Lodge No.1688 was consecrated in 1877 and High Peak Lodge No.1952 was consecrated in 1881. The Royal Arch Chapter is attached to Phoenix Lodge of Saint Ann, and bears the same name and number, it being consecrated in 1872.[64] Media[edit] Regional TV news is provided by Salford-based BBC North West
BBC North West
and ITV Granada. Local radio stations are High Peak Radio
High Peak Radio
on 106.4FM, and BBC Radio Derby
Derby
on 96.0FM. Public transport[edit] Buxton railway station
Buxton railway station
is served by Northern. It has frequent trains to Stockport
Stockport
and the city of Manchester. The journey from Buxton
Buxton
to Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly takes just under an hour.[65] Buxton
Buxton
had three railway stations, two under the LNWR ( Buxton
Buxton
and Higher Buxton; the latter was next to Clifton Road and closed in 1951) plus the Midland Railway station next to the LNWR terminus. The Midland Railway
Midland Railway
station was closed on 6 March 1967, later becoming the site for the Spring Gardens shopping centre. The trackbed of the Manchester, Buxton, Matlock and Midlands Junction Railway has in part been used as a walk and cycleway called the Monsal Trail. Peak Rail, a heritage railway group, have restored the section from Rowsley to Matlock, with the long-term objective of re-opening it back to Buxton. The town's buses include services into the Peak District
Peak District
National Park. Other buses run to the nearby towns of Whaley Bridge, Chapel en le Frith, New Mills, Glossop
Glossop
and Ashbourne, and the High Peak 'Transpeak' service offers an hourly link southwards to Taddington, Bakewell, Matlock, Belper
Belper
and Derby
Derby
and northwards to Stockport
Stockport
and Manchester. There is also a High Peak bus directly from Manchester Airport to Buxton.[66] Other[67] services link Buxton
Buxton
with Macclesfield, Stoke-on-Trent[68], Sheffield, and Chesterfield
Chesterfield
.[69] The nearest airports are Manchester
Manchester
Airport (22 miles), Liverpool John Lennon Airport (48 miles), and East Midlands
East Midlands
Airport (52 miles). There are also taxi services based in the town.

Neighbouring towns and villages.

Whaley Bridge, Manchester Chapel-en-le-Frith, Glossop Castleton, Sheffield

Macclesfield, Congleton

Buxton

Chesterfield, Baslow

Leek, Stoke-on-Trent Ashbourne, Derby Bakewell, Matlock

Famous Buxtonians[edit]

Charles Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, Vanity Fair, 1903

Vera Brittain

Herbert Eisner

Charles Hendry, 2011

Lloyd Cole, 2010

Orlando Jewitt
Orlando Jewitt
(1799 in Buxton
Buxton
– 1869), architectural wood-engraver

19th c.[edit]

Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 20th Earl of Shrewsbury
Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 20th Earl of Shrewsbury
(1860–1921), styled Viscount Ingestre. In the early 1880s he ran a daily Greyhound (i.e. fast) coach service the 20 miles from Buxton
Buxton
Spa to his house at Alton Towers. Henry Guppy CBE (1861–1948), Librarian of the John Rylands Library in Manchester
Manchester
from 1899 to 1948, lived in Buxton. Vera Brittain
Vera Brittain
(1893–1970), author[70] of Testament of Youth
Testament of Youth
and mother of Shirley Williams, went to school in Buxton. Rear Admiral Leonard Warren Murray, CB, CBE (1896–1971 in Buxton),[71] senior officer of the Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Canadian Navy
who played a significant role in the Battle of the Atlantic

20th c.[edit]

Hugh Molson, Baron Molson, PC (1903–1991), Conservative politician[72] and MP for High Peak 1939–61 Robert Stevenson, (1905 in Buxton
Buxton
– 1986), director[73] of Disney films including Mary Poppins John Pilkington Hudson (1910 in Buxton
Buxton
– 2007), horticultural scientist[74] and bomb disposal expert Herbert Eisner
Herbert Eisner
(1921–2011), British-German scientist[75] high-expansion fire fighting foam, playwright, schooled and lived in Buxton John Buxton Hilton (1921 in Buxton
Buxton
– 1986), crime writer[76] Angela Flanders (1927 in Buxton
Buxton
– 2016), perfumer[77] Marjorie Lynette Sigley (1928 in Buxton
Buxton
– 1997), artist, writer, actress,[78] teacher, choreographer, theatre director and TV producer Elizabeth Spriggs, (1929 in Buxton
Buxton
– 2008), character actress[79] with the Royal Shakespeare Company Sir Spencer Le Marchant (1931–1986), Conservative politician[80] and MP for High Peak 1970 to 1983 Christopher Hawkins (born 1937), Conservative politician[81] and MP for High Peak 1983 to 1992 Tim Brooke-Taylor
Tim Brooke-Taylor
OBE (born 1940 in Buxton), comic actor[82] in The Goodies David Fallows
David Fallows
(born 1945 in Buxton), musicologist[83] specializing in music of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance Dave Lee Travis
Dave Lee Travis
(born 1945 in Buxton), former disc jockey,[84] radio and TV presenter Tom Levitt (born 1954), Labour politician[85] and MP High Peak 1997 to 2010 Tony Marchington
Tony Marchington
(1955 in Buxworth
Buxworth
– 2011), biotechnology entrepreneur[86] and owner of the Flying Scotsman Charles Hendry
Charles Hendry
(born 1959), Conservative politician[87] and MP for High Peak 1992 to 1997 Lloyd Cole
Lloyd Cole
(born 1961 in Buxton), musician,[88] songwriter, frontman of Lloyd Cole
Lloyd Cole
and the Commotions Andrew Bingham
Andrew Bingham
(born 1962 in Buxton), Conservative politician[89] and MP for High Peak 2010 to 2017 Dan Rhodes (born 1972), writer,[90] awarded the E. M. Forster Award in 2010, lives in Buxton Bruno Langley
Bruno Langley
(born 1983), actor,[91] played Adam Mitchell in Doctor Who and Todd Grimshaw
Todd Grimshaw
in Coronation Street, brought up in Buxton Lucy Spraggan (born 1991), musician[92] (folk, acoustic, hip hop pop), went to school in Buxton.

Sport[edit]

Mick Andrews, 1976

William Shipton (1861 in Buxton
Buxton
– 1941 in Buxton), cricketer,[93] 1884 to 1893, later solicitor in Buxton Fred Smith (1887 in Buxton
Buxton
– 1957), footballer before WWI, mainly for Macclesfield Bobby Blood (1894 in Harpur Hill
Harpur Hill
– 1988 in Harpur Hill), footballer for Port Vale, West Brom and Stockport George Bailey (1906 in Buxton
Buxton
– 2000), steeplechaser,[94] competed at the 1932 Summer Olympics Frank Soo
Frank Soo
(1914 in Buxton
Buxton
– 1991), Stoke City F.C.
Stoke City F.C.
footballer[95] (173 pro appearances) and first mixed-race professional to represent England John Tarrant (1932–1975), long-distance runner,[96] nicknamed "The Ghost Runner", lived in Buxton Mick Andrews
Mick Andrews
(born 1944 in Buxton), former international[97] motorcycle trials rider Les Bradd (born 1947 in Buxton), former footballer,[98] over 580 pro appearances, all-time leading goalscorer for Notts County Carl Mason
Carl Mason
(born 1953 in Buxton), professional golfer[99] Mark Higgins (born 1958 in Buxton), former Everton, Bury and Stoke footballer, 265 pro appearances Lorraine Winstanley, (born 1975), BDO darts player,[100] lives in Buxton Dean Winstanley (born 1981) BDO darts player,[101] lives in Buxton Ben Burgess (born 1981 in Buxton), Irish footballer,[102] played for Hull City F.C.
Hull City F.C.
and Blackpool F.C.

See also[edit]

Buxton
Buxton
College

Sources[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b Alston, Cumbria
Alston, Cumbria
also makes this claim but lacks a regular market.[citation needed] ^ This is a photo of the cross before it was cut down in 2010. It has since been restored.

References[edit]

^ a b c " Buxton
Buxton
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(1001456)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 4 May 2012.  ^ Darwin, Charles, Frederick Burkhardt and Sydney Smith. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985 ISBN 0-521-25587-2 ^ Railways of the Peak District, Blakemore & Mosley, 2003 ISBN 1-902827-09-0 ^ Oldham, T. "History of Poole's Cavern", Showcaves.com (2002) ^ http://elevationmap.net/town-hall-buxton-sk17-uk?latlngs=(53.25680577753629,-1.9140136241912842) ^ Francis, Tony. "June Snow", The Telegraph, 22 June 2005 ^ http://elevationmap.net/8-terrace-rd-buxton-sk17-6dr-uk?latlngs=(53.25824184925803,-1.9138392806053162) ^ " Buxton
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wins topsy-turvy battle over G&S Festival", Wetherby News, June 5, 2014 ^ Whats On. Buxton
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to open new Pavilion arts venue". The Stage, 7 September 2010 ^ " Buxton
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Further reading[edit]

W. Bemrose. Guide to Buxton
Buxton
and Neighbourhood, Bemrose & Sons (London, 1869). Black's Guide to Buxton
Buxton
and the Peak country of Derbyshire, A. and C. Black, 1898 Aitken, Tom. One Hundred & One Beautiful Towns in Great Britain, Rizzoli, 2008 Gifford-Bennet, Robert Ottiwell (2009) [1892]. Buxton
Buxton
and its Medicinal Waters. London: John Heywood. 

External links[edit]

 "Buxton". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). 1911.  Visit Buxton.co.uk Explore Buxton

v t e

Borough of High Peak

Major settlements

Buxton Chapel-en-le-Frith Glossop Hadfield New Mills Whaley Bridge

Villages

Ashopton Bamford Birch Vale Brough and Shatton Buxworth Castleton Charlesworth Chinley Chisworth Crowden Derwent Dove Holes Edale Furness Vale Gamesley Hague Bar Hayfield Hope Padfield Peak Forest Peak Dale Rowarth Sparrowpit Tintwistle Woodhead

Waterways

Canals

Peak Forest
Peak Forest
Canal

Rivers

Alport Ashop Dane Derwent Dove Etherow Goyt Kinder Peakshole Water Noe Sett Westend Wye

Transport

Rail

Buxton
Buxton
railway station Chapel-en-le-Frith
Chapel-en-le-Frith
railway station Glossop
Glossop
railway station Hadfield railway station New Mills
New Mills
Central railway station Whaley Bridge
Whaley Bridge
railway station

Road

A6 A57 (Snake Pass) A624

Culture, leisure and tourism

Buxton
Buxton
Crescent Buxton
Buxton
Opera House Devonshire Dome High Peak Trail Kinder Scout Pennine Way Peveril Castle Mam Tor Melandra Millennium Walkway, New Mills Speedwell Cavern Solomon's Temple

Related articles

Education Schools University of Buxton Governance High Peak (constituency) Historic Mass trespass of Kinder Scout Well dressing Woodhead Tunnel Sport Buxton
Buxton
F.C. Chapel Town F.C. Glossop
Glossop
North End A.F.C. New Mills
New Mills
A.F.C.

v t e

Ceremonial county of Derbyshire

Unitary authorities

Derby

Boroughs or districts

Amber Valley Bolsover Chesterfield Derbyshire Dales Erewash High Peak North East Derbyshire South Derbyshire

Major settlements

Alfreton Ashbourne Bakewell Belper Bolsover Buxton Chapel-en-le-Frith Chesterfield Clay Cross Darley Dale Derby Dronfield Eckington Glossop Hadfield Heanor Ilkeston Killamarsh Langley Mill Long Eaton Matlock Melbourne New Mills Newhall Ripley Sandiacre Shirebrook Staveley Swadlincote Whaley Bridge Wirksworth See also: List of civil parishes in Derbyshire

Rivers

Alport Amber Ashop Bradford Dane Derwent Doe Lea Dove Drone Erewash Etherow Goyt Hipper Kinder Lathkill Manifold Mease Noe Rother Sett Trent Westend Wye

Topics

High Sheriffs Museums Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements SSSIs Schools Country Houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings

v t e

Places of Interest in Derbyshire

Castles and military sites

Ardotalia
Ardotalia
(Melandra Castle) Bolsover
Bolsover
Castle Codnor Castle Duffield Castle Melbourne Castle Peveril Castle Pilsbury Castle

Churches and religious sites

Anchor Church Chesterfield's Crooked Spire Derby
Derby
Cathedral

Museums and cultural sites

Buxton
Buxton
Crescent Buxton
Buxton
Opera House Buxton
Buxton
Museum & Art Gallery Derby
Derby
Museum & Art Gallery Devonshire Dome Pickford's House Museum

Natural landmarks and outdoor spaces

Alport Castles Black Rocks Blue John Cavern Carsington Water Creswell Crags Derby
Derby
Arboretum Dovedale Foremark Reservoir Heights of Abraham Howden Reservoir Kinder Scout Ladybower Reservoir Longdendale Reservoir Chain Longdendale Trail Longshaw Estate Mam Tor Monsal Dale Ogston Reservoir Peak Cavern Poole's Cavern Shining Cliff Woods Speedwell Cavern Thorpe Cloud Treak Cliff Cavern

Prehistoric landmarks

Arbor Low Hob Hurst's House Minninglow Nine Ladies
Nine Ladies
Stone Circle

Stately homes

Alfreton
Alfreton
Hall Barlborough Hall Bradbourne Hall Bradley Hall Bretby Hall Calke Abbey Chatsworth House Coxbench Hall Ednaston Manor Elvaston Castle Eyam Hall Haddon Hall Hardwick Hall Hartington Hall Ilam Park Kedleston Hall Longford Hall Melbourne Hall Norbury Hall Oakhurst House Parwich Hall Radbourne Hall Renishaw Hall Riber Castle St Helen's House Sudbury Hall Sutton Scarsdale Hall Swarkestone Hall Pavilion Thornbridge Hall Tissington Hall Willersley Castle Wingfield Manor

Transport and industry

Barrow Hill Engine Shed Cromford and High Peak Railway Cromford Mill Derby
Derby
Silk Mill Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Dales Narrow Gauge Railway Derwent Reservoir Derwent Valley Mills Ecclesbourne Valley Railway High Peak Junction Leawood Pump House Midland Railway
Midland Railway
– Butterley Millennium Walkway, New Mills National Tramway Museum Odin Mine Peak Rail Royal Crown Derby
Derby
Visitor Centre Stainsby Mill

See also

Well dressing

Portals Access related topics

Derbyshire
Derbyshire
portal East Midlands
East Midlands
England
England
portal England
England
portal

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