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[3][4] [5][6]

Burray
Burray
is one of the Orkney
Orkney
Islands in Scotland. It lies to the east of Scapa Flow
Scapa Flow
and is one of a chain of islands linked by the Churchill Barriers.

Contents

1 Geography and geology 2 Visitor attractions 3 History

3.1 Viking History 3.2 Sir James Stewart 3.3 WWII and construction of Churchill Barriers

4 References 5 External links

Geography and geology[edit]

Sheep on Burray

Burray
Burray
lies between Mainland, Orkney
Mainland, Orkney
and South Ronaldsay, and is linked to both by the Churchill Barriers. Barriers 1, 2, and 3 connect Burray
Burray
with Mainland, Orkney
Mainland, Orkney
via the islets of Glimps Holm
Glimps Holm
and Lamb Holm in Holm Sound to the north east. Barrier 4 links to South Ronaldsay, across Water Sound. To the west is the tidal island of Hunda, also joined by a causeway. Further west, across Scapa Flow, are the islands of Flotta
Flotta
and Calf of Flotta, approximately 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) away. In 2001, the population of Burray
Burray
was 357,[7] a total that had grown to 409 by 2011.[2] The main settlement, Burray
Burray
Village, is a former fishing port on the south west coast. There are also settlements of Northtown, Southtown and Hillside on the island. Burray
Burray
is made up of Old Red Sandstone
Old Red Sandstone
of the Devonian
Devonian
period.[3] The island is indented in the north west by Echnaloch Bay, which takes its name from Echna Loch. Burray
Burray
Ness and Burray
Burray
Haas are two headlands in the east. Visitor attractions[edit] Attractions in Burray
Burray
include the Fossil
Fossil
and Heritage Centre at Viewforth.[8][9] The island has a reasonable amount of birdlife, with not just gulls (herring and lesser backed) breeding here, but curlew.[3] History[edit] Viking History[edit] One of the largest Viking hoards in Scotland[10] was discovered on 22 April 1889 by Mr G Petrie, Little Wart, Burray
Burray
when he was peat-cutting in the North Town Moss.[11] It consisted of over 140 items of silver bullion, including many fragments of arm ring or 'ring-money', and about a dozen coins[12] The date proposed for deposition is c.998.[13] Sir James Stewart[edit] During the early 18th century, the laird of Burray
Burray
was one Sir James Stewart. Stewart is said to have been involved with a murder in Kirkwall
Kirkwall
in 1725, and went on the run for twenty years. A Jacobite sympathiser, he ended up fighting in the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
in 1746, and was one of the few survivors. However, when he returned to Burray after the battle, he happened to chance upon the son of the murder victim, who reported him to the authorities. Stewart was arrested, and ended up dying in a prison cell in London.[3] The novelist Mary Brunton
Mary Brunton
was born Mary Balfour on Burray
Burray
on 1 November 1778.[14] WWII and construction of Churchill Barriers[edit]

Churchill Barrier 3, linking Glimps Holm
Glimps Holm
and Burray

Main article: Churchill Barriers On 14 October 1939, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Royal Oak was sunk at her moorings within the natural harbour of Scapa Flow, by the German submarine U-47 under the command of Günther Prien. U-47 had entered Scapa Flow
Scapa Flow
through Holm Sound, just to the north of Burray, one of several eastern entrances to Scapa Flow. The eastern passages were protected by measures including sunken block ships, booms and anti-submarine nets, but U-47 entered at night at high tide by navigating between the block ships. To prevent further attacks, the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill ordered the construction of permanent barriers. Work began in May 1940 and the barriers were completed in September 1944, but were not officially opened until 12 May 1945, four days after the end of World War II. The Churchill Barriers
Churchill Barriers
project required a substantial labour force, which peaked in 1943 at over two thousand. Much of the labour was provided by around 1200 Italian prisoners of war,[15] who had been captured in the desert war in North Africa, who were transported to Orkney
Orkney
from early 1942 onwards. As the use of POW labour for War Effort works is prohibited under the Geneva Conventions, the works were justified as 'improvements to communications' to the southern Orkney
Orkney
Islands. The prisoners were accommodated in two camps, some at Camp 34 at Warebanks on Burray[16] and the rest at Camp 60 on Lamb Holm
Lamb Holm
where the famous Italian Chapel
Italian Chapel
was built. Camp 34 had its own chapel[17] but this was destroyed at the end of the war with the rest of the camp.[16] Photos exist of Camp 34's football team[18] and band.[19] References[edit]

^ a b Area and population ranks: there are c. 300 islands over 20 ha in extent and 93 permanently inhabited islands were listed in the 2011 census. ^ a b c National Records of Scotland
Scotland
(15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland
Scotland
- Release 1C (Part Two). "Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland’s inhabited islands". Retrieved 17 August 2013. ^ a b c d e Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.  ^ Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 6 Orkney
Orkney
(Mainland) (Map). Ordnance Survey. 2014. ISBN 9780319228128.  ^ Anderson, Joseph (Ed.) (1893) Orkneyinga Saga. Translated by Jón A. Hjaltalin & Gilbert Goudie. Edinburgh. James Thin and Mercat Press (1990 reprint). ISBN 0-901824-25-9 ^ Pedersen, Roy (January 1992) Orkneyjar ok Katanes (map) Inverness: Nevis Print ^ General Register Office for Scotland
Scotland
(28 November 2003) Scotland's Census 2001 – Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 26 February 2012. ^ "The Churchill barriers". Living in Orkney. Retrieved 2009-08-30.  ^ " Orkney
Orkney
Fossil
Fossil
and Heritage". Retrieved 2011-07-03.  ^ http://nms.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-100-102-609-C Retrieved on 28 January 2015 ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "Monument No. 9579". Canmore. Retrieved 28 January 2015.  ^ http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archiveDS/archiveDownload?t=arch-352-1/dissemination/pdf/vol_107/107_114_135.pdf Retrieved on 28 January 2015 ^ http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archiveDS/archiveDownload?t=arch-352-1/dissemination/pdf/vol_023/23_318_322.pdf Retrieved on 28 January 2015 ^ Isabelle Bour: Brunton , Mary... In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: OUP, 2004; online e. October 2005). Retrieved 18 November 2010. Subscription required. ^ http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/37614/1/WRAP_Custodis_jshs%252E2011%252E0007.pdf Retrieved on 17 June 2015 ^ a b Historic Environment Scotland. "Monument No. 305602". Canmore. Retrieved 28 January 2015.  ^ http://www.scapaflow.co/index.php/history_and_archaeology/the_20th_century/war/defences_in_and_around_scapa_flow/the_italian_chapel Retrieved on 04 March 2015 ^ http://www.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-000-182-940-C&scache=5vzyy2509g&searchdb=scran Retrieved on 28 January 2015 ^ http://www.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-000-182-915-C Retrieved on 28 January 2015

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Burray.

Burray
Burray
Community Association

v t e

South East Orkney
Orkney
Islands

Black Holm Burray Copinsay Corn Holm Glims Holm Horse of Copinsay Hunda Lamb Holm Pentland Skerries

Muckle Skerry

South Ronaldsay Swona

v t e

Orkney

List of Orkney
Orkney
islands

Inhabited islands

Mainland Auskerry Burray Eday Egilsay Flotta Gairsay Graemsay Holm of Grimbister Hoy Inner Holm North Ronaldsay Papa Stronsay Papa Westray Rousay Sanday Shapinsay South Ronaldsay South Walls Stronsay Westray Wyre

Other islands

Eynhallow Helliar Holm Lamb Holm Switha Swona North West islands North East islands South West islands South East islands

Towns and villages

Kirkwall Balfour Dounby Finstown Houton Longhope Lyness Pierowall St Margaret's Hope Stromness Whitehall

Mainland parishes

Birsay Deerness Evie Firth Harray Holm Kirkwall Orphir Rendall St Andrews St Ola Sandwick Stenness Stromness

Topics

Geology Prehistory History Scapa Flow Witchcraft

Politics

Earls of Orkney Orkney
Orkney
Islands Council Flag of Orkney

v t e

Islands of Scotland

Geography

Northern Isles

Shetland

list

Orkney

list

Hebrides

Outer Hebrides

list

Inner Hebrides

list

St Kilda

Other

Islands of the Clyde Islands of the Forth Freshwater Islands Outlying Islands

Prehistory

Prehistoric Orkney

Heart of Neolithic Orkney
Orkney
World Heritage Site: Maeshowe Ness of Brodgar Ring of Brodgar Skara Brae Standing Stones of Stenness

Prehistoric Shetland

Crucible of Iron Age Shetland: Broch of Mousa Jarlshof Old Scatness

Prehistoric Western Isles

Callanish Stones Dun Carloway Rubha an Dùnain Dun Nosebridge

History

Dál Riata

Columba

Kingdom of the Isles

Scandinavian Scotland Rulers of the Kingdom of the Isles Bishop of the Isles

Lordship of the Isles

Treaty of Perth Treaty of Ardtornish-Westminster Finlaggan

Earldom of Orkney

Buckquoy spindle-whorl Udal law

18th and 19th Century

Clearances Jacobite risings Flora MacDonald

Literature

Orkneyinga Saga Description of the Western Isles of Scotland
Scotland
(Monro) A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland
Scotland
(Martin) A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland
Scotland
(Johnson) The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides
Hebrides
(Boswell)

Etymology

General

Scottish island names Northern Isles Hebrides Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba

Specific

Arran Gigha Skye St Kilda

Economy

Towns

Kirkwall Lerwick Rothesay Stornoway Stromness

Agencies

Community Energy Scotland Crofters Commission DTA Scotland Highlands and Islands Enterprise Scottish Islands Federation

Oil industry

Flotta Sullom Voe

Culture

Shetland

Aly Bain Thomas Fraser Peerie Willie Johnson Shetland
Shetland
Amenity Trust Up Helly Aa Vagaland

Orkney

George Mackay Brown Peter Maxwell Davies F. Marian McNeill Kirkwall
Kirkwall
Ba game Orkney
Orkney
Heritage Society St Magnus Festival

Outer Hebrides

Compton Mackenzie Fèis Bharraigh Free Church of Scotland Iain Crichton Smith

Inner Hebrides

Islay whisky Runrig Sorley MacLean West Highland Free Press

Politics

Local authorities

Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council Orkney
Orkney
Islands Council Comhairle nan Eilean Siar Highland Council Argyll and Bute North Ayrshire

Wildlife

Fauna

Fair Isle wren Orkney
Orkney
vole Shetland
Shetland
wren St Kilda field mouse St Kilda wren

Flora

Arran whitebeams Scottish Primrose Shetland
Shetland
Mouse-ear

Domesticated animals

Cairn Terrier Eriskay Pony Hebridean Blackface Luing cattle North Ronaldsay
North Ronaldsay
sheep Scottie Sheltie Shetland
Shetland
cattle Shetland
Shetland
Goose Shetland
Shetland
pony Shetland
Shetland
sheep Soay sheep Westie

Geology

Shetland

Geopark Shetland

Geology of Orkney

Eday
Eday
Group Orcadian Basin Yesnaby Sandstone Group

Hebrides

Colonsay Group Great Estuarine Group Hebridean Terrane Lewisian complex Lorne plateau lavas Moine Supergroup Moine Thrust Belt Rhinns complex Skye Staffa Torridonian

Islands of the Clyde

Highland Boundary Fault

Coordinates: 58°51′5″N 2°56′6″W / 58.85139°N 2.93500°W / 58.851

.