A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a
road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a
capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is
the single-decker rigid bus, with larger loads carried by
double-decker and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by
midibuses and minibuses; coaches are used for longer-distance
services. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and
inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or
secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary
education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus
drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's
Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach
transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism; promotional
buses may be used for political campaigns and others are privately
operated for a wide range of purposes, including rock and pop band
Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in
the 1830s, and electric trolleybuses in 1882. The first internal
combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895.
Recently, interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel
cell buses, and electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed
natural gas or biodiesel. As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is
increasingly globalised, with the same designs appearing around the
2.1 Steam buses
2.3 Motor buses
6.1 Public transport
6.3 Student transport
6.4 Private charter
6.5 Private ownership
6.7 Goods transport
7 Around the world
8 Use of retired buses
9 Modification as railway vehicles
10 See also
13 External links
Bus is a clipped form of the
Latin word omnibus. The first horse-drawn
omnibus service was started by a businessman named Stanislas Baudry in
the French city of
Nantes in 1823. The first vehicles stopped in front
of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which had a large sign reading
"Omnes Omnibus", a pun on the Latin-sounding name of that hatter;
omnes means "all" and omnibus means (among other things) "for all" in
Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname omnibus to the
vehicle. The omnibus in
Nantes was a success and Baudry moved to Paris
and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A
similar service was introduced in London in 1829. 
Amédée Bollée's L'Obéissante (1875)
Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered
in England in the 1830s by
Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir
Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road
conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation.
The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of
London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less likely to
overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were
much cheaper to run, and caused much less damage to the road surface
due to their wide tyres.
However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts
discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse
bus companies, and from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation virtually
eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great
Britain for 30 years, the
Locomotive Act of that year imposing
restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns
and cities, and 10 mph in the country.
World's first trolleybus, Berlin 1882
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the
electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead
wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in
Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept.
Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of
the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary
omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of
the street to the other, and two wires hanging from these suspenders;
allowing contact rollers to run on these two wires, the current could
be conveyed to the tram-car, and back again to the dynamo machine at
the station, without the necessity of running upon rails at all."
The first such vehicle, the Electromote, was made by his brother Dr.
Ernst Werner von Siemens
Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 in
Halensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled
all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled
in the same year after the demonstration.
Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 near
Dresden, in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904,
Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current
collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current
collection were used.
Bradford became the first cities to
put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
The first internal combustion omnibus of 1895 (
Siegen to Netphen)
In Siegerland, Germany, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but
unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed
from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the
same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural
area around Llandudno, Wales.
Daimler also produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898,
selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company which was
first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898.  The vehicle
had a maximum speed of 18 kph and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in
an enclosed area below and on an open-air platform above. With the
success and popularity of this bus, Daimler expanded production,
selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to Stockholm
and Speyer.Daimler also entered into a partnership with the
British company Milnes and developed a new double-decker in 1902 that
became the market standard.
Early LGOC B-type
The first mass-produced bus model was the B-type double-decker bus,
designed by Frank Searle and operated by the London General Omnibus
Company – it entered service in 1910, and almost 3,000 had been
built by the end of the decade. Hundreds saw military service on the
Western Front during the First World War.
Bus 1912. One of five Daimler buses exported to Australia
The Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company, which rapidly became a major
manufacturer of buses in the US, was founded in Chicago in 1923 by
John D. Hertz.
General Motors purchased a majority stake in 1925 and
changed its name to the Yellow Truck and Coach Manufacturing Company.
They then purchased the balance of the shares in 1943 to form the GM
Truck and Coach Division.
Models expanded in the 20th century, leading to the widespread
introduction of the contemporary recognizable form of full-sized buses
from the 1950s. The AEC Routemaster, developed in the 1950s, was a
pioneering design and remains an icon of London to this day. The
innovative design used lightweight aluminium and techniques developed
in aircraft production during World War II. As well as a novel
weight-saving integral design, it also introduced for the first time
on a bus independent front suspension, power steering, a fully
automatic gearbox, and power-hydraulic braking.
Interior of a bus
Formats include single-decker bus, double-decker bus (both usually
with a rigid chassis) and articulated bus (or 'bendy-bus') the
prevalence of which varies from country to country. High-capacity
bi-articulated buses are also manufactured, and passenger-carrying
trailers—either towed behind a rigid bus (a bus trailer) or hauled
as a trailer by a truck (a trailer bus). Smaller midibuses have a
lower capacity and open-top buses are typically used for leisure
purposes. In many new fleets, particularly in local transit systems, a
shift to low-floor buses is occurring, primarily for easier
accessibility. Coaches are designed for longer-distance travel and are
typically fitted with individual high-backed reclining seats, seat
belts, toilets, and audio-visual entertainment systems, and can
operate at higher speeds with more capacity for luggage. Coaches may
be single- or double-deckers, articulated, and often include a
separate luggage compartment under the passenger floor. Guided buses
are fitted with technology to allow them to run in designated
guideways, allowing the controlled alignment at bus stops and less
space taken up by guided lanes than conventional roads or bus lanes.
Bus manufacturing may be by a single company (an integral
manufacturer), or by one manufacturer's building a bus body over a
chassis produced by another manufacturer.
Bus with wheelchair lift extended
Transit buses used to be mainly high-floor vehicles. However, they are
now increasingly of low-floor design and optionally also 'kneel' air
suspension and have electrically or hydraulically extended under-floor
ramps to provide level access for wheelchair users and people with
baby carriages. Prior to more general use of such technology, these
wheelchair users could only use specialist paratransit mobility buses.
Accessible vehicles also have wider entrances and interior gangways
and space for wheelchairs. Interior fittings and destination displays
may also be designed to be usable by the visually impaired. Coaches
generally use wheelchair lifts instead of low-floor designs. In some
countries, vehicles are required to have these features by disability
Buses were initially configured with an engine in the front and an
entrance at the rear. With the transition to one-man operation, many
manufacturers moved to mid- or rear-engined designs, with a single
door at the front or multiple doors. The move to the low-floor design
has all but eliminated the mid-engined design, although some coaches
still have mid-mounted engines. Front-engined buses still persist for
niche markets such as American school buses, some minibuses, and buses
in less developed countries, which may be derived from truck chassis,
rather than purpose-built bus designs. Most buses have two axles,
articulated buses have three.
Guided buses are fitted with technology to allow them to run in
designated guideways, allowing the controlled alignment at bus stops
and less space taken up by guided lanes than conventional roads or bus
lanes. Guidance can be mechanical, optical, or electromagnetic.
Extensions of the guided technology include the Guided Light Transit
Translohr systems, although these are more often termed
'rubber-tyred trams' as they have limited or no mobility away from
Transit buses are normally painted to identify the operator or a
route, function, or to demarcate low-cost or premium service buses.
Liveries may be painted onto the vehicle, applied using adhesive vinyl
technologies, or using decals. Vehicles often also carry bus
advertising or part or all of their visible surfaces (as mobile
billboard). Campaign buses may be decorated with key campaign
messages; these can be to promote an event or initiative.
Ride On hybrid electric bus with appropriate livery
Articulated bus powered with lithium-ion batteries
The most common power source since the 1920s has been the diesel
engine. Early buses, known as trolleybuses, were powered by
electricity supplied from overhead lines. Nowadays, electric buses
often carry their own battery, which is sometimes recharged on
stops/stations to keep the size of the battery small/lightweight.
Currently, interest exists in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses,
electric buses, and ones powered by compressed natural gas or
biodiesel. Gyrobuses, which are powered by the momentum stored by a
flywheel, were tried in the 1940s.
Maximum Length: Single rear axle 13.5 meters. Twin rear axle 15
Maximum Width: 2.55 meters
Maximum Length: None
Maximum Width: 2.6 meters
Early bus manufacturing grew out of carriage coachbuilding, and later
out of automobile or truck manufacturers. Early buses were merely a
bus body fitted to a truck chassis. This body+chassis approach has
continued with modern specialist manufacturers, although there also
exist integral designs such as the
Leyland National where the two are
practically inseparable. Specialist builders also exist and
concentrate on building buses for special uses or modifying standard
buses into specialised products.
Integral designs have the advantages that they have been well-tested
for strength and stability, and also are off-the-shelf. However, two
incentives cause use of the chassis+body model. First, it allows the
buyer and manufacturer both to shop for the best deal for their needs,
rather than having to settle on one fixed design—the buyer can
choose the body and the chassis separately. Second, over the lifetime
of a vehicle (in constant service and heavy traffic), it will likely
get minor damage now and again, and being able easily to replace a
body panel or window etc. can vastly increase its service life and
save the cost and inconvenience of removing it from service.[citation
As with the rest of the automotive industry, into the 20th century,
bus manufacturing increasingly became globalized, with manufacturers
producing buses far from their intended market to exploit labour and
material cost advantages. As with the cars, new models are often
exhibited by manufacturers at prestigious industry shows to gain new
orders. A typical city bus costs almost
Public transport bus service
A New Flyer C40LF public transit bus in Brooklyn, New York
Transit buses, used on public transport bus services, have utilitarian
fittings designed for efficient movement of large numbers of people,
and often have multiple doors. Coaches are used for longer-distance
routes. High-capacity bus rapid transit services may use the
bi-articulated bus or tram-style buses such as the Wright StreetCar
and the Irisbus Civis.
Buses and coach services often operate to a predetermined published
public transport timetable defining the route and the timing, but
smaller vehicles may be used on more flexible demand responsive
Buses play a major part in the tourism industry. Tour buses around the
world allow tourists to view local attractions or scenery. These are
often open-top buses, but can also be by regular bus or coach.
Tourists riding in a double-decker tourist bus in front of The
Presidential Palace in the Historic Center of Quito, Ecuador
In local sightseeing, City
Sightseeing is the largest operator of
local tour buses, operating on a franchised basis all over the world.
Specialist tour buses are also often owned and operated by safari
parks and other theme parks or resorts. Longer-distance tours are also
carried out by bus, either on a turn up and go basis or through a tour
operator, and usually allow disembarkation from the bus to allow
touring of sites of interest on foot. These may be day trips or longer
excursions incorporating hotel stays. Tour buses often carry a tour
guide, although the driver or a recorded audio commentary may also
perform this function. The tour operator may itself be a subsidiary of
a company that operates buses and coaches for other uses or an
independent company that charters buses or coaches.
operators may also use their coaches to conduct tours within the
target city between the morning and evening commuter transport
Buses and coaches are also a common component of the wider package
holiday industry, providing private airport transfers (in addition to
general airport buses) and organised tours and day trips for
holidaymakers on the package.
Tour buses can also be hired as chartered buses by groups as part of
sightseeing at popular holiday destinations. These private tour buses
may offer specific stops like all the historical sights or
specifically casinos or allow the customers the comfort to make their
own itineraries as per the places and activities they want to cover
while on their tour. Tour buses come with professional and informed
staff, insurance and maintain state governed safety standards. Not
only this to make the experience for the tourists more comfortable
provide facilities like entertainment units, luxurious reclining
seats, large scenic windows, and even lavatories if needed.
Public long-distance coach networks are also often used as a low-cost
method of travel by students or young people travelling the world.
Some companies such as
Topdeck Travel were set up to specifically use
buses to drive the hippie trail or travel to places such as North
In many tourist or travel destinations, a bus is part of the tourist
attraction, such as the North American tourist trolleys, London's AEC
Routemaster heritage routes, or the customised buses of Malta, Asia,
and the Americas.
US school bus
Main article: Student transport
In some countries, particularly the USA and Canada, buses used to
transport school children have evolved into a specific design with
specified mandatory features. American states have also adopted laws
regarding motorist conduct around school buses, including serious
fines and the possibility of prison time for passing a stopped school
bus in the process of offloading children passengers. These school
buses feature things such as the school bus yellow livery and crossing
guards. Other countries may mandate the use of seat belts. As a
minimum, many countries require a bus carrying students to display a
sign, and may also adopt yellow liveries.
Student transport often uses
older buses cascaded from service use, retrofitted with more seats or
Student transport may be operated by local authorities or
private contractors. Schools may also own and operate their own buses
for other transport needs, such as class field trips, or transport to
associated sports, music, or other school events.
Due to the costs involved in owning, operating, and driving buses and
coaches, many bus and coach use a private hire of vehicles from
charter bus companies, either for a day or two or a longer contract
basis, where the charter company provides the vehicles and qualified
An example of a private bus featuring as Bayern Munich football team
bus in Dublin
Charter bus operators may be completely independent businesses, or
charter hire may be a subsidiary business of a public transport
operator that might maintain a separate fleet or use surplus buses,
coaches, and dual-purpose coach-seated buses. Many private taxicab
companies also operate larger minibus vehicles to cater for group
fares. Companies, private groups, and social clubs may hire buses or
coaches as a cost-effective method of transporting a group to an event
or site, such as a group meeting, racing event, or organised
recreational activity such as a summer camp. Schools often hire
charter bus services on regular basis for transportation of children
to and from their homes. Chartered buses are also used by education
institutes for transport to conventions, exhibitions, and field trips.
Entertainment or event companies may also hire temporary shuttles
buses for transport at events such as festivals or conferences. Party
buses are used by companies in a similar manner to limousine hire, for
luxury private transport to social events or as a touring experience.
Sleeper buses are used by bands or other organisations that tour
between entertainment venues and require mobile rest and recreation
facilities. Some couples hire preserved buses for their wedding
transport, instead of the traditional car. Buses are often hired for
parades or processions. Victory parades are often held for triumphant
sports teams, who often tour their home town or city in an open-top
bus. Sports teams may also contract out their transport to a team bus,
for travel to away games, to a competition or to a final event. These
buses are often specially decorated in a livery matching the team
colours. Private companies often contract out private shuttle bus
services, for transport of their customers or patrons, such as hotels,
amusement parks, university campuses, or private airport transfer
services. This shuttle usage can be as transport between locations, or
to and from parking lots. High specification luxury coaches are often
chartered by companies for executive or VIP transport.
may also be used in tourism and for promotion (See Tourism and
Kuwait Sports Club team bus
Many organisations, including the police, not for profit, social or
charitable groups with a regular need for group transport may find it
practical or cost-effective to own and operate a bus for their own
needs. These are often minibuses for practical, tax and driver
licensing reasons, although they can also be full-size buses.
scout groups or other youth organizations may also own buses. Specific
charities may exist to fund and operate bus transport, usually using
specially modified mobility buses or otherwise accessible buses (See
Accessibility section). Some use their contributions to buy vehicles
and provide volunteer drivers.
Airport operators make use of special airside airport buses for crew
and passenger transport in the secure airside parts of an airport.
Some public authorities, police forces, and military forces make use
of armoured buses where there is a special need to provide increased
passenger protection. The
United States Secret Service
United States Secret Service acquired two in
2010 for transporting dignitaries needing special protection.
Police departments make use of police buses for a variety of reasons,
such as prisoner transport, officer transport, temporary detention
facilities, and as command and control vehicles. Some fire departments
also use a converted bus as a command post while those in cold
climates might retain a bus as a heated shelter at fire scenes.
Many are drawn from retired school or service buses.
Buses are often used for advertising, political campaigning, public
information campaigns, public relations, or promotional purposes.
These may take the form of temporary charter hire of service buses, or
the temporary or permanent conversion and operation of buses, usually
of second-hand buses. Extreme examples include converting the bus with
displays and decorations or awnings and fittings. Interiors may be
fitted out for exhibition or information purposes with special
equipment or audio visual devices.
Advertisement on a bus
Bus advertising takes many forms, often as interior and exterior
adverts and all-over advertising liveries. The practice often extends
into the exclusive private hire and use of a bus to promote a brand or
product, appearing at large public events, or touring busy streets.
The bus is sometimes staffed by promotions personnel, giving out free
gifts. Campaign buses are often specially decorated for a political
campaign or other social awareness information campaign, designed to
bring a specific message to different areas, or used to transport
campaign personnel to local areas/meetings. Exhibition buses are often
sent to public events such as fairs and festivals for purposes such as
recruitment campaigns, for example by private companies or the armed
forces. Complex urban planning proposals may be organised into a
mobile exhibition bus for the purposes of public consultation.
Main article: Bruck (vehicle)
In some sparesly populated areas, it's common to use Brucks, buses
with a cargo area to transport both passengers and cargo at the same
time. They are especially common in the Nordic countries.
Around the world
Double decker bus in Alexandria, Egypt
Cuba Girón trailer bus - Camello
Amphibious tour bus on Thames river in London near Lambeth Bridge.
See also: Category:
Bus transport by country and List of buses
Historically, the types and features of buses have developed according
to local needs. Buses were fitted with technology appropriate to the
local climate or passenger needs, such as air conditioning in Asia, or
cycle mounts on North American buses. The bus types in use around the
world where there was little mass production were often sourced second
hand from other countries, such as the Malta bus, and buses in use in
Africa. Other countries such as Cuba required novel solutions to
import restrictions, with the creation of the "camellos" (camel bus),
a specially manufactured trailer bus.
After the Second World War, manufacturers in Europe and the Far East,
Mercedes-Benz buses and Mitsubishi Fuso expanded into other
continents influencing the use of buses previously served by local
types. Use of buses around the world has also been influenced by
colonial associations or political alliances between countries.
Several of the Commonwealth nations followed the British lead and
sourced buses from British manufacturers, leading to a prevalence of
double-decker buses. Several
Eastern Bloc countries adopted trolleybus
systems, and their manufacturers such as
Trolza exported trolleybuses
to other friendly states. In the 1930s, Italy
designed the world's only[dubious – discuss] triple decker bus for
the busy route between Rome and Tivoli that could carry eighty-eight
passengers. It was unique not only in being a triple decker but having
a separate smoking compartment on the third level.
The buses to be found in countries around the world often reflect the
quality of the local road network, with high floor resilient
truck-based designs prevalent in several less developed countries
where buses are subject to tough operating conditions. Population
density also has a major impact, where dense urbanisation such as in
Japan and the far east has led to the adoption of high capacity long
multi-axle buses, often double-deckers while South America and China
are implementing large numbers of articulated buses for bus rapid
Bus Expo is a trade show, which is held bi-ennially at the UK's
National Exhibition Centre
National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham. As the official show of the
Passenger Transport, the UK's trade association for
the bus, coach and light rail industry, the three-day event offers
visitors from Europe and beyond the chance to see and experience, at
first hand, the very latest vehicles and product and service
innovations right across the industry. The next show will be held in
Kortrijk in Kortrijk, Belgium, is the leading bus trade fair
in Europe. It is held bi-ennially, last time October 2013 and next
time October 2015.
Use of retired buses
Retired GM bus
Retired bus used as a tow truck.
Most public or private buses and coaches, once they have reached the
end of their service with one or more operators, are sent to the
wrecking yard for breaking up for scrap and spare parts. Some buses,
while not economical to keep running as service buses, are often
converted in some way for use by the operator, or another user, for
purposes other than revenue-earning transport. Much like old cars and
trucks, buses often pass through a dealership where they can be bought
for a price or at auction.
Bus operators will often find it economical to convert retired buses
to use as permanent training buses for driver training, rather than
taking a regular service bus out of use. Some large operators also
converted retired buses into tow bus vehicles, to act as tow trucks.
With the outsourcing of maintenance staff and facilities, the increase
in company health and safety regulations, and the increasing curb
weights of buses, many operators now contract their towing needs to a
professional vehicle recovery company.
Some retired buses have been converted to static or mobile cafés,
often using historic buses as a tourist attraction. Food is also
provided from a catering bus, in which a bus is converted into a
mobile canteen and break room. These are commonly seen at external
filming locations to feed the cast and crew, and at other large events
to feed staff. Another use is as an emergency vehicle, such as
high-capacity ambulance bus or mobile command center.
Some organisations adapt and operate playbuses or learning buses to
provide a playground or learning environments to children who might
not have access to proper play areas. An ex-London
AEC Routemaster bus
has been converted to a mobile theatre and catwalk fashion show.
Some buses meet a destructive end by being entered in banger races or
at demolition derbys. A larger number of old retired buses have also
been converted into mobile holiday homes and campers.
Rather than being scrapped or converted for other uses, sometimes
retired buses are saved for preservation. This can be done by
individuals, volunteer preservation groups or charitable trusts,
museums, or sometimes by the operators themselves as part of a
heritage fleet. These buses often need to undergo a degree of vehicle
restoration to restore them to their original condition and will have
their livery and other details such as internal notices and rollsigns
restored to be authentic to a specific time in the bus's actual
history. Some buses that undergo preservation are rescued from a state
of great disrepair, but others enter preservation with very little
wrong with them. As with other historic vehicles, many preserved buses
either in a working or static state form part of the collections of
transport museums. Working buses will often be exhibited at rallies
and events, and they are also used as charter buses. While many
preserved buses are quite old or even vintage, in some cases,
relatively new examples of a bus type can enter restoration.
In-service examples are still in use by other operators. This often
happens when a change in design or operating practice, such as the
switch to one person operation or low floor technology, renders some
buses redundant while still relatively new.
Modification as railway vehicles
Main article: Railbus
Bicycle carrier (bus mounted bike racks)
Intercity bus driver
List of fictional buses
Public light bus
^ a b c Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Omnibus". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ "China's longest bus unveiled in Shanghai". Jongo.com. 15 March
2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011.
^ a b Eckermann, Erik (2001), World History of the Automobile, SAE,
pp. 67–68, ISBN 9780768008005, retrieved 6 October
^ Fierro 1996, p. 1031.
^ "Omnibus (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 30 March
^ "Histoire générale des transports" (in French). French
transportations Museum Website. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
^ "Centenarxy of the Omnibus". The Times. 28 April 1933.
^ Benson, Bruce L. "The Rise and Fall of Non-Government Roads in the
United Kingdom". Street Smart: Competition, Entrepreneurship and the
Future of Roads. pp. 263–264.
^ Locomotives Act, 1861 Pratt's Law of Highways Edition 10, Shaw &
Sons (1865) p. 388
Trolleybus history – current collector design".
^ Elektromote, Siemens History website. Retrieved 2011-08-28
^ Charles S. Dunbar, Buses, Trolleys and Trams, (Paul Hamlyn Ltd,
1967, no ISBN) p. 81 et seq.
^ Ward, Ian (1974), The World of Automobiles: An Illustrated
Encyclopedia of the Motor Car, 15, Orbis, p. 1773
^ a b "1898: The world's first bus series launched by Daimler – a
milestone for passenger transport - marsMediaSite".
^ Robbins, G. J.; Atkinson, J. B. (1991). The London B-Type Motor
Omnibus (3rd ed.). Twickenham: World of Transport.
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^ Routemaster.org home page
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^ Robert Farley (25 August 2011). "Obama's Canadian-American Bus".
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^ City of Winnipeg Corporate Web Services. "Winnipeg Fire Department".
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^ "Three Decker Auto
Bus Carries 88 Persons" Popular Mechanics, August
Bus Expo : Welcome to the European coach & bus
industry exhibition". Eurobusxpo.com. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
^ Event preview: Fashion
Bus On The Square, London The Guardian, 16
Combeau, Yvan (2013). Histoire de Paris. Paris: Presses Universitaires
de France. ISBN 978-2-13-060852-3.
Fierro, Alfred (1996). Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris. Robert
Laffont. ISBN 2-221-07862-4.
Héron de Villefosse, René (1959). HIstoire de Paris. Bernard
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