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BURMESE NUMERALS (Burmese : မြန်မာဂဏန်း, ) are a set of numerals traditionally used in the Burmese language , although the Arabic numerals are also used. Burmese numerals follow the Hindu-Arabic numeral system commonly used in the rest of the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 Main numbers

* 1.1 Zero to nine

* 1.2 Ten to a million

* 1.2.1 Round number rule

* 1.3 Ordinal numbers * 1.4 Decimal and fractional numbers * 1.5 Alternate numbers

* 2 References * 3 See also * 4 External links

MAIN NUMBERS

Burmese numerals in various script styles

ZERO TO NINE

NUMBER BURMESE

NUMERAL Written ( MLCTS ) IPA

0 ၀ သုည1 _(su.nya.)_ IPA:

1 ၁ တစ် _(tac)_ IPA:

2 ၂ နှစ် _(hnac)_ IPA:

3 ၃ သုံး _(sum:)_ IPA:

4 ၄ လေး _(le:)_ IPA:

5 ၅ ငါး _(nga:)_ IPA:

6 ၆ ခြောက် _(hkrauk)_ IPA:

7 ၇ ခုနစ် _(hku. nac)_ IPA: 2

8 ၈ ရှစ် _(hrac)_ IPA:

9 ၉ ကိုး _(kui:)_ IPA:

10 ၁၀ ဆယ် _(ta. hcai)_ IPA:

1 Burmese for _zero _ comes from Sanskrit śūnya. 2 Can be abbreviated to IPA: in list contexts, such as telephone numbers.

Spoken Burmese has innate pronunciation rules that govern numbers when they are combined with another word, be it a numerical place (e.g. tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.) or a measure word.

* For one, two, and seven (all of which end in the rhyme ), when combined, shift to an open vowel, namely the schwa () * For three, four, five, and nine which all have the long tone (similar to the flat tone in pinyin ), when combined, the word immediately following it, given that it begins with a consonant, shifts to a voiced consonant (e.g., ၄၀, "40" is pronounced , not ). Other suffixes such as ထောင် (; thousand), သောင်း (; ten thousand), သိန်း (; hundred thousand), and သန်း (; million) all shift to (; thousand), (; ten thousand), (; hundred thousand), and ; million), respectively. * For six and eight, no pronunciation shift occurs.

These pronunciation shifts are exclusively confined to spoken Burmese and are not spelt any differently.

TEN TO A MILLION

NUMBER BURMESE

NUMERAL WRITTEN IPA

10 ၁၀ တစ်ဆယ် IPA: 1

11 ၁၁ တစ်ဆယ်တစ် IPA: or

12 ၁၂ တစ်ဆယ်နှစ် IPA: or

20 ၂၀ နှစ်ဆယ် IPA:

21 ၂၁ နှစ်ဆယ့်တစ် IPA: or

22 ၂၂ နှစ်ဆယ့်နှစ် IPA: or

100 ၁၀၀ ရာ IPA:

1 000 ၁၀၀၀ ထောင် IPA: 1

10 000 ၁၀၀၀၀ သောင်း IPA: 1

100 000 ၁၀၀၀၀၀ သိန်း IPA: 1

1 000 000 ၁၀၀၀၀၀၀ သန်း IPA: 1

10 000 000 ၁၀၀၀၀၀၀၀ ကုဋေ IPA:

1 × 1014 . ကောဋိ IPA:

1 × 1021 . ပကောဋိ IPA:

1 × 1028 . ကောဋိပကောဋိ

1 × 1035 . နဟုတံ

1 × 1042 . နိန္နဟုတံ

1 × 1049 . အက္ခဘေိဏီ

1 × 1056 . ဗိန္ဒု

1 × 1063 . အဗ္ဗုဒ

1 × 1070 . နိရဗ္ဗုဒ

1 × 1077 . အဗဗ

1 × 1084 . အဋဋ

1 × 1091 . သောကန္ဓိက

1 × 1098 . ဥပ္ပလ

1 × 10105 . ကုမုဒ

1 × 10112 . ပဒုမ

1 × 10119 . ပုဏ္ဍရိက

1 × 10126 . ကထာန

1 × 10133 . မဟာကထာန

1 × 10140 . အသင်္ချေ IPA:

1 Shifts to voiced consonant following three, four, five, and nine.

Ten to nineteen are almost always expressed without including တစ် (one).

Another pronunciation rule shifts numerical place name (the tens, hundreds and thousands place) from the low tone to the creaky tone.

* Number places from 10 (တစ်ဆယ်) up to 107 (ကုဋေ) has increment of 101. Beyond those Number places, larger number places have increment of 107. 1014 (ကောဋိ) up to 10140 (အသင်္ချေ) has increment of 107. * There are totally 27 major number places in Burmese numerals from 1×100 to 10140 * Numbers in the tens place: shift from ဆယ် (, low tone) to ဆယ့် (, creaky tone), except in numbers divisible by ten (10, 20, 30, etc.) In typical speech, the shift goes farther to ( or ). * Numbers in the hundreds place: shift from ရာ (, low tone) to ရာ့ (, creaky tone), except for numbers divisible by 100. * Numbers in the thousands place: shift from ထောင် (, low tone) to ထောင့် (, creaky tone), except for numbers divisible by 1000.

Hence, a number like 301 is pronounced (သုံးရာ့တစ်), while 300 is pronounced (သုံးရာ).

The digits of a number are expressed in order of decreasing digits place. For example, 1,234,567 is expressed as follows (where the highlighted portions represent numbers whose tone has shifted from low → creaky:

NUMERAL 1,000,000 200,000 30,000 4,000 500 60 7

BURMESE

IPA 1 1

WRITTEN တစ်သန်း နှစ်သိန်း သုံးသောင်း လေးထောင့် ငါးရာ့ ခြောက်ဆယ့် ခုနစ်

1 When combined with the numeral place, the pronunciations for 1 and 2 shift from a checked tone (glottal stop) to an open vowel ().

Round Number Rule

When a number is used as an adjective, the standard word order is: number + measure word (e.g. ၅ ခွက် for "5 cups"). However, for round numbers (numbers ending in zeroes), the word order is flipped to: measure word + number (e.g. ပုလင်း ၂၀, not ၂၀ ပုလင်း, for "20 bottles"). The exception to this rule is the number 10, which follows the standard word order.

ORDINAL NUMBERS

Ordinal numbers, from first to tenth, are Burmese pronunciations of their Pali equivalents. They are prefixed to the noun. Beyond that, cardinal numbers can be raised to the ordinal by suffixing the particle မြောက် (, lit. "to raise") to the number in the following order: number + measure word + မြောက်.

ORDINAL BURMESE PALI EQUIVALENT

BURMESE IPA

First ပထမ IPA: paṭhama

Second ဒုတိယ IPA: dutiya

Third တတိယ IPA: tatiya

Fourth စတုတ္ထ IPA: catuttha

Fifth ပဉ္စမ IPA: pañcama

Sixth ဆဋ္ဌမ IPA: chaṭṭhama

Seventh သတ္တမ IPA: sattama

Eighth အဋ္ဌမ IPA: aṭṭhama

Ninth နဝမ IPA: navama

Tenth ဒသမ IPA: dasama

DECIMAL AND FRACTIONAL NUMBERS

Colloquially, decimal numbers are formed by saying ဒသမ (, Pali for 'tenth') where the decimal separator is located. For example, 10.1 is ဆယ် ဒသမ တစ် ().

Half (1/2) is expressed primarily by တစ်ဝက် (), although ထက်ဝက်, အခွဲ and အခြမ်း are also used. Quarter (1/4) is expressed with အစိတ် () or တစ်စိတ်.

Other fractional numbers are verbally expressed as follows: denominator + ပုံ () + numerator + ပုံ. ပုံ literally translates as "portion." For example, 3/4 would be expressed as လေးပုံသုံးပုံ, literally "of four portions, three portions.

ALTERNATE NUMBERS

Other numbers, not of Tibeto-Burman origin, are also found in the Burmese language, usually from Pali or Sanskrit . They are exceedingly rare in modern usage.

NUMBER PALI DERIVATIVES SANSKRIT DERIVATIVES HINDI DERIVATIVES

1 ဧက (, from Pali _ḗka_)

2 ဒွိ (, from Pali _dvi_)

3 တိ (from Pali _ti_) တြိ (, from Sanskrit _tri_)

4 စတု (, from Pali _catu_)

ဇယ (from Hindi चार)

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ Okell, John (2002). _Burmese By Ear_ (PDF). The School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. ISBN 186013758X . * ^ San San Hnin Tun (2014). _Colloquial Burmese: The Complete Course for Beginners_. Routledge. * ^ Hla Pe (1985). _Burma: Literature, Historiography, Scholarship, Language, Life, and Buddhism_. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 64. ISBN 9789971988005 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _Myanmar-English Dictionary_. Myanmar Language Commission. 1993. ISBN 1-881265-47-1 .

SEE ALSO

* Burmese language * Burmese numerical classifiers * Indian numbering system * Indian numerals

EXTERNAL LINKS

Media related to Burmese numbers at Wikimedia Commons

* v * t * e

Burmese language

STAGES

* Old Burmese * Middle Burmese * Modern Burmese

DIALECTS

* Arakanese language (Ramree , Sandoway ) * Intha * Merguiese * Tavoyan * Yaw

Grammar and vocabulary

* PHONOLOGY

* Numerical classifiers

* Units of measurement

* Honorifics * Numerals * Postpositions

* Pronouns

* Kinship terms

* Verbs

LITERATURE

* Royal chronicles * Dhammathat

* Poetic forms

* Thanbauk * Yadu

WRITING SYSTEM

* Alphabet * Braille

ROMANIZATION

* MLC Transcription System * ALA-LC romanization * BGN/PCGN romanization of Burmese

OTHER TOPICS

* Burmese English * Myanmar Language Commission * Burmese names

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