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BURGOMASTER (alternatively spelled BURGERMEISTER, literally _master of the town _, _master of the borough _, _master of the fortress _, or _master of the citizens_) is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council, usually of a sub-national level of administration such as a city or a similar entity. The name in English was derived from the Dutch _burgemeester _. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign (or partially or de facto sovereign) city-state , sometimes combined with other titles (as in Hamburg 's First Mayor and President of the Senate ). Contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as _mayor _.

CONTENTS

* 1 Municipal government * 2 City state government * 3 Compound title at supra-municipal level * 4 References * 5 External links

MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT

_ Arnold von Brauweiler, a German burgomaster, known in German as Bürgermeister_

* Bürgermeister (literally: 'master of the citizens'), in German: in Germany, Austria, and formerly in Switzerland . In Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century; various current titles for roughly equivalent offices include _Gemeindepr äsident_, _Stadtpräsident_, _Gemeindeamtmann_, and _Stadtamtmann_.

* _Oberbürgermeister_ ('Supreme Burgomaster') is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany (it is not in use in Austria). The _Ober-_ (lit. _upper_) prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which simultaneously comprise one of Germany's 112 urban districts usually bear this title. _Urban districts_ are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world. However, also the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but often used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title _Oberbürgermeister_.

* Borgmester (Danish ) * Borgarstjóri (Faroese ) * Borgermester (Norwegian (Bokmål) ) * Börgermester ( Low German ) * Burgomaestre (Spanish) * Purkmistr (Czech) * Burgumaisu (Basque ) * Borgomastro or Sindaco-Borgomastro (Italian): in few communes of Lombardy * Burgemeester in Dutch : in Belgium a party-political post, though formally nominated by the regional government and answerable to it, the federal state and even the province. Mayor. In the Netherlands nominated by the municipal council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post. * Bourgmestre (French) in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Democratic Republic of the Congo * Bürgermeister (Estonian) * Burmistras (Lithuanian ), derived from German. * Buergermeeschter (Luxembourgish ) * Polgármester (Hungarian ), derived from German. * Burmistrz (Polish ), a mayoral title, derived from German. The German form _Oberbürgermeister_ ('Supreme Burgomaster') is often translated as _Nadburmistrz_. The German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. * Borgmästare, _kommunalborgmästare_ (Swedish ); the title is not used in Sweden in present times, the closest equivalent being _kommunalråd_ (often translated to English as Municipal commissioner ) or _borgarråd_ (only in Stockholm City ). * Boargemaster (West Frisian ) * Pormestari (Finnish )

CITY STATE GOVERNMENT

* In history (sometimes until the beginning of the 19th century) in many free imperial cities (such as Bremen , Hamburg, Lübeck etc.) the function of burgomaster was usually held simultaneously by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year (called in some cases in German: _präsidierender Bürgermeister_; in _presiding burgomaster_), the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, the third being the upcoming one. _Präsidierender Bürgermeister_ is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts.

* In an important city, especially in a city state (Stadtstaat), where one of the _Bürgermeister_ has a rank equivalent to that of a minister-president (governor ), there can be several posts called _Bürgermeister_ in the city's executive college, justifying the use of a compound title for the actual highest magistrate (also rendered as lord mayor ), such as:

* _Regierender Bürgermeister_ (literally 'governing burgomaster', commonly translated as governing mayor ) in West Berlin and reunited Berlin, while in Berlin the term _Bürgermeister_ without attribute – English _Mayor_ – refers to his deputies, and while the heads of the 12 boroughs of Berlin are called _Bezirksbürgermeister_, English _borough mayor_. * _Erster Bürgermeister_ (literally First Burgomaster ) in Hamburg * _Bürgermeister und Präsident des Senats_ (' Burgomaster and President of the Senate ') in Bremen

COMPOUND TITLE AT SUPRA-MUNICIPAL LEVEL

* _AMTSBüRGERMEISTER_ (German; roughly translated: 'District Burgomaster') can be used for the chief magistrate of a Swiss constitutive canton, as in Aargau 1815–1831 (next styled _Landamman _)

REFERENCES

* ^ "Curriculum Vitae Klaus Wowereit". Land Berlin, Der Regierende Bürgermeister, Senatskanzlei. Retrieved 2010-04-07. * ^ cf. Article 56 sec. 2 of the "Constitution of the State of Berlin (part 4)". Land Berlin, Der Regierende Bürgermeister, Senatskanzlei. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-07. * ^ cf. Article 74 sec. 2 of the "Constitution of the State of Berlin (part 6)". Land Berlin, Der Regierende Bürgermeister, Senatskanzlei. Retrieved 2010-04-07.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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