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The Burji dynasty
Burji dynasty
(Arabic: المماليك البرجية‎) was a Circassian[1] Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty which ruled Egypt
Egypt
from 1382 until 1517, during the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate. It proved especially turbulent, with short-lived sultans. Political power-plays often became important in designating a new sultan. During this time Mamluks fought Timur
Timur
Lenk and conquered Cyprus. Constant bickering may have contributed to the ability of the Ottomans to challenge them. Their name means 'of the tower', referring to them ruling from the Citadel east of Cairo.

Contents

1 History 2 List of Burji Sultans 3 Conquest by Ottomans 4 See also 5 References

History[edit]

Tomb of al-Zahir Qansuh, a Burji Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan, in Cairo.

Tomb of Sultan az-Zahir Qansuh circa 1858

See also: Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate (Cairo) From 1250 Egypt
Egypt
had been ruled by the first Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty, the mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic Bahri dynasty.[1] In 1377 a revolt broke out in Syria which spread to Egypt, and the government was taken over by the Circassians
Circassians
Barakah and Barquq; Barquq
Barquq
was proclaimed sultan in 1382, ending the Bahri dynasty. He was expelled in 1389 but recaptured Cairo in 1390. Early on, the Zahiri Revolt threatened to overthrow Barquq though the conspiracy was discovered before agitators could mobilize. Permanently in power, he founded the Burji dynasty. Faced with a common enemy, Timur, Barquq
Barquq
joined with Bayezid I
Bayezid I
and Toktamish in a combined resistance and executed Timur's peace envoys[when?].[2] In the following months Timur
Timur
was engaged in Georgia and unable to respond to Barquq's actions, while Barquq
Barquq
had died by 1399.[2] In 1401, Timur
Timur
invaded Syria and sacked Aleppo[3] and Damascus. Syria was regained by sultan Nasir-ad-Din Faraj after Timur died in 1405, but Faraj continually faced rebellions from the emirs there and he was forced to abdicate in 1412. In 1421 Egypt
Egypt
was attacked by the Kingdom of Cyprus, and although the Egyptians were unable to capture the island they forced the Cypriotes to acknowledge the suzerainty of the Egyptian sultan Barsbay. During Barsbay's reign Egypt's population was greatly reduced from what it had been a few centuries before, with only 1/5 the number of towns. He frequently raided Asia Minor, but died in 1438. During the reign of Sayf-ad-Din Jaqmaq an attempt to conquer Rhodes in 1444 from the Knights of St. John was repelled. Sayf ad-Din Inal
Sayf ad-Din Inal
came to power in 1453 and had friendly relations with the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II, who captured Constantinople
Constantinople
later that year, causing great rejoicings in Egypt. However, under the Greek reign of Khoshkadam[4], who took power in 1463, Egypt
Egypt
began the struggle between the Egyptian and the Ottoman sultanates which finally led to the incorporation of Egypt
Egypt
in the Ottoman Empire. Both Koshkadam and Mehmed II
Mehmed II
supported different candidates to the principality of Karaman; then in 1467 sultan Kait Bey
Kait Bey
offended the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II, whose brother was poisoned while being entertained by Kait. Bayezid II
Bayezid II
seized Adana, Tarsus and other places within Egyptian territory, but was eventually defeated by Kait. Kait also tried to help the Muslims in Spain by threatening the Christians in Syria, but without effect. He died in 1496, leaving several hundred thousand ducats debts to the great Venetian trading families. List of Burji Sultans[edit] See also: List of governors of Islamic Egypt
Egypt
§ Burji Mamluks (1382–1517)

Titular Name(s) Personal Name Reign

Al-Zahir الظاہر ‬ Sayf-ad-Din Barquq سیف الدین برقوق ‬ 1382–1389 first reign

Sultan As-Saleh Al-Muzaffar Al-Mansur سلطان الصالح المظفر المنصور‬ Salah-ad-Din Hajji II صلاح الدین حاجی ثانی‬ 1389

Al-Zahir الظاہر ‬ Sayf-ad-Din Barquq سیف الدین برقوق ‬ 1390–1399 second reign

Al-Nasir الناصر ‬ Nasir-ad-Din Faraj ناصر الدین فرج ‬ 1399–1405 first reign

Al-Mansur المنصور ‬ Izz-ad-Din Abdal-Aziz عز الدین عبدالعزیز‬ 1405

Al-Nasir الناصر ‬ Nasir-ad-Din Faraj ناصر الدین فرج ‬ 1405–1412 second reign

Al-Adil العادل ‬ Al-Musta'in Billah المستعین باللہ‬ 1412

Al-Mu'ayyad المؤید ‬ Sayf-ad-Din Tatar I سیف الدین تتار‬ 1412–1421

Al-Muzaffar المظفر‬ Ahmad أحمد‬ 1421

Al-Zahir الظاہر‬ Sayf-ad-Din Tatar II سیف الدین تتار‬ 1421

As-Saleh الصالح‬ Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad ناصر الدین محمد‬ 1421–1422

Al-Ashraf الأشرف ‬ Sayf-ad-Din Barsbay سیف الدین برسبای ‬ 1422–1437

Al-Aziz العزیز ‬ Jamal-ad-Din Yusuf جمال الدین یوسف‬ 1437–1438

Al-Zahir الظاہر‬ Sayf-ad-Din Jaqmaq سیف الدین جقمق ‬ 1438–1453

Al-Mansur المنصور ‬ Fakhr-ad-Din Uthman فخرالدین عثمان ‬ 1453

Al-Ashraf الأشرف ‬ Sayf-ad-Din Inal سیف الدین إینال ‬ 1453–1461

Al-Mu'ayyad المؤید ‬ Shihab-ad-Din Ahmad شھاب الدین أحمد‬ 1461

Al-Zahir الظاہر‬ Sayf-ad-Din Khushqadam سیف الدین خوش قدم ‬ 1461–1467

Al-Zahir الظاہر‬ Sayf-ad-Din Bilbay سیف الدین بلبأی‬ 1467

Al-Zahir الظاہر‬ Taimur Bugha تیمور بغا‬ 1467–1468

Al-Ashraf الأشرف ‬ Sayf-ad-Din Qait Bay سیف الدین قایتبای‬ 1468–1496

Al-Nasir الناصر ‬ Muhammad bin Qait Bay قایتبای الناصرمحمدبن ‬ 1496–1497 first reign

Al-Zahir الظاہر‬ Qansuh Al-Burji قانصوہ البرجی ‬ 1497

Al-Nasir الناصر ‬ Muhammad bin Qait Bay قایتبای الناصرمحمدبن ‬ 1497–1498 second reign

Al-Zahir الظاہر‬ Qansuh Al-Ashrafi قانصوہ الأشرفی‬ 1498–1500

Al-Ashraf الأشرف ‬ Janbalat جنبلاط‬ 1500–1501

Al-Adil العادل ‬ Sayf-ad-Din Tuman Bay I سیف الدین طومان بای ‬ 1501

Al-Ashraf الأشرف ‬ Qansuh Al-Ghawri قانصوہ الغوری‬ 1501–1516

Al-Ashraf الأشرف ‬ Tuman Bay II طومان بای‬ 1516–1517

Burji dynasty
Burji dynasty
of the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
falls to Ottoman Empire under Sultan Selim I
Selim I
in 1517 C.E.

Orange shaded row signifies brief interruption in the rule of Burji dynasty by Bahri dynasty.

Silver shaded row signifies interruption in the rule of Burji dynasty by Abbasid dynasty.

Conquest by Ottomans[edit] See also: Ottoman– Mamluk
Mamluk
War (1516–17) and Egypt
Egypt
Eyalet The relationship between the Ottomans and the Mamluks had been adversarial since the Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
to the Ottomans in 1453; both states vied for control of the spice trade, and the Ottomans aspired to eventually taking control of the Holy Cities of Islam.[5] An earlier conflict, which lasted from 1485 to 1491, had led to a stalemate. By 1516, the Ottomans were free from other concerns—Sultan Selim I had just vanquished the Safavid
Safavid
Persians at the Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
in 1514[6]—and turned their full might against the Mamluks, who ruled in Syria and Egypt, to complete the Ottoman conquest of the Middle East.[6] In 1517 the Ottoman Turks and their Sultan Selim I
Selim I
defeated the Mamluks with the capture of Cairo on January 20. The centre of power transferred from Cairo to Constantinople. However, the Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class and the Mamluks and the Burji family succeeded in regaining much of their influence, but remained technical vassals of the Ottomans. See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Burji dynasty.

History of Arab Egypt History of Ottoman Egypt List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

References[edit]

^ a b McGregor, Andrew James (2006). A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 15. ISBN 9780275986018. By the late fourteenth century Circassians
Circassians
from the north Caucasus region had become the majority in the Mamluk
Mamluk
ranks.  ^ a b The Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultans: 1291–1517, Mustafa M. Ziada, A History of the Crusades: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Vol. III, ed. Kenneth Setton, (University of Wisconsin Press, 1975), 490. ^ Aleppo:the Ottoman Empire's caravan city, Bruce Masters, The Ottoman City Between East and West: Aleppo, Izmir, and Istanbul, ed. Edhem Eldem, Daniel Goffman, Bruce Master, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 20. ^ Kenneth Meyer Setton (1969). A History of the Crusades: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, edited by ... Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 502.  ^ Ottoman seapower and Levantine diplomacy in the age of discovery by Palmira Johnson Brummett p.52ff ^ a b The Ottoman Empire: A Short History by Saraiya Faroqhi p.60ff

— Royal house — Burji dynasty

Preceded by Bahri dynasty Ruling house of Egypt 1382 – 1571 Succeeded by Ottoman dynasty

v t e

Islamic dynasties in Mashriq
Mashriq
region

Umayyads (661–750) Abbasids (750–1258) Tulunids
Tulunids
(868–905) Hamdanids (890-1004) Hadhabani
Hadhabani
(10th-11th century) Fatimids (909-1171) Ikhsidids (935–969) Jarrahids
Jarrahids
(970-11th/12th century) Numayrids (990-1081) Marwanids
Marwanids
(990-1085) Uqaylids (990-1096) Mirdasids (1024-1080) Artuqids
Artuqids
(11th–12th century) Burids (1104–1154) Zengids (1127–1250) Ayyubids (1171–1341) Lu'lu'ids (1234-1262) Bahri (1250–1382) Bahdinan (1376-1843) Burji (1382–1517) Harfush (15th-19th century) Soran (16th-19th century) Ridwan (1560s-1690) Baban
Baban
(1649–1850) Shihabs (1697-1842) Mamluks (1704-1831) Jalilis (1726-1834) Alawiyya (1805–1952) Hashemites
Hashemites
of Iraq (1921–1958) Hashemites
Hashemites
of Jorda

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