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GOVERNMENT (502)

* Union (310)

* CDU (253) * CSU (56)

* SPD (193)

OPPOSITION PARTIES (128)

* The Left (64) * The Greens (63) * Independent (1)

ELECTIONS

VOTING SYSTEM Personalised Proportional Representation (MMP)

LAST ELECTION 22 September 2013

NEXT ELECTION 24 September 2017

MEETING PLACE

Reichstag building Mitte
Mitte
, Berlin
Berlin
, Germany
Germany

WEBSITE

www.bundestag.de

Reichstag building

GERMANY

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Germany
Germany

Constitution (Basic Law)

* Human rights * Federal Constitutional Court

Executive

* President Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
* Chancellor Angela Merkel * Vice-Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel * Cabinet Merkel III

Legislature
Legislature

* Federal Convention (Bundesversammlung) * Federal Council (Bundesrat) * Federal Diet (Bundestag)

* Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Ausschuss)

Judiciary

* Federal courts Constitutional Administrative Justice Finance Labor Social

Administrative divisions

* States (Länder)

* Administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke) * Districts (Kreise) * Collective municipalities (Ämter) * Municipalities (Gemeinden)

Elections

* Electoral system * Political parties * Referendums

FOREIGN RELATIONS

* Other countries * Atlas

* v * t * e

The BUNDESTAG (German pronunciation: , "Federal Diet ") is a constitutional and legislative body at the federal level in Germany
Germany
. For its similar function, it is often described as a lower house of parliament along the lines of the US House of Representatives and the Canadian or the British House of Commons. The German constitution, however, does not define the Bundestag
Bundestag
and the Bundesrat as the lower and upper houses of a bicameral legislature.

The Bundestag
Bundestag
was established by chapter III of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(Constitution) in 1949 as one of the legislative bodies of Germany
Germany
and thus the historical successor to the earlier Reichstag .

Since 1999 it has met in the Reichstag Building in Berlin
Berlin
. Norbert Lammert is the current President of the Bundestag
President of the Bundestag
. Members (Mitglieder des Bundestages) of the Bundestag
Bundestag
are usually elected every four years by all adult German citizens in a mixed system of constituency voting and list voting. There are currently 631 seats; however, one – belonging to the CDU – remains vacant. The Election Day, however, can be earlier if the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) loses a vote of no confidence and asks the Federal President (Bundespräsident) to dissolve the Bundestag
Bundestag
in order to hold new general elections.

In the 19th century the name Bundestag
Bundestag
was the unofficial designation for the assembly of the sovereigns and mayors of the Monarchies and Free Cities which formed the German Confederation
German Confederation
(1815–1866). Its seat was in the Free City of Frankfurt on the Main.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Tasks

* 3 Election

* 3.1 Distribution of seats in the Bundestag
Bundestag

* 4 Election result * 5 Distribution of seats by party in the 17th Bundestag
Bundestag
(2009 to 2013) * 6 List of Bundestag
Bundestag
by session * 7 Presidents since 1949

* 8 Organisation

* 8.1 Parliamentary groups * 8.2 Executive bodies * 8.3 Committees

* 9 Principle of discontinuation * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORY

With the dissolution of the German Confederation
German Confederation
in 1866 and the founding of the German Empire
German Empire
( Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
) in 1871, the Reichstag was established as the German parliament in Berlin, which was the capital of the then Kingdom of Prussia (the largest and most influential state in both the Confederation and the empire). Two decades later, the current parliament building was erected. The Reichstag delegates were elected by direct and equal male suffrage (and not the three-class electoral system prevailing in Prussia until 1918). The Reichstag did not participate in the appointment of the Chancellor until the parliamentary reforms of October 1918. After the Revolution of November 1918 and the establishment of the Weimar Constitution, women were given the right to vote for (and serve in) the Reichstag, and the parliament could use the no-confidence vote to force the chancellor or any cabinet member to resign. In March 1933, one month after the Reichstag fire , the then president, Paul von Hindenburg, a retired war hero, gave Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
ultimate power through the Decree for the Protection of People and State and the Enabling Act of 1933
Enabling Act of 1933
, although Hitler remained at the post of Federal Government Chancellor (though he called himself the Führer). After this the Reichstag met only rarely, usually at the Krolloper (Kroll Opera House) following the Reichstag fire starting in 1933 to unanimously rubber-stamp the decisions of the government. It last convened on 26 April 1942.

With the new constitution of 1949 , the Bundestag
Bundestag
was established as the new (West) German parliament. Because West Berlin
Berlin
was not officially under the jurisdiction of the Constitution, a legacy of the Cold War
Cold War
, the Bundestag
Bundestag
met in Bonn
Bonn
in several different buildings, including (provisionally) a former water works facility. In addition, owing to the city's legal status , citizens of West Berlin
Berlin
were unable to vote in elections to the Bundestag, and were instead represented by 22 non-voting delegates chosen by the House of Representatives , the city's legislature.

The Bundeshaus in Bonn
Bonn
is the former Parliament Building of Germany. The sessions of the German Bundestag
Bundestag
were held there from 1949 until its move to Berlin
Berlin
in 1999. Today it houses the International Congress Centre Bundeshaus Bonn
Bonn
and in the north areas the branch office of the Bundesrat ("Federal Council", the Upper House of the German Federal Parliament representing the Länder, i.e. the federated States). The southern areas became part of German offices for the United Nations
United Nations
in 2008. The German Unity Flag is a national memorial to German Reunification that was raised on 3 October 1990. It waves in front of the Reichstag building in Berlin, seat of the Bundestag.

The former Reichstag building housed a history exhibition (Fragen an die deutsche Geschichte) and served occasionally as a conference center. The Reichstag building was also occasionally used as a venue for sittings of the Bundestag
Bundestag
and its committees and the Bundesversammlung (Federal Assembly), the body which elects the German Federal President. However, the Soviets harshly protested against the use of the Reichstag building by institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
and tried to disturb the sittings by flying supersonic jets close to the building.

Since 1999, the German parliament has again assembled in Berlin
Berlin
in its original Reichstag building , which was built in 1888 based on the plans of German architect Paul Wallot and underwent a significant renovation under the lead of British architect Sir Norman Foster . Parliamentary committees and subcommittees, public hearings and faction meetings take place in three auxiliary buildings, which surround the Reichstag building: the Jakob-Kaiser-Haus, Paul-Löbe-Haus and Marie-Elisabeth-Lüders-Haus.

In 2005, a small aircraft crashed close to the German parliament. It was then decided to ban private air traffic over Central Berlin.

TASKS

Together with the Bundesrat , the Bundestag
Bundestag
is the legislative branch of the German political system .

Although most legislation is initiated by the executive branch, the Bundestag
Bundestag
considers the legislative function its most important responsibility, concentrating much of its energy on assessing and amending the government's legislative program. The committees (see below) play a prominent role in this process. Plenary sessions provide a forum for members to engage in public debate on legislative issues before them, but they tend to be well attended only when significant legislation is being considered.

The Bundestag
Bundestag
members are the only federal officials directly elected by the public; the Bundestag
Bundestag
in turn elects the Chancellor and, in addition, exercises oversight of the executive branch on issues of both substantive policy and routine administration. This check on executive power can be employed through binding legislation, public debates on government policy, investigations, and direct questioning of the chancellor or cabinet officials. For example, the Bundestag
Bundestag
can conduct a question hour (Fragestunde), in which a government representative responds to a previously submitted written question from a member. Members can ask related questions during the question hour. The questions can concern anything from a major policy issue to a specific constituent's problem. Use of the question hour has increased markedly over the past forty years, with more than 20,000 questions being posed during the 1987-90 term. Understandably, the opposition parties are active in exercising the parliamentary right to scrutinize government actions.

Constituent service does also take place in the form of the Petition Committee. In 2004, the Petition Committee received over 18,000 complaints from citizens and was able to negotiate a mutually satisfactory solution to more than half of them. In 2005, as a pilot of the potential of internet petitions , a version of e-Petitioner was produced for the Bundestag. This was a collaborative project involving The Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
, International Teledemocracy Centre and the Bundestag
Bundestag
‘Online Services Department’. The system was formally launched on 1 September 2005, and in 2008 the Bundestag
Bundestag
moved to a new system based on its evaluation.

ELECTION

Members serve four-year terms, with elections held every four years, or earlier in the relatively rare case that the Bundestag
Bundestag
is dissolved prematurely by the president . The Bundestag
Bundestag
can be dissolved by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor if the latter has lost a vote of confidence in the Bundestag, if the recommendation is made and accepted before the Bundestag
Bundestag
acts to elect a new Chancellor. This has happened three times: 1972 under Chancellor Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
, 1983 under Chancellor Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
and 2005 under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder . The procedures for these situations are governed by Articles 67 and 68 of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Law regarding the election procedure itself is the Federal Election Act 1956 (Bundeswahlgesetz/BWahlG)

All candidates must be at least eighteen years old; there are no term limits. The election uses the MMP electoral system . In addition, the Bundestag
Bundestag
has a minimum threshold of either 5% of the national party vote or three (directly elected) constituency representatives for a party to gain additional representation through the system of proportional representation.

Thus, small minority parties cannot easily enter the Bundestag
Bundestag
and prevent the formation of stable majority governments as they could under the Weimar constitution. Since 1961, only two new parties ( Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and PDS /The Left ) have entered the Bundestag.

The most recent election, the German federal election, 2013 , was held on 22 September 2013.

DISTRIBUTION OF SEATS IN THE BUNDESTAG

See also: List of German Bundestag constituencies Bundestag ballot: constituency vote on left, party list (showing top five list candidates) vote on right

Half of the Members of the Bundestag
Bundestag
are elected directly from 299 constituencies (first-past-the-post system ), the other half are elected from the parties’ Land lists in such a way as to achieve proportional representation for the total Bundestag
Bundestag
(if possible).

Accordingly, each voter has two votes in the elections to the Bundestag. The first vote, allowing voters to elect their local representatives to the Bundestag, decides which candidates are sent to Parliament from the constituencies.

The second vote is cast for a party list; it determines the relative strengths of the parties represented in the Bundestag.

At least 598 Members of the Bundestag
Bundestag
are elected in this way. Parties that gain more than 5% of the second votes or win at least 3 direct mandates are allocated seats in the Bundestag
Bundestag
in proportion to the number of votes it has received (d\'Hondt method until 1987, largest remainder method until the 2005 election, now Sainte-Laguë method ).

In addition to this, there are certain circumstances in which some candidates win what are known as overhang seats when the seats are being distributed. If a party has gained more direct mandates in a Land than it is entitled to according to the results of the second vote, it does not forfeit these mandates because all directly elected candidates are guaranteed a seat in the Bundestag. The other parties are then compensated by getting additional seats as well, the balance seats, so proportionality is preserved.

ELECTION RESULT

e • d SUMMARY OF THE 22 SEPTEMBER 2013 GERMAN BUNDESTAG ELECTION RESULTS PARTIES CONSTITUENCY PARTY LIST TOTAL SEATS

VOTES % +/− SEATS +/− VOTES % +/− SEATS +/− SEATS +/− %

Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 16,233,642 37.2 5.2 191 18 14,921,877 34.1 6.9 64 43 255 61 40.5

Social Democratic Party (SPD) 12,843,458 29.4 1.5 58 6 11,252,215 25.7 2.7 135 53 193 47 30.5

The Left (DIE LINKE) 3,585,178 8.2 2.9 4 12 3,755,699 8.6 3.3 60 ±0 64 12 10.2

Alliance 90/The Greens (GRÜNE) 3,180,299 7.3 1.9 1 ±0 3,694,057 8.4 2.3 62 5 63 5 10.0

Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU) 3,544,079 8.1 0.7 45 ±0 3,243,569 7.4 0.9 11 11 56 11 8.9

Free Democratic Party (FDP) 1,028,645 2.4 7.1 0 ±0 2,083,533 4.8 9.8 0 93 0 93 0

Alternative for Germany
Germany
(AfD) 810,915 1.9 1.9 0 ±0 2,056,985 4.7 4.7 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Pirate Party (PIRATEN) 963,623 2.2 2.1 0 ±0 959,177 2.2 0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

National Democratic Party (NPD) 635,135 1.5 0.3 0 ±0 560,828 1.3 0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Free Voters (FW) 431,640 1.0 1.0 0 ±0 423,977 1.0 1.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Human Environment Animal Protection (Tierschutzpartei) 4,437 0.0 0.0 0 ±0 140,366 0.3 0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Ecological Democratic Party
Ecological Democratic Party
(ödp) 128,209 0.3 ±0.0 0 ±0 127,088 0.3 ±0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

The Republicans (REP) 27,299 0.1 ±0.0 0 ±0 91,193 0.2 0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Die PARTEI 39,388 0.1 0.1 0 ±0 78,674 0.2 0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Bavaria Party (BP) 28,430 0.1 ±0.0 0 ±0 57,395 0.1 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Alliance for Germany
Germany
(Volksabstimmung) 1,748 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 28,654 0.1 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Marxist–Leninist Party (MLPD) 12,904 0.0 ±0.0 0 ±0 24,219 0.1 ±0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Pensioners\' Party (RENTNER) 920 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 25,134 0.1 0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Party of Bible-abiding Christians (PBC) 2,081 0.0 ±0.0 0 ±0 18,542 0.0 0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Civil Rights Movement Solidarity (BüSo) 17,988 0.0 ±0.0 0 ±0 12,814 0.0 0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Alliance 21/RRP (Bündnis 21/RRP) 5,324 0.0 0.1 0 ±0 8,578 0.0 0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

The Violets – for Spiritual Politics (DIE VIOLETTEN) 2,516 0.0 ±0.0 0 ±0 8,211 0.0 0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Family Party (FAMILIE) 4,478 0.0 ±0.0 0 ±0 7,449 0.0 0.3 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Social Equality Party (PSG) – – – – – 4,564 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

Electoral groups and independents 131,873 0.3 ±0 0 ±0 143,462 0.3 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0

TOTAL VALID 43,625,042 98.4 0.2 299 ±0 43,726,856 98.7 0.1 332 9 631 9 ±0

Invalid ballots 684,883 1.6 0.1

583,069 1.3 0.1

TOTAL (turnout: 71.5% 0.7pp ) 44,309,925 100.0

44,309,925 100.0

* ^ A B The Christian Democratic Union and the Christian Social Union of Bavaria call themselves sister parties. They do not compete against each other in the same geographical regions and they form one group within the Bundestag.

DISTRIBUTION OF SEATS BY PARTY IN THE 17TH BUNDESTAG (2009 TO 2013)

Initial distribution of seats in the 17th Bundestag. Chancellor Angela Merkel at a debate in the plenary of the German Bundestag, 2014

DISTRIBUTION OF SEATS IN THE 17TH BUNDESTAG:

+ CDU and CSU : 237 (38.1%) including 22 overhang seats

+ SPD : 146 (23.5%)

+ FDP : 93 (15%)

+ The Left : 76 (12.2%)

+ Alliance \'90/Greens : 68 (10.9%)

See the List of Bundestag Members for lists of changes and current members.

LIST OF BUNDESTAG BY SESSION

SEAT DISTRIBUTION IN THE GERMAN BUNDESTAG (AT THE BEGINNING OF EACH SESSION)

BUNDESTAG SESSION SEATS CDU /CSU SPD FDP Alliance '90 / The Greens1 THE LEFT 2 GERMAN PARTY Others Sonstige

1ST BUNDESTAG 1949–1953 402 139 131 52 – – 17 633

2ND BUNDESTAG 1953–1957 487 243 151 48 – – 15 304

3RD BUNDESTAG 1957–1961 497 270 169 41 – – 17 –

4TH BUNDESTAG 1961–1965 499 242 190 67 – – – –

5TH BUNDESTAG 1965–1969 496 245 202 49 – – – –

6TH BUNDESTAG 1969–1972 496 242 224 30 – – – –

7TH BUNDESTAG 1972–1976 496 225 230 41 – – – –

8TH BUNDESTAG 1976–1980 496 243 214 39 – – – –

9TH BUNDESTAG 1980–1983 497 226 218 53 – – – –

10TH BUNDESTAG 1983–1987 498 244 193 34 27 – – –

11TH BUNDESTAG 1987–1990 497 223 186 46 42 – – –

12TH BUNDESTAG 1990 –1994 662 319 239 79 8 17 – –

13TH BUNDESTAG 1994 –1998 672 294 252 47 49 30 – –

14TH BUNDESTAG 1998 –2002 669 245 298 43 47 36 – –

15TH BUNDESTAG 2002 –2005 603 248 251 47 55 2 – –

16TH BUNDESTAG 2005 –2009 614 226 222 61 51 54 – –

17TH BUNDESTAG 2009 –2013 622 239 146 93 68 76 – –

18TH BUNDESTAG 2013 – 630 3105 192 – 63 64 – –

Parties in the ruling coalition

1 1983 to 1994 The Greens and 1990 to 1994 Alliance 90 , since 1994 Alliance 90/The Greens 2 1990 to 2005 PDS (Party of Democratic Socialism), 2005 to 2007 The Left Party.PDS , since 2007 The Left 3 BP 17, KPD 15, WAV 12, Centre Party 10, DKP-DRP 5, SSW 1, Independents 3 4 GB-BHE 27, Centre Party 3 5 Vacant seat as of 04.09.2015 means the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
reduced to 310 from 311 Seat distribution in the German Bundestag
Bundestag
(at the beginning of each session). The graph shows not the absolute number of seats, but rather the relation of the number of seats a party has to the overall number of seats in that session, in percent. The colours stand for the following parties: Black: CDU/CSU, red: SPD, yellow: FDP, green: Greens, pink: PDS/Left Party, brown: German Party, grey: others.

PRESIDENTS SINCE 1949

Presidents of the Bundestag
Bundestag

NAME PARTY BEGINNING OF TERM END OF TERM LENGTH OF TERM

1 Erich Köhler * (1892–1958) CDU 7 September 1949 18 October 1950 7002406000000000000♠1 year, 41 days

2 Hermann Ehlers ** (1904–1954) CDU 19 October 1950 29 October 1954 7003147100000000000♠4 years, 10 days

3 Eugen Gerstenmaier *** (1906–1986) CDU 16 November 1954 31 January 1969 7003519000000000000♠14 years, 76 days

4 Kai-Uwe von Hassel
Kai-Uwe von Hassel
(1913–1997) CDU 5 February 1969 13 December 1972 7003140700000000000♠3 years, 312 days

5 Annemarie Renger † (1919–2008) SPD 13 December 1972 14 December 1976 7003146200000000000♠4 years, 1 day

6 Karl Carstens § (1914–1992) CDU 14 December 1976 31 May 1979 7002898000000000000♠2 years, 168 days

7 Richard Stücklen (1916–2002) CSU 31 May 1979 29 March 1983 7003145900000000000♠3 years, 363 days

8 Rainer Barzel *** (1924–2006) CDU 29 March 1983 25 October 1984 7002576000000000000♠1 year, 210 days

9 Philipp Jenninger *** (b. 1932) CDU 5 November 1984 11 November 1988 7003146700000000000♠4 years, 6 days

10 Rita Süssmuth (b. 1937) CDU 25 November 1988 26 October 1998 7003362200000000000♠9 years, 335 days

11 Wolfgang Thierse (b. 1943) SPD 26 October 1998 18 October 2005 7003254900000000000♠6 years, 357 days

12 Norbert Lammert
Norbert Lammert
(b. 1948) CDU 18 October 2005 present 7003431300000000000♠11 years, 295 days

*resigned for medical reasons **died in office ***resigned for political reasons †first woman to hold the post § resigned when he became President of Germany
Germany

ORGANISATION

The Marie-Elisabeth-Lüders-Haus, one of the official buildings of the complex

PARLIAMENTARY GROUPS

The most important organisational structures within the Bundestag
Bundestag
are parliamentary groups (Fraktionen; sing. Fraktion), which are formed by political parties represented in the chamber which incorporate more than 5% of the Bundestag
Bundestag
legislators; CDU and CSU have always formed a single united Fraktion. The size of a party's Fraktion determines the extent of its representation on legislative committees, the time slots allotted for speaking, the number of committee chairs it can hold, and its representation in executive bodies of the Bundestag. The Fraktionen, not the members, receive the bulk of government funding for legislative and administrative activities.

The leadership of each Fraktion consists of a parliamentary party leader, several deputy leaders, and an executive committee. The leadership's major responsibilities are to represent the Fraktion, enforce party discipline, and orchestrate the party's parliamentary activities. The members of each Fraktion are distributed among working groups focused on specific policy-related topics such as social policy, economics, and foreign policy. The Fraktion meets every Tuesday afternoon in the weeks in which the Bundestag
Bundestag
is in session to consider legislation before the Bundestag
Bundestag
and formulate the party's position on it.

Parties which do not fulfill the criterion for being a Fraktion but have at least three seats by direct elections (i.e. which have at least three MPs representing a certain electoral district) in the Bundestag
Bundestag
can be granted the status of a group of the Bundestag. This applied to the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) from 1990-1998. This status entails some privileges which are in general less than those of a Fraktion. In the current Bundestag, there are no such groups (the PDS had only two MPs in parliament until 2005 and could thus not even considered a group anymore; the party—now The Left —has now returned to the Bundestag
Bundestag
with full Fraktion status).

EXECUTIVE BODIES

The Bundestag's executive bodies include the Council of Elders and the Presidium . The council consists of the Bundestag
Bundestag
leadership, together with the most senior representatives of each fraktion, with the number of these representatives tied to the strength of the Parliamentary groups in the chamber. The council is the coordination hub, determining the daily legislative agenda and assigning committee chairpersons based on Parliamentary group representation. The council also serves as an important forum for interparty negotiations on specific legislation and procedural issues. The Presidium is responsible for the routine administration of the Bundestag, including its clerical and research activities. It consists of the chamber's president (usually elected from the largest fraktion) and vice presidents (one from each fraktion).

COMMITTEES

Most of the legislative work in the Bundestag
Bundestag
is the product of standing committees, which exist largely unchanged throughout one legislative period. The number of committees approximates the number of federal ministries, and the titles of each are roughly similar (e.g., defense, agriculture, and labor). There are, as of the current eighteenth Bundestag, 23 standing committees. The distribution of committee chairs and the membership of each committee reflect the relative strength of the various Parliamentary groups in the chamber. In the current eighteenth Bundestag, the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
chaired twelve committees, the SPD seven, The Left (Die Linke) two, and the Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), two. Members of the opposition party can chair a significant number of standing committees (e.g. The budget committee is always chaired by the biggest opposition party). These committees have either a small staff or no staff at all.

PRINCIPLE OF DISCONTINUATION

As is the case with some other parliaments, the Bundestag
Bundestag
is subject to the principle of discontinuation, meaning that a newly elect Bundestag
Bundestag
is legally regarded to be a body and entity completely different from the previous Bundestag. This leads to the result, that any motion, application or action submitted to the previous Bundestag, e.g. a bill referred to the Bundestag
Bundestag
by the Federal Government, is regarded as void by non-decision (German terminology: "Die Sache fällt der Diskontinuität anheim"). Thus any bill that has not been decided upon by the beginning of the new electoral period must be brought up by the government again, if it aims to uphold the motion, this procedure in effect delaying the passage of the bill. Furthermore, any newly elected Bundestag
Bundestag
will have to freshly decide on the rules of procedure (Geschäftsordnung), which is done by a formal decision of taking over such rules from the preceding Bundestag by reference.

Any Bundestag
Bundestag
is considered dissolved only once a newly elected Bundestag
Bundestag
has actually gathered in order to constitute itself (Article 39 sec. 1 sentence 2 of the Basic Law), which has to happen within 30 days of its election (Article 39 sec. 2 of the Basic Law). Thus, it may happen (and has happened) that the old Bundestag
Bundestag
gathers and makes decisions even after the election of a new Bundestag
Bundestag
that has not gathered in order to constitute itself. For example, elections to the 16th Bundestag
Bundestag
took place on 18 September 2005, but the 15th Bundestag
Bundestag
still convened after election day to make some decisions on German military engagement abroad, and was entitled to do so, as the newly elected 16th Bundestag
Bundestag
did not convene for the first time until 18 October 2005.

SEE ALSO

* Bundesrat (Germany) * Länderkammer * Parliamentwatch * Politics of Germany
Germany

REFERENCES

* ^ Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland (PDF) (23.12.2014 ed.). Bonn: Parlamentarischer Rat. 8 May 1949. Retrieved 19 June 2016. * ^ "Katherina Reiche (Potsdam), CDU/CSU". Bundestag.de. Retrieved 19 June 2016. * ^ Germany
Germany
at the Polls: The Bundestag
Bundestag
Elections of the 1980s, Karl H. Cerny, Duke University Press, 1990, page 34 * ^ GERMANY (FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF) Date of Elections: 5 October 1980, International Parliamentary Union * ^ Trenel, M. (2007). "Öffentliche Petitionen beim deutschen Bundestag
Bundestag
- erste Ergebnisse der Evaluation des Modellversuchs = An Evaluation Study of Public Petitions at the German Parliament" (PDF). TAB Brief Nr 32. Deutscher Bundestag. Retrieved 16 June 2009. * ^ "Text des Bundeswahlgesetz (BWahlG)". gesetz-im-internet.de. Retrieved 19 June 2016. * ^ Hawley, Charles (15 January 2009). "Political Landscape in Flux ahead of 2009 Votes". Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
. Retrieved 20 June 2009. * ^ "Final result of the Election to the German Bundestag
Bundestag
2013". The Federal Returning Officer . Retrieved 23 September 2013. * ^ "Press Release: Verkürzte Fristen zur vorgezogenen Neuwahl des Deutschen Bundestages". www.bundeswahlleiter.de. Bundeswahlleiter = Federal Director for Elections ( Federal Returning Officer ). 25 July 2005. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2008. * ^ "Stenographischer Bericht der 187. Sitzung des 15. Deutschen Bundestages am 28. September 2005 = Stenographic report of the 187th session of the 15th Deutscher Bundestag
Bundestag
on 2005-09-28" (PDF). dip21.bundestag.de. Deutscher Bundestag. 28 September 2005. Retrieved 20 October 2008. * ^ "Stenographischer Bericht der 1. Sitzung des 16. Deutschen Bundestages am 18. Oktober 2005 = Stenographic report of the 1st session of the 16th Deutscher Bundestag
Bundestag
on 2005-10-18" (PDF). dip21.bundestag.de. Deutscher Bundestag. 18 October 2005. Retrieved 20 October 2008.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to BUNDESTAG .

* Official website * German election database * Map of constituencies * Distribution of power * Plenary speech search engine

* v * t * e

Germany
Germany
articles

HISTORY

* Timeline * Historiography * Military history

* Germanic

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