The Info List - Bull (mythology)

The worship of the Sacred Bull
throughout the ancient world is most familiar to the Western world in the biblical episode of the idol of the Golden Calf. The Golden Calf after being made by the Hebrew people in the wilderness of Sinai, was rejected and destroyed by Moses
and the Hebrew people after Moses' time upon Mount Sinai
(Book of Exodus). In Sumerian mythology, Marduk
is the "bull of Utu". In Hinduism, Shiva's steed is Nandi, the Bull. The sacred bull survives in the constellation Taurus. The bull, whether lunar as in Mesopotamia
or solar as in India, is the subject of various other cultural and religious incarnations, as well as modern mentions in new age cultures.


1 In prehistorical art 2 In antiquity

2.1 Mesopotamia 2.2 Egypt 2.3 Eastern Anatolia 2.4 Crete 2.5 Iran 2.6 South Asia 2.7 Cyprus 2.8 Levant 2.9 Greece 2.10 Roman Empire 2.11 Celts

3 Medieval and modern and other uses 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

In prehistorical art[edit] Aurochs
are depicted in many Paleolithic
European cave paintings such as those found at Lascaux
and Livernon in France. Their life force may have been thought to have magical qualities, for early carvings of the aurochs have also been found. The impressive and dangerous aurochs survived into the Iron Age
Iron Age
in Anatolia and the Near East and were worshipped throughout that area as sacred animals; the earliest survivals of a bull worship are at neolithic Çatalhöyük. The bull was seen in the constellation Taurus by the Chalcolithic
and had marked the New Year
New Year
at springtide by the Bronze Age, for 4000–1700 BCE. In antiquity[edit] Mesopotamia[edit] The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
depicts the killing by Gilgamesh
and Enkidu
of the Bull
of Heaven, Gugalanna, first husband of Ereshkigal, as an act of defiance of the gods. From the earliest times, the bull was lunar in Mesopotamia
(its horns representing the crescent moon).[1] Egypt[edit]

as a cow, wearing her necklace and showing her sacred eye on the Papyrus of Ani.

In Egypt, the bull was worshiped as Apis, the embodiment of Ptah
and later of Osiris. A long series of ritually perfect bulls were identified by the god's priests, housed in the temple for their lifetime, then embalmed and encased in a giant sarcophagus. A long sequence of monolithic stone sarcophagi were housed in the Serapeum, and were rediscovered by Auguste Mariette
Auguste Mariette
at Saqqara
in 1851. The bull was also worshipped as Mnevis, the embodiment of Atum-Ra, in Heliopolis. Ka in Egyptian is both a religious concept of life-force/power and the word for bull. Eastern Anatolia[edit] We cannot recreate a specific context for the bull skulls with horns (bucrania) preserved in an 8th millennium BCE sanctuary at Çatalhöyük
in eastern Anatolia. The sacred bull of the Hattians, whose elaborate standards were found at Alaca Höyük
Alaca Höyük
alongside those of the sacred stag, survived in Hurrian and Hittite mythology
Hittite mythology
as Seri and Hurri ("Day" and "Night"), the bulls who carried the weather god Teshub
on their backs or in his chariot and grazed on the ruins of cities.[2] Crete[edit]

The Bull-Leaping Fresco: Knossos

Bulls were a central theme in the Minoan civilization, with bull heads and bull horns used as symbols in the Knossos
palace. Minoan frescos and ceramics depict bull-leaping, in which participants of both sexes vaulted over bulls by grasping their horns. Iran[edit] The Iranian language texts and traditions of Zoroastrianism
have several different mythological bovine creatures. One of these is Gavaevodata, which is the Avestan
name of a hermaphroditic "uniquely created (-aevo.data) cow (gav-)", one of Ahura Mazda's six primordial material creations that becomes the mythological progenitor of all beneficent animal life. Another Zoroastrian mythological bovine is Hadhayans, a gigantic bull so large that it could straddle the mountains and seas that divide the seven regions of the earth, and on whose back men could travel from one region to another. In medieval times, Hadhayans also came to be known as Srīsōk ( Avestan
*Thrisaok, "three burning places"), which derives from a legend in which three "Great Fires" were collected on the creature's back. Yet another mythological bovine is that of the unnamed creature in the Cow's Lament, an allegorical hymn attributed to Zoroaster
himself, in which the soul of a bovine (geush urvan) despairs over her lack of protection from an adequate herdsman. In the allegory, the cow represents humanity's lack of moral guidance, but in later Zoroastrianism
Geush Urvan became a yazata representing cattle. The 14th day of the month is named after her and is under her protection. South Asia[edit] Bulls also appear on seals from the Indus Valley Civilisation. Nandi appears in Hindu mythology
Hindu mythology
as the primary vehicle and the principal gana (follower) of Shiva. In Rig Veda, Indra was often praised as a Bull
(Vrsabha - 'vrsa' means he and bha means being or uksan- a bull aged five to nine years, which is still growing or just reached its full growth), with bull being an icon of power and virile strength not just in Aryan literature but in many IE cultures.[3] Cyprus[edit] In Cyprus, bull masks made from real skulls were worn in rites. Bull-masked terracotta figurines[4] and Neolithic bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus. Levant[edit] The Canaanite (and later Carthaginian) statue to which sacrifices were burnt, either as a deity or a type of sacrifice - Moloch
- was referred to as a horned man, and likened to Cronus by the Romans. There may be a connection between sacrifice to the Cretan horned man Minotaur
and Cronus' himself. Both Baʿal
and El were associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts, as it symbolized both strength and fertility.[5] Cronus' son Zeus
was raised on Crete
in hiding from his father. Having consumed all of his own children (the gods) Cronus is fed a boulder by Zeus
(to represent Zeus' own body so he appears consumed) and an emetic. His vomiting of the boulder and subsequently the other gods (his children) in the Titanomachy
bears comparison with the volcanic eruption that appears to be described in Zeus' battle with Typhon in the Theogony. Consequently, Cronus may be associated with the eruption of Thera
through the myth of his defeat by Zeus. The later association between Canaanite religions in which child sacrifice took place Ezek. 20:25-26 and the association of child sacrifice with a horned god (as potentially on Crete
and certainly in Carthage) may also be connected with the Greek myth of sending young men and women to the Minotaur, a bull-headed man. Exodus 32:4 "He took this from their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool and made it into a molten calf; and they said, 'This is your god, O Israel, who brought you up from the land of Egypt'." Nehemiah 9:18 "even when they made an idol shaped like a calf and said, 'This is your god who brought you out of Egypt!' They committed terrible blasphemies." Calf-idols are referred to later in the Tanakh, such as in the Book of Hosea,[6] which would seem accurate as they were a fixture of near-eastern cultures. Solomon's "Molten Sea" basin stood on twelve brazen bulls.[7][8] Young bulls were set as frontier markers at Dan and Bethel, the frontiers of the Kingdom of Israel. Much later, in Abrahamic religions, the bull motif became a bull demon or the "horned devil" in contrast and conflict to earlier traditions. The bull is familiar in Judeo-Christian cultures from the Biblical episode wherein an idol of the golden calf ((Hebrew: עֵגֶּל הַזָהָב‎) is made by Aaron
and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of the Sinai
Peninsula (Book of Exodus). The text of the Hebrew Bible
can be understood to refer to the idol as representing a separate god, or as representing Yahweh
himself, perhaps through an association or religious syncretism with Egyptian or Levantine bull gods, rather than a new deity in itself.[citation needed] Greece[edit]

The Rape of Europa, Jacob Jordaens, 1615

The Rape of Europa, Jean François de Troy, 1716

Among the Twelve Olympians, Hera's epithet Bo-opis is usually translated "ox-eyed" Hera, but the term could just as well apply if the goddess had the head of a cow, and thus the epithet reveals the presence of an earlier, though not necessarily more primitive, iconic view. (Heinrich Schlieman, 1976) Classical Greeks never otherwise referred to Hera
simply as the cow, though her priestess Io was so literally a heifer that she was stung by a gadfly, and it was in the form of a heifer that Zeus
coupled with her. Zeus
took over the earlier roles, and, in the form of a bull that came forth from the sea, abducted the high-born Phoenician Europa and brought her, significantly, to Crete. Dionysus
was another god of resurrection who was strongly linked to the bull. In a worship hymn from Olympia, at a festival for Hera, Dionysus
is also invited to come as a bull, "with bull-foot raging." "Quite frequently he is portrayed with bull horns, and in Kyzikos he has a tauromorphic image," Walter Burkert relates, and refers also to an archaic myth in which Dionysus
is slaughtered as a bull calf and impiously eaten by the Titans.[9] For the Greeks, the bull was strongly linked to the Cretan Bull: Theseus
of Athens had to capture the ancient sacred bull of Marathon (the "Marathonian bull") before he faced the Minotaur
(Greek for "Bull of Minos"), who the Greeks imagined as a man with the head of a bull at the center of the labyrinth. Minotaur
was fabled to be born of the Queen and a bull, bringing the king to build the labyrinth to hide his family's shame. Living in solitude made the boy wild and ferocious, unable to be tamed or beaten. Yet Walter Burkert's constant warning is, "It is hazardous to project Greek tradition directly into the Bronze Age."[10] Only one Minoan image of a bull-headed man has been found, a tiny Minoan sealstone
Minoan sealstone
currently held in the Archaeological Museum of Chania. In the Classical period of Greece, the bull and other animals identified with deities were separated as their agalma, a kind of heraldic show-piece that concretely signified their numinous presence. Roman Empire[edit]

of Mithras
at the British Museum, London.

used as an heraldic crest, here for the Fane family, Earls of Westmorland. (Great Britain, this example 18th or 19th century, but inherited early 17th century from a much earlier use of the idiom by the Neville family).

The religious practices of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
of the 2nd to 4th centuries included the taurobolium, in which a bull was sacrificed for the well being of the people and the state. Around the mid-2nd century, the practice became identified with the worship of Magna Mater, but was not previously associated only with that cult (cultus). Public taurobolia, enlisting the benevolence of Magna Mater
Magna Mater
on behalf of the emperor, became common in Italy and Gaul, Hispania and Africa. The last public taurobolium for which there is an inscription was carried out at Mactar in Numidia at the close of the 3rd century. It was performed in honor of the emperors Diocletian
and Maximian. Another Roman mystery cult in which a sacrificial bull played a role was that of the 1st-4th century Mithraic Mysteries. In the so-called "tauroctony" artwork of that cult (cultus), and which appears in all its temples, the god Mithras
is seen to slay a sacrificial bull. Although there has been a great deal of speculation on the subject, the myth (i.e. the "mystery", the understanding of which was the basis of the cult) that the scene was intended to represent remains unknown. Because the scene is accompanied by a great number of astrological allusions, the bull is generally assumed to represent the constellation of Taurus. The basic elements of the tauroctony scene were originally associated with Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. Macrobius
lists the bull as an animal sacred to the god Neto/Neito, possibly being sacrifices to the deity.[11] Celts[edit] A prominent zoomorphic deity type is the divine bull. Tarvos Trigaranus ("bull with three cranes") is pictured on reliefs from the cathedral at Trier, Germany, and at Notre-Dame de Paris. In Irish mythology, the Donn Cuailnge plays a central role in the epic Táin Bó Cúailnge ("The Cattle
Raid of Cooley"), which features the hero Cú Chulainn, which were collected in the seventh century Lebor na hUidre ("Book of the Dun Cow"). Pliny the Elder, writing in the first century, describes a religious ceremony in Gaul
in which white-clad druids climbed a sacred oak, cut down the mistletoe growing on it, sacrificed two white bulls and used the mistletoe to cure infertility:[12]

The druids — that is what they call their magicians — hold nothing more sacred than the mistletoe and a tree on which it is growing, provided it is Valonia oak…. Mistletoe is rare and when found it is gathered with great ceremony, and particularly on the sixth day of the moon….Hailing the moon in a native word that means ‘healing all things,’ they prepare a ritual sacrifice and banquet beneath a tree and bring up two white bulls, whose horns are bound for the first time on this occasion. A priest arrayed in white vestments climbs the tree and, with a golden sickle, cuts down the mistletoe, which is caught in a white cloak. Then finally they kill the victims, praying to a god to render his gift propitious to those on whom he has bestowed it. They believe that mistletoe given in drink will impart fertility to any animal that is barren and that it is an antidote to all poisons.[13]

Medieval and modern and other uses[edit] The practice of bullfighting in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and southern France are connected with the legends of Saturnin
of Toulouse
and his protégé in Pamplona, Fermin. These are inseparably linked to bull-sacrifices by the vivid manner of their martryrdoms set by Christian hagiography in the third century. In some Christian traditions, Nativity scenes are carved or assembled at Christmas
time. Many show a bull or an ox near the baby Jesus, lying in a manger. Traditional songs of Christmas
often tell of the bull and the donkey warming the infant with their breath. This refers (or, at least, is referred) to the beginning of the book of the prophet Isaiah, where he says: "The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib." (Isaiah 1:3) Taurus ( Latin
for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic. Taurus is a large and prominent constellation in the northern hemisphere's winter sky. It is one of the oldest constellations, dating back to at least the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
when it marked the location of the Sun during the spring equinox. Its importance to the agricultural calendar influenced various bull figures in the mythologies of Ancient Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. See also[edit]

Bulls in Indo-European mythology Bucranium Bugonia Camahueto Cattle
in religion Deer in mythology Horned deity Mithraism Red heifer Taurobolium


^ Jules Cashford, The Moon: Myth and Image 2003, begins the section " Bull
and cow" pp 102ff with the simple observation, "Other animals become epiphanies of the Moon
because they look like the moon.... the sharp horns of a bull or cow were seen to match the pointed curve of the waxing and waning crescents so exactly that the powers of the one were attributed to the other, each gaining the other's potency as well as their own." ^ Hawkes and Woolley, 1963; Vieyra, 1955 ^ url ^ Burkert 1985 ^ Miller, Patrick (2000), Israelite Religion
and Biblical
Theology: Collected Essays, Continuum Int'l Publishing Group, p. 32, ISBN 1-84127-142-X . ^ "Hosea 10:5 The people who live in Samaria fear for the calf-idol of Beth Aven. Its people will mourn over it, and so will its idolatrous priests, those who had rejoiced over its splendor, because it is taken from them into exile". Bible.cc. Retrieved 2012-10-30.  ^ "1 Kings 7:25 The Sea stood on twelve bulls, three facing north, three facing west, three facing south and three facing east. The Sea rested on top of them, and their hindquarters were toward the center". Bible.cc. Retrieved 2012-10-30.  ^ "Jeremiah 52:20 The bronze from the two pillars, the Sea and the twelve bronze bulls under it, and the movable stands, which King Solomon
had made for the temple of the LORD, was more than could be weighed". Bible.cc. Retrieved 2012-10-30.  ^ Burkert 1985 pp. 64, 132 ^ Burkert 1985 p. 24 ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia, Book I, XIX ^ Miranda J. Green. (2005) Exploring the world of the druids. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28571-3. Page 18-19 ^ Natural History (Pliny), XVI, 95


Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion, 1985 Campbell, Joseph Occidental Mythology "2.The Consort of the Bull", 1964. Hawkes, Jacquetta; Woolley, Leonard: Prehistory and the Beginnings of Civilization, v. 1 (NY, Harper & Row, 1963) Vieyra, Maurice: Hittite Art, 2300-750 B.C. (London, A. Tiranti, 1955) Jeremy B. Rutter, The Three Phases of the Taurobolium, Phoenix (1968). Heinrich Schliemann, Troy and its Remains (NY, Arno Press, 1976) pp. 113–114.

External links[edit]

An exhibit on the tombs of Alaca Höyük
Alaca Höyük
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art includes one example of the bull standards. Bull
Tattoo Art The image of the bull in