Burgundy Wars
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The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the
Burgundian State The Burgundian StateB. Schnerb, ''L'État bourguignon'', 1999 is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to as Valois Burgundy. It developed in the Late Middle Ages under the rule of the d ...
and the
Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language, starting in the 17th century. It is a translation of the German (). The mo ...
and its allies. Open war broke out in 1474, and the
Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the anc ...
,
Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles I (Charles Martin; german: Karl Martin; nl, Karel Maarten; 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), nicknamed the Bold (german: der Kühne; nl, de Stoute; frenc ...

Charles the Bold
, was defeated three times on the battlefield in the following years and was killed at the
Battle of Nancy The Battle of Nancy was the final and decisive battle of the Burgundian Wars, fought outside the walls of Nancy on 5 January 1477 by Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles (Charles ...
in 1477. The Duchy of Burgundy and several other Burgundian lands then became part of France, and the
Burgundian Netherlands In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (french: Pays-Bas bourguignons, nl, Bourgondische Nederlanden, lb, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, wa, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Holy Roman Empire, Imperial and France ...
and
Franche-Comté Franche-Comté (, ; ; Frainc-Comtou: ''Fraintche-Comtè''; frp, Franche-Comtât; also german: Freigrafschaft; es, Franco Condado; all ) is a cultural and historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at ...

Franche-Comté
were inherited by Charles's daughter
Mary of Burgundy Mary (french: Marie; nl, Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), Duchess of Burgundy This article lists queens, countesses, and duchesses consort of the Kingdom, County A county is a geographical region of a country used for admin ...

Mary of Burgundy
and eventually passed to the
House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), i ...
upon her death because of her marriage to
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decisi ...

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
.


Background

The
dukes of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishment in 843 to its annexation by France in 1477, and later by Habsburg Netherlands, Habsburg sovereigns of the Low Countries (1 ...
had succeeded, over a period of about 100 years, in establishing their rule as a strong force between the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
and France. Their possessions included, besides their original territories of the and the
Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians The Kingdom of the Burgundians or First Kingdom of Burgundy was establi ...

Duchy of Burgundy
, the economically-strong regions of
Flanders Flanders (, ; Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * ...

Flanders
and
BrabantBrabant is a traditional geographical region (or regions) in the Low Countries of Europe. It may refer to: Place names in Europe Belgium * Province of Brabant, which in 1995 was split up into two provinces and an autonomous region: ** Flemish Braba ...
as well as
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Luxembourg
. The dukes of Burgundy generally pursued an aggressive expansionist politics, especially in
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German/ gsw-als, 's Elsàss ; german: Elsass ; la, Alsatia; ) is a cultural region and a territorial collectivity in Eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. In 2017, i ...

Alsace
and
Lorraine Lorraine , also , , ; LorrainLorrain may refer to: * Claude Lorrain (1600–82), a 17th-century French artist of the baroque style * Lorrain language Lorrain is a dialect (often referred to as patois) spoken by a minority of people in Lor ...
, seeking to unite their northern and southern possessions geographically. Having already been in conflict with the French king (Burgundy had sided with the English in the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years’ War (french: link=yes, La guerre de Cent Ans; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of Kingdom of England, England and Kingdom of France, France during the Late Middle Ages. It originated fr ...
but then the
Yorkists The House of York was a cadet branch In history and heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the ...
in the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...
, when
Henry VIHenry VI may refer to: * Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1165–1197) * Henry VI, Count Palatine of the Rhine (ruled 1212–1214) * Henry VI, Count of Luxembourg (crowned 1281, died 1288) * Henry VI the Older (before 1345 – 1393) * Henry VI, Count o ...

Henry VI
sided with France), Charles's advances along the Rhine brought him into conflict with the Habsburgs, especially Emperor
Frederick IIIFrederick III may refer to: * Frederick III, Duke of Upper Lorraine (died 1033) * Frederick III, Duke of Swabia (1122–1190) * Friedrich III, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1220–1297) * Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1240–1302) * Frederick III of Sici ...

Frederick III
.


Conflict

Initially in 1469, Duke Sigismund of Habsburg of Austria pawned his possessions in the
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German/ gsw-als, 's Elsàss ; german: Elsass ; la, Alsatia; ) is a cultural region and a territorial collectivity in Eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. In 2017, i ...

Alsace
in the Treaty of Saint-Omer as a fiefdom to the
Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the anc ...
for a loan or sum of 50,000 florins, as well as an alliance,
Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles I (Charles Martin; german: Karl Martin; nl, Karel Maarten; 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), nicknamed the Bold (german: der Kühne; nl, de Stoute; frenc ...

Charles the Bold
, to have them better protected from the expansion of the (or
Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language, starting in the 17th century. It is a translation of the German (). The mo ...
). Charles' involvement west of the Rhine gave him no reason to attack the confederates, as Sigismund had wanted, but his embargo politics against the cities of
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil (BL), Hégenheim (FR-68), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen (BL), Birsfelden (BL), Bottmingen (BL), Huningue (FR-68), Münchenstein (BL), Muttenz (BL), Reinach ...

Basel
,
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label= , Strossburi , gsw, label= , Strossburig ) is the and largest city of the of and the of the . Located at the with Germany in the historic region of , it is the prefecture of the . I ...

Strasbourg
and , directed by his
reeve Reeve may refer to: Titles *Reeve (Canada), an elected chief executive in counties and some district municipalities *Reeve (England), an official elected annually by the serfs to supervise lands for a lord *High-reeve, a title taken by some English ...

reeve
, prompted these to turn to
Bern ,german: Berner(in),french: Bernois(e), it, Bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern Bremgarten bei Bern is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corpora ...

Bern
for help. Charles' expansionist strategy suffered a first setback in his politics when his attack on the
Archbishopric of Cologne The Archdiocese of Cologne ( la, Archidioecesis Coloniensis; german: Erzbistum Köln) is an archdiocese In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop A bishop is an ord ...
failed after the unsuccessful
Siege of Neuss The Siege of Neuss, from 1474–75, was linked to the Cologne Diocesan Feud and part of the Burgundian Wars. The siege, led by Charles the Bold against the Free imperial city, Imperial City of Neuss, was unsuccessful. Charles was compelled by the ...

Siege of Neuss
(1474–75). In the second phase, Sigismund sought to achieve a peace agreement with the Swiss confederates, which eventually was concluded in in 1474 (later called the or Perpetual Accord). He wanted to buy back his Alsace possessions from Charles, who refused. Shortly afterwards, was captured and executed by decapitation in Alsace, and the Swiss, united with the Alsace cities and Sigismund of Habsburg in an anti-Burgundian league, conquered part of the Burgundian Jura () when they won the Battle of Héricourt, Battle of in November 1474. Louis XI of France joined the coalition by the Treaty of Andernach (1474), Treaty of Andernach in December. The next year, Bernese forces conquered and ravaged , which belonged to the Duchy of Savoy, who was allied with Charles the Bold. In the , the independent republics of the , with the help of Bernese and other confederate forces, drove the Savoyards out of the lower after a victory in the Battle on the Planta in November 1475. In 1476, Charles retaliated and marched to Grandson, Switzerland, Grandson, which belonged to of Savoy but had recently been taken by the Swiss, where he had the garrison hanged or drowned in the lake, despite its capitulation. When the Swiss confederate forces arrived a few days later, he was defeated in the Battle of Grandson and was forced to flee the battlefield, leaving behind his artillery and many provisions and valuables. Having rallied his army, he was dealt a devastating blow by the confederates at the Battle of Morat. Charles the Bold raised a new army, but fell in the
Battle of Nancy The Battle of Nancy was the final and decisive battle of the Burgundian Wars, fought outside the walls of Nancy on 5 January 1477 by Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles (Charles ...
in 1477 in which the Swiss fought alongside an army of René II, Duke of Lorraine.


Aftermath

With the death of Charles the Bold, the Valois dynasty of the duke of Burgundy, dukes of Burgundy died out. The Burgundian Netherlands, northern territories of the dukes of Burgundy became a possession of the Habsburgs, when Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, who would later become Holy Roman Emperor, married Charles's only daughter,
Mary of Burgundy Mary (french: Marie; nl, Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), Duchess of Burgundy This article lists queens, countesses, and duchesses consort of the Kingdom, County A county is a geographical region of a country used for admin ...

Mary of Burgundy
. The duchy proper reverted to the crown of France under king Louis XI of France, Louis XI. The initially also became French but was ceded to Maximilian's son Philip I of Castile, Philip in 1493 by Charles VIII of France, Charles VIII at the Treaty of Senlis in an attempt to bribe the emperor to remain neutral during Charles's planned invasion of Italy. The victories of the (Swiss Confederation) over what was one of the most powerful military forces in Europe gained it a reputation of being nearly invincible, and the Burgundian Wars marked the beginning of the rise of Swiss mercenaries on the battlefields of Europe. Inside the Confederacy itself, however, the outcome of the war led to internal conflict; the city cantons insisted on having the lion's share of the proceeds since they had supplied the most troops. The country cantons resented that, and the disputes almost led to war. They were settled by the of 1481.


See also

* :Battles of the Burgundian Wars, Battles of the Burgundian Wars * Cologne Diocesan Feud


Further reading

*. *.


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Burgundian Wars, 15th century in the Old Swiss Confederacy 1470s in the Holy Roman Empire 1474 in Europe 1475 in Europe 1476 in Europe 1477 in Europe