Bulgarians (Bulgarian: българи, Bǎlgari,
IPA: ['bɤɫɡɐri]) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are
Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
2.1 Bulgarian ethnogenetic conception
3 Genetic origins
4.1 Bulgarian national movement
6 Related ethnic groups
7.1.2 Name system
7.3 Art and science
7.5 Folk beliefs and customs
7.6 Folk dress and music
9 See also
12 External links
According to the Art.25 (1) of Constitution of Bulgaria, a Bulgarian
citizen shall be anyone born to at least one parent holding a
Bulgarian citizenship, or born on the territory of the Republic of
Bulgaria, should they not be entitled to any other citizenship by
virtue of origin. Bulgarian citizenship shall further be acquirable
through naturalization. About 77% of Bulgaria's population
identified themselves as Bulgarian in 2011 Bulgarian census.
The population of
Bulgaria descend from peoples with different origins
and numbers. They became assimilated by the Slavic settlers in the
First Bulgarian Empire, three of which left something remarkable.
the ancient pre-Slavic indigenous peoples, notably Thracians, from
whom cultural and ethnic elements were taken;
Early Slavs from whom the language was inherited;
Bulgars from whom the ethnonym and the early statehood were
From the indigenous Thracian people certain cultural and ethnic
elements were taken. Other pre-Slavic Indo-European peoples,
Dacians (if distinct from Thracians), Celts, Goths, Romans,
Ancient Greeks, Sarmatians,
Illyrians also settled into
the later Bulgarian land. The
Thracian language has been described as
a southern Baltic language. It was still spoken in the 6th
century, probably becoming extinct afterwards, but that in
a later period the
Bulgarians replaced long-established Greek/Latin
toponyms with Thracian toponyms might suggest that Thracian had not
been completely obliterated then. Some pre-Slavic linguistic and
cultural traces might have been preserved in modern
Scythia Minor and
Moesia Inferior appear to have
been Romanized, although the region became a focus of barbarian
Goths and Huns) during the 4th and early 5th
centuries AD, before a further "Romanization" episode during the
early 6th century. According to archeological evidence from the
late periods of Roman rule, the
Romans did not decrease the number of
Thracians significantly in major cities. By the 4th century the major
city of Serdica had predominantly Thracian populace based on
epigraphic evidence, which shows prevailing Latino-Thracian given
names, but thereafter the names were completely replaced by Christian
Early Slavs emerged from their original homeland in the early 6th
century, and spread to most of the eastern Central Europe, Eastern
Europe and the Balkans, thus forming three main branches: the West
Slavs in eastern Central Europe, the
East Slavs in Eastern Europe, and
South Slavs in Southeastern Europe (Balkans). The latter gradually
inflicted total linguistic replacement of Thracian, if the Thracians
had not already been Romanized or Hellenized. Most scholars accept
that they began large-scale settling of the
Balkans in the 580s based
on the statement of the 6th century historian
Menander speaking of
Thrace and consecutive attacks of
Greece in 582.
They continued coming to the
Balkans in many waves, but also leaving,
Justinian II (685-695) settled as many as 30,000 Slavs
Thrace in Asia Minor. The Byzantines grouped the numerous Slavic
tribes into two groups: the
Sklavenoi and Antes. Some Bulgarian
scholars suggest that the Antes became one of the ancestors of the
Bulgars are first mentioned in the 4th century in the vicinity of
the North Caucasian steppe. Scholars often suggest that the ultimate
origins of the
Bulgars can be traced to the Central Asian nomadic
confederations, specifically as part of loosely
related Oghuric tribes which spanned from the Pontic steppe to central
Asia. However, any direct connection between the
postulated Asian counterparts rest on little more than speculative and
"contorted etymologies". In the 670s, some
Bulgar tribes, the
Bulgars led by
Asparukh and the Macedonian Bulgars, led by
Kouber, crossed the
Danube river and settled in the
Balkans with a
single migration wave, the former of which Michael the Syrian
described as numbering 10,000. The
Bulgars are often not
thought to have been numerous, becoming a ruling elite in the areas
they controlled. However, according to
Steven Runciman a tribe
that was able to defeat a Byzantine army, must have been a of
considerable dimensions. Asparukh's
Bulgars made a tribal union
Severians and the "Seven clans", who were re-settled to
protect the flanks of the
Bulgar settlements in Scythia Minor, as the
Pliska was built on the site of a former Slavic settlement.
During the Early Byzantine Era, the Roman provincials in Scythia Minor
Moesia Secunda were already engaged in economic and social
exchange with the 'barbarians' north of the Danube. This might have
facilitated their eventual Slavonization, although the majority of
the population appears to have been withdrawn to the hinterland of
Asia Minor prior to any permanent Slavic and Bulgar
settlement south of the Danube. The major port towns in Pontic
Bulgaria remained Byzantine Greek in their outlook. The large scale
population transfers and territorial expansions during the 8th and 9th
century, additionally increased the number of the
Slavs and Byzantine
Christians within the state, making the
Bulgars quite obviously a
minority. The establishment of a new state molded the various
Bulgar and earlier or later populations into the "Bulgarian
people" of the First Bulgarian Empire speaking a South
Slav language. In different periods to the ethnogenesis of the
local population contributed also different Indo-European and Turkic
people, who settled or lived on the Balkans.
Bulgarian ethnogenetic conception
Bulgarians are usually regarded as part of the Slavic
ethnolinguistic group. However the controversial issue
of their ethnogenesis is a popular subject in the works of the
nationalist scientists. The fierce debates started in the 19th century
and the questionable proportions of the presumed Thracian, Bulgar, and
Slavic ancestry, have depended on the geopolitical situation of the
country and on ideological and political predilections. These
suppoused proprtions have been changed several times during the 20th
century, emphasizing usually the Slavic part of Bulgarian ancestry,
related to the traditionally strong
Russophilia in the
country. However during the 1970s the
especially supported by the communist regime, as an attempt to
underline the indigenous influence into the Bulgarian ethnogenesis.
After the fall of Communism, the spiritualized image of the Thracians
began to fade. Since the early 1990s on, a hypothesis rooted on
anti-Turkish sentiment, strengthened by the so called Revival process
gained popularity, linking the
Bulgars to the Iranian people. From
Turkic equestrian nomads they were reinterpreted as settled Aryan
people with unique culture. Following the cooling of the
relations with Russia, and the country's EU accession, the opinion on
Bulgar genetic impact, was launched among nationalist
circles, that lately have downplayed the country's Slavic
Main article: Genetic studies on Bulgarians
According to a triple – autosomal, mitochondrial and paternal
analysis of available data from large-scale studies on Balto-
their proximal populations, the whole genome SNP data situates
Bulgarians in a cluster with Romanians, Macedonians and Gagauzes, and
they are at similar proximity to
Montenegrins and Serbs.
Part of a series on
Public holidays in Bulgaria
Pomaks (Bulgarian Muslims)
Bulgarian Orthodox Church
List of Bulgarians
People of Bulgarian descent
Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in
Byzantine commonwealth and Rum Millet
First Bulgarian Empire
First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681. After the adoption of
Orthodox Christianity in 864 it became one of the cultural centres of
Slavic Europe. Its leading cultural position was consolidated with the
invention of the
Cyrillic script in its capital
Preslav at the eve of
the 10th century. The development of
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic literacy
in the country had the effect of preventing the assimilation of the
South Slavs into neighbouring cultures and it also stimulated the
development of a distinct ethnic identity. A symbiosis was
carried out between the numerically weak
Bulgars and the numerous
Slavic tribes in that broad area from the
Danube to the north, to the
Aegean Sea to the south, and from the
Adriatic Sea to the west, to the
Black Sea to the east, who accepted the common ethnonym
"Bulgarians". During the 10th century the
a form of national identity that was far from modern nationalism but
helped them to survive as a distinct entity through the
Bulgaria lost its independence and remained a Byzantine
subject until 1185, when the
Second Bulgarian Empire
Second Bulgarian Empire was created.
Nevertheless, at the end of the 14th century, the Ottomans conquered
the whole of Bulgaria. Under the Ottoman system, Christians were
considered an inferior class of people. Thus, Bulgarians, like other
Christians, were subjected to heavy taxes and a small portion of the
Bulgarian populace experienced partial or complete Islamisation.
Orthodox Christians were included in a specific ethno-religious
community called Rum Millet. To the common people, belonging to this
Orthodox commonwealth became more important than their ethnic
origins. This community became both, basic form of social
organization and source of identity for all the ethnic groups inside
it. In this way, ethnonyms were rarely used and between the 15th
and 19th centuries, most of the local people gradually began to
identify themselves simply as Christians. However, the
public-spirited clergy in some isolated monasteries still kept the
distinct Bulgarian identity alive, and this helped it to survive
predominantly in rural, remote areas. Despite the process of
ethno-religious fusion among the Orthodox Christians, strong
nationalist sentiments persisted into the Catholic community in the
northwestern part of the country. At that time, a process of
partial hellenisation occurred among the intelligentsia and the urban
population, as a result of the higher status of the Greek culture and
Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church among the Balkan Christians. During the
second half of the 18th century, the Enlightenment in Western Europe
provided influence for the initiation of the National awakening of
Bulgaria in 1762.
Bulgarians supported the Russian Army when they crossed the
Danube in the middle of the 18th century.
Russia worked to convince
them to settle in areas recently conquered by it, especially in
Bessarabia. As a consequence, many Bulgarian colonists settled there,
and later they formed two military regiments, as part of the Russian
military colonization of the area in 1759–1763.
Bulgarian national movement
See also: Bulgarian Millet
During the Russo-Turkish Wars (1806–1812) and (1828–1829)
Bulgarian emigrants formed the Bulgarian Countrymen's Army and joined
the Russian army, hoping
Russia would bring Bulgarian liberation, but
its imperial interests were focused then on
Greece and Valachia.
The rise of nationalism under the
Ottoman Empire led to a struggle for
cultural and religious autonomy of the Bulgarian people. The
Bulgarians wanted to have their own schools and liturgy in Bulgarian,
and they needed an independent ecclesiastical organisation. Discontent
with the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox clergy, the struggle started
to flare up in several Bulgarian dioceses in the 1820s.
It was not until the 1850s when the
Bulgarians initiated a purposeful
struggle against the
Patriarchate of Constantinople. The struggle
Bulgarians and the Greek
throughout the 1860s. In 1861 the Vatican and the Ottoman government
recognized a separate Bulgarian Uniat Church. As the Greek clerics
were ousted from most Bulgarian bishoprics at the end of the decade,
significant areas had been seceded from the Patriarchate's control.
This movement restored the distinct Bulgarian national consciousness
among the common people and led to the recognition of the Bulgarian
Millet in 1870 by the Ottomans. As result, two armed struggle
movements started to develop as late as the beginning of the 1870s:
Internal Revolutionary Organisation
Internal Revolutionary Organisation and the Bulgarian
Revolutionary Central Committee. Their armed struggle reached its peak
April Uprising which broke out in 1876. It resulted in the
Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), and led to the foundation of the
third Bulgarian state after the Treaty of San Stefano. The issue of
Bulgarian nationalism gained greater significance, following the
Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin which took back the regions of Macedonia and
Adrianople area, returning them under the control of the Ottoman
Empire. Also an autonomous Ottoman province, called Eastern Rumelia
was created in northern Thrace. As a consequence, the Bulgarian
national movement proclaimed as its aim the inclusion of most of
Moesia under Greater Bulgaria.
Eastern Rumelia was annexed to
Bulgaria in 1885 through bloodless
revolution. During the early 1890s, two pro-Bulgarian revolutionary
organizations were founded: the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople
Revolutionary Organization and the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople
Committee. In 1903 they participated in the unsuccessful
Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans in Macedonia and
the Adrianople vilayet. Macedonian
Slavs were identified then
predominantly as Bulgarians, and significant Bulgarophile sentiments
endured up among them until the end of the Second World
In the early 20th century the control over Macedonia became a key
point of contention between Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia, who fought
First Balkan War
First Balkan War of (1912–1913) and the
Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War of
(1913). The area was further fought over during the World War I
(1915–1918) and the World War II (1941–1944).
Main article: Demographics of Bulgaria
Bulgarians live in Bulgaria, where they number around 6
million, constituting 85% of the population. There are
significant Bulgarian minorities in Serbia, Turkey, Albania, Romania
Banat Bulgarians), as well as in
Moldova (see Bessarabian
Bulgarians also live in the diaspora, which is
formed by representatives and descendants of the old (before 1989) and
new (after 1989) emigration. The old emigration was made up of some
2,470,000 economic and several tens of thousands of
political emigrants, and was directed for the most part to the U.S.,
Brazil and Germany. The new emigration is estimated
at some 970,000 people and can be divided into two major
subcategories: permanent emigration at the beginning of the 1990s,
directed mostly to the U.S., Canada, Austria, and
Germany and labour
emigration at the end of the 1990s, directed for the most part to
Greece, Italy, the UK and Spain. Migrations to the West have been
quite steady even in the late 1990s and early 21st century, as people
continue moving to countries like the US,
Canada and Australia. Most
Bulgarians living in
Canada can be found in Toronto, Ontario, and the
provinces with the most
Ontario and Quebec.
According to the 2001 census there were 1,124,240 Bulgarian citizens
in the city of Sofia, 302,858 in Plovdiv, 300,000 in
about 200,000 in Burgas. The total number of
Bulgarians stood at over
Related ethnic groups
Until the early 20th century, ethnic Macedonians,
Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia
Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia usually self-identified as
Bulgarians are considered most closely related to the neighbouring
Macedonians; indeed it is sometimes said there is no discernible
ethnic difference between them. The ethnic Macedonians were
Macedonian Bulgarians by most ethnographers until the early
20th century and beyond with a big portion of them evidently
self-identifying as such. The Slavic-speakers of Greek
Macedonia and most among the
Serbia have also had a history
of identifying as
Bulgarians and many were members of the Bulgarian
Exarchate, which included most of the territory regarded as Torlak.
The greater part of these people were also considered
most ethnographers until the early 20th century and
The Bulgarian culture has largely the product of influence of incoming
cultures and is now going through westernization, especially the
Main article: Bulgarian language
Bulgarians speak a Southern Slavic language which is mutually
intelligible with Macedonian and to a lesser degree with
Serbo-Croatian, especially the western dialects. The lexical
similarities between Bulgarian and Macedonian are 86%, between
Bulgarian and each other Slavic language are 71%–80%, but with the
Baltic languages they are 40–46%, while with English are about
20%. Only fewer than a dozen of Bulgarian words are derived
from Turkic Bulgar.
Bulgarian demonstrates some linguistic developments that set it apart
Slavic languages shared with Romanian, Albanian and Greek
(see Balkan language area). Bulgarian was influenced lexically by
medieval and modern Greek, and Turkish. Medieval Bulgarian influenced
the other South Slavic and Romanian. With Bulgarian and Russian there
was a mutual influence in both directions. The language of each other
was official or lingua franca of each other in the Middle Ages and the
Cold War. Recently, Bulgarian has borrowed many words from German,
French and English.
Bulgarian language is spoken by the majority of the Bulgarian
diaspora, but less so by the descendants of earlier emigrants to the
Argentina and Brazil.
Bulgarian linguists consider the officialized Macedonian language
(since 1944) a local variation of Bulgarian, just as most
ethnographers and linguists until the early 20th century considered
the local Slavic speech in the Macedonian region. The president of
Bulgaria Zhelyu Zhelev, declined to recognize Macedonian as a separate
language when the
Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia became a new independent
Bulgarian language is written in the
Cyrillic alphabet of the medieval
Old Bulgarian language
In the first half of the 10th century, the
Cyrillic script was devised
Preslav Literary School, Bulgaria, based on the Glagolitic, the
Greek and Latin alphabets. Modern versions of the alphabet are now
used to write five more
Slavic languages such as Belarusian,
Macedonian, Russian, Serbian and Ukrainian as well as Mongolian and
some other 60 languages spoken in the former Soviet Union. Medieval
Bulgaria was the most important cultural centre of the Slavic peoples
at the end of the 9th and throughout the 10th century. The two
literary schools of
Preslav and Ohrid developed a rich literary and
cultural activity with authors of the rank of Constantine of Preslav,
John Exarch, Chernorizets Hrabar, Clement and Naum of Ohrid. Bulgaria
exerted similar influence on her neighbouring countries in the mid- to
late 14th century, at the time of the Tarnovo Literary School, with
the work of Patriarch Evtimiy, Gregory Tsamblak, Constantine of
Kostenets (Konstantin Kostenechki). Bulgarian cultural influence was
especially strong in
Moldova where the
was used until 1860, while Church Slavonic was the official language
of the princely chancellery and of the church until the end of the
Main article: Bulgarian name
There are several different layers of Bulgarian names. The vast
majority of them have either Christian (names like Lazar, Ivan, Anna,
Maria, Ekaterina) or Slavic origin (Vladimir, Svetoslav, Velislava).
After the Liberation in 1878, the names of historical
like Asparuh, Krum,
Tervel were resurrected. The old Bulgar
name Boris has spread from
Bulgaria to a number of countries in the
Most Bulgarian male surnames have an -ov surname suffix (Cyrillic:
-ов), a tradition used mostly by Eastern Slavic nations such as
Ukraine and Belarus. This is sometimes transcribed as -off or
"-of" (John Atanasov—John Atanasoff), but more often as -ov (e.g.
Boyko Borisov). The -ov suffix is the Slavic gender-agreeing suffix,
thus Ivanov (Bulgarian: Иванов) literally means "Ivan's".
Bulgarian middle names are patronymic and use the gender-agreeing
suffix as well, thus the middle name of Nikola's son becomes Nikolov,
and the middle name of Ivan's son becomes Ivanov. Since names in
Bulgarian are gender-based, Bulgarian women have the -ova surname
suffix (Cyrillic: -овa), for example, Maria Ivanova. The plural form
Bulgarian names ends in -ovi (Cyrillic: -ови), for example the
Ivanovi family (Иванови).
Other common Bulgarian male surnames have the -ev surname suffix
(Cyrillic: -ев), for example Stoev, Ganchev, Peev, and so on. The
female surname in this case would have the -eva surname suffix
(Cyrillic: -ева), for example: Galina Stoeva. The last name of the
entire family then would have the plural form of -evi (Cyrillic:
-еви), for example: the Stoevi family (Стоеви).
Another typical Bulgarian surname suffix, though less common, is -ski.
This surname ending also gets an –a when the bearer of the name is
female (Smirnenski becomes Smirnenska). The plural form of the surname
suffix -ski is still -ski, e.g. the Smirnenski family (Bulgarian:
The ending –in (female -ina) also appears rarely. It used to be
given to the child of an unmarried woman (for example the son of Kuna
will get the surname Kunin and the son of Gana – Ganin). The surname
suffix -ich can be found only occasionally, primarily among the Roman
Catholic Bulgarians. The surname ending –ich does not get an
additional –a if the bearer of the name is female.
Orthodox Church and Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Map of the
Bulgarian Exarchate (1870–1913). The Ottomans required a
threshold of two thirds of positive votes of the Orthodox population
to include a region into this jurisdiction.
Bulgarians are at least nominally members of the Bulgarian
Orthodox Church founded in 870 AD (autocephalous since 927 AD). The
Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of
Bulgaria like the other national branches of the Orthodox communion
and is considered a dominating element of Bulgarian national
consciousness. The church was abolished once, during the period of
Ottoman rule (1396—1878), in 1873 it was revived as Bulgarian
Exarchate and soon after raised again to Bulgarian Patriarchate. In
Orthodox Church at least nominally had a total of 4,374,000
Bulgaria (59% of the population), down from 6,552,000 (83%)
at the 2001 census. 4,240,000 of these pointed out the Bulgarian
ethnic group. The Orthodox Bulgarian minorities in the Republic of
Macedonia, Serbia, Greece, Albania,
Moldova nowadays hold
allegiance to the respective national Orthodox churches.
Despite the position of the
Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Bulgarian Orthodox Church as a unifying
symbol for all Bulgarians, small groups of
Bulgarians have converted
to other faiths through the course of time. During Ottoman rule, a
substantial number of
Bulgarians converted to Islam, forming the
community of the
Pomaks or Muslim Bulgarians. In the 16th and the
17th centuries Roman Catholic missionaries converted a small number of
Paulicians in the districts of
Svishtov to Roman
Catholicism. Nowadays there are some 40,000 Roman Catholic Bulgarians
in Bulgaria, additional 10,000 in the
Romania and up to
100,000 people of Bulgarian ancenstry in South America. The Roman
Bulgarians of the
Banat are also descendants of Paulicians
who fled there at the end of the 17th century after an unsuccessful
uprising against the Ottomans. Protestantism was introduced in
Bulgaria by missionaries from the
United States in 1857. Missionary
work continued throughout the second half of the 19th and the first
half of the 20th century. Nowadays there are some 25,000 Protestant
Bulgarians in Bulgaria.
Art and science
Main articles: Cinema of Bulgaria, Bulgarian literature, Music of
Bulgaria, and Bulgarian dances
Assen Jordanoff (left),
Bulgarian American inventor considered by
prominent aviation specialists the main contributor to the American
knowledge of aviation, likewise the Boeing, airbag and tape
John Vincent Atanasoff
John Vincent Atanasoff (right),
Bulgarian American inventor of the
Atanasoff-Berry computer, legally the inventor of the electronic
digital computer in the U.S. and considered the "father of the
Boris Christoff, Nicolai Ghiaurov,
Raina Kabaivanska and Ghena
Dimitrova made a precious contribution to opera singing with Ghiaurov
and Christoff being two of the greatest bassos in the post-war period.
The name of the harpist-
Anna-Maria Ravnopolska-Dean is one of the
best-known harpists today.
Bulgarians have made valuable contributions
to world culture in modern times as well.
Julia Kristeva and Tzvetan
Todorov were among the most influential European philosophers in the
second half of the 20th century. The artist
Christo is among the most
famous representatives of environmental art with projects such as the
Bulgarians in the diaspora have also been active. American scientists
and inventors of Bulgarian descent include John Atanasoff, Peter
Petroff, and Assen Jordanoff. Bulgarian-American Stephane Groueff
wrote the celebrated book "Manhattan Project", about the making of the
first atomic bomb and also penned "Crown of Thorns", a biography of
Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria. According to Mensa International, Bulgaria
ranks 2nd in the world in Mensa IQ test-scores and its students rate
second in the world in
SAT scores. Also, international MENSA
IQ testing completed in 2004 identified as the world's smartest woman
(and one of the smartest people in the world) Daniela Simidchieva of
Bulgaria, who has an IQ of 200. As of 2007
more than 90 Bulgarian scientists, and about 30 of them will actively
participate in the
Large Hadron Collider
Large Hadron Collider experiments.
Main article: Bulgarian cuisine
Kompot - non alcoholic clear juice obtained by cooking
Famous for its rich salads required at every meal, Bulgarian cuisine
is also noted for the diversity and quality of dairy products and the
variety of local wines and alcoholic beverages such as rakia, mastika
Bulgarian cuisine features also a variety of hot and cold
soups, an example of a cold soup being tarator. There are many
different Bulgarian pastries as well such as banitsa.
Most Bulgarian dishes are oven baked, steamed, or in the form of stew.
Deep-frying is not very typical, but grilling—especially different
kinds of meats—is very common. Pork meat is the most common meat in
the Bulgarian cuisine. Oriental dishes do exist in Bulgarian cuisine
with most common being moussaka, gyuvetch, and baklava. A very popular
Bulgarian cuisine is the Bulgarian white brine cheese
called "sirene" (сирене). It is the main ingredient in many
salads, as well as in a variety of pastries. Fish and chicken are
widely eaten and while beef is less common as most cattle are bred for
milk production rather than meat, veal is a natural byproduct of this
process and it is found in many popular recipes.
Bulgaria is a net
exporter of lamb and its own consumption of the meat is prevalent
during its production time in spring.
Bread and salt
Bread and salt tradition in
context of welcoming, which is spread in Balto-Slavs, is the usual
welcoming of strangers and politicians.
Folk beliefs and customs
Bulgarian customs and Slavic mythology
Kukeri from the area of Burgas
Girls celebrating Lazaruvane from Gabrа,
Bulgarians may celebrate
Saint Theodore's Day
Saint Theodore's Day with horse racings. At
Christmas Eve a
Pogača with fortunes is cooked, which are afterwards
put under the pillow. At
Easter the first egg is painted red and is
kept for a whole year. On the
Baptism of Jesus
Baptism of Jesus a competition to catch
the cross in the river is held and is believed the sky is "opened" and
any wish will be fulfilled.
Albanians nod the head up and down to indicates "no" and
shake to indicate "yes". They may wear the martenitsa
(мартеница)—an adornment made of white and red yarn and
worn on the wrist or pinned on the clothes—from 1 March until the
end of the month. Alternatively, one can take off the martenitsa
earlier if one sees a stork (considered a harbinger of spring). One
can then tie the martenitsa to the blossoming branch of a tree.
Family-members and friends in
Bulgaria customarily exchange
martenitsas, which they regard as symbols of health and longevity.
When a stork is seen, the martenitsa should be left on a tree. The
white thread represents peace and tranquility, while the red one
stands for the cycles of life.
Bulgarians may also refer to the
holiday of 1 March as
Baba Marta (Баба Марта), meaning
Grandmother March. It preserves an ancient pagan tradition, possibly
celebrating the old Roman new Year, beginning on 1 March, identical
with Romanian Mărțișor. Pagan customs found their way to the
Christian holidays. The ancient ritual of kukeri (кукери),
similar to Slovenian Kurentovanje,
Busójárás and Halloween, is
performed by costumed men in different times of the year and after
Easter. This seeks to scare away evil spirits and bring good harvest
and health to the community. Goat is symbolized, that was left from
the Thracian cult of Dionysian Mysteries. The ritual consists of
dancing, jumping, shouting and collect gifts from the houses in an
attempt to banish all evil from the village. The adornments on the
costumes vary from one region to another. The
Thracian Heros remains
in the image of Saint George, at whose feast the agriculture is
celebrated, a lamb is traditionally eaten, accomplished with ritual
bathing. Saint Tryphon's fertility and wine is attributed a Thracian
origin, considered to preserve the cult to
Sabazius as the
Kukeri. This is followed in February by Pokladi, a tradition of
setting massively large fire and jump over as at the
Kupala Night and
a competition between couples to eat an egg on a thread is held.
Another characteristic custom called nestinarstvo
(нестинарство), or firedancing, distinguishes the
Strandzha region, as well as Dog spinning. The authentic nestinarstvo
with states of trance is only preserved in the village Balgari. This
ancient custom involves dancing into fire or over live embers. Women
dance into the fire with their bare feet without suffering any injury
Slavic pagan customs are preserved in Bulgarian Christian holidays.
Miladinov brothers and foreign authors noticed that even pagan
prayers are preserved quoting plenty of Slavic pagan rite songs and
tales remained in Bulgarians, including Macedonians and Pomaks, mainly
dedicated to the divine nymphs samovili and peperuna for the feasts
surva, Saint George's Day, Koleda, etc. with evidence of toponymy
throughout the regional groups linking directly to the deities Svarog,
Hors and Veles, while the regional group Hartsoi derive their
name from god Hors. Songs dedicated to the Thracian
Orpheus were found in Pomaks, who is said to marry the
samovili. The old
Bulgarian name of the Presentation of Jesus at the
Temple was Gromnitsa and Perunov den dedicated to the supreme Slavic
thunder god Perun. In the mix of Christian and pagan patrons of
thunder, at Saint Elijah's feast day
Ognyena Maria is worshiped, the
Slavic goddesses assisting
Perun that took a substitutional dual
position of the Christian Mother of God. The custom for rain begging
Peperuna is derived from the wife of
Perun and the god of the rain
Dodola, this was described by a 1792 Bulgarian book as a continued
Perun at times of absence of rain with a ritual performed
by a boy or a girl dressed like Perun. Similar rain begging is
called German. In case of continuous lack of rain, a custom of driving
out the zmey from the area is performed. In the dualistic Slavic
belief the zmey may be both good tutelary spirit and evil, in which
case is considered not local and good, but evil and trying to inflict
harm and drought. Saint Jeremiah's feast is of the snakes and the
reptiles, there is a tradition of jumping over fire. At the Rusalska
Week the girls don't go outside to prevent themselves from diseases
and harm that the dead forces Rusalii can cause. This remained
the holiday of the samovili. The men performing the custom are also
called Rusalii, they don't let anybody pass through between them,
don't talk with each other except for the evening, avoid water, if
someone lacks behind a member swoops the sword over the lacker's head
to prevent him from evil spirits. If the group encounter on their
way a well, dry tree, old cemeteries, crossroads, they go round them
three times. Before leaving rusalii say goodbye to their relatives as
if they went to war, which is not surprising because some of them are
killed. When two rusalii groups met there was a fight to the death in
which the dead were buried in special "rusaliyski cemetery." Each year
there are holidays in honour of wolves and mouses. A relief for the
scared believers is celebrated at the Beheading of St. John the
Baptist, when according to Bulgarian belief all the mythical figures
go back to their caves in a mythical village in the middle of nowhere
Zmeykovo of the zmey king, along with the rusalki, samodivi, an return
at Annunciation. According to other beliefs the danger peaks at
the so-called few days around the New Year Eve "Dirty Days", this time
starts at Koleda, which merged with Christmas, when groups of kids
koledari visit houses, singing carols and receiving a gift at parting.
It is believed that no man can go in Zmeyovo and only the magpie knows
the location of this place. At many of the holidays a sexual taboo is
said to be practiced to prevent conceiving a vampire or werewolf and
not to work, not to go to Sedenki or go out. Live fire is set in case
Babinden for example is rooted in the
mother-goddess. On the day of St. Vlas, the tradition of a "wooly" god
Veles established itself, a god who is considered to be a protector of
shepherds, and bread is given to the livestock on that day. The
ancient Slavic custom to marry died people occurred in Bulgarian
Survakane is performed each new year with a decorated
stick by children, who hit adults on the back for health at the New
Year Eve, usually in exchange of money. In the
Chech region there is a
custom forbidding "touching the land", i.e. construction and
agriculture, at the equinox on 25 March and the same custom is found
Volhynia and Polesia.
Bulgarian mythology and fairy tales are mainly about forest figures,
such as the dragon zmey, the nymphs samovili (samodivi), the witch
veshtitsa. They are usually harmful and devastating, but can also help
the people. The samovili are said to live in beeches and sycamores
the, which are therefore considered holy and not permitted
burning. Samovili, although believed to be masters of everything
between the sky and the earth, "run away" from fraxinus, garlic, dew
and walnut. Walnut remained in Christianity to be used in prayers
to "see" the dead in Spirits Day.
Dictamnus is believed to be
their favourite herb, which is intoxicating. The samovili are spirits
in Bulgarian beliefs are the diseases themselves and punish people,
kidnap shepherds, make blind the people or drown them and are in white
colored dress, they are in odd numbers, which suggest they are ones of
the "dead". Epic heroes as
Prince Marko are believed to be
descended from the samodivi. The elm is believed to scare the evil
forces. Sacral trees in Bulgarian beliefs are beeches and oaks.
Hawthorn is believed to expel all evil forces and is applied to cure
suspected vampires. The tradition forbids killing of sacred animals -
deer, while it is hold a belief the samodivi runaway from horse. The
alleged as "unclean" animals resembling the devil such as the goat
are, however, exempted from being eaten as the holy ones. The zmey is
transhuman and can turn "into" animals, plants and items, he is also
"responsible" for diseases, madness and missing women. The female
version of the Slavic zmey is
Lamia and Ala is another version. The
girls who practiced Lazaruvane and other rituals "could not" be
kidnapped by the zmey. The main enemy of the Sun is the zmey, which
tries to eat the Sun, which scene is preserved in church art. The
sun is painted one eyed as recorded by beliefs
Perun stabbed one of
the sun's eyes to save the world from overheating. The born on
Saturday are thought as having supernatural powers, those born at the
wolves' holidays and a number of people are alleged as varkolaks and
vampires. The most spread Bulgarian view of the vampire was that
of a rolling bulbous balloon of blood derived from the Slavic term pir
Rusalka is believed to be a variety of the samodivi and
Nav', but the latter are considered little fairies. The Thursdays
remained feasts of
Perun in Bulgarian beliefs. The wind and the
hot steam of the bread is believed to be the souls of the dead.
Easter to Feast of the Ascension it is believed that the death
are in the flowers and the animals. Mora in Bulgarian beliefs is a
black hairy evil spirit with four firing eyes associated with
nightmares when causing someone to scream, similarly to Kikimora.
Poludnica are believed to be evil spirits causing
death, while to Lesnik, Domovnik and Vodnik a dualistic nature is
attributed. Thanks to the Vlshebnik, a man of the community, a
magician and a priest, communication with the "other" world was
held. Torbalan is the
Sack Man used to scare children, along with
Baba Yaga, who is a witch in her Bulgarian version 
Kuma Lisa and
Hitar Petar are the tricky fox and villager from the
fairy tales, the tricked antagonist is often Nasreddin Hoca, whereas
Bay Ganyo is a ridiculed Bulgarian villager. Ivancho and Mariika are
the protagonists of the jokes.
Despite eastern Ottoman influence is obvious in areas such as cuisine
and music, Bulgarian folk beliefs and mythology seem to lack analogies
with Turkic mythology, paganism and any non-European folk
beliefs, sо in pre-Christian times the ancient
Bulgars were much
inferior to the
Slavs in the ethnogenesis and culture that resulted in
modern Bulgarians. The Slavic language was officialized at the same
time with Christianity, so Slavic paganism has never been a state
Bulgaria or more influential than Tengriism. Most of
Bulgarian land lack any pagan archeology left from the Bulgars,
despite early Christianization and that during most of the pagan
period medieval Bulgarian borders spread significantly only in today's
northern Bulgaria. Although legacy indicating ancient
is at most virtually absent in modern Bulgarian culture, some authors
claim there is a similarity between the dress and customs of the
Chuvashes, who descend from the Volga Bulgars, and the Bulgarian
ethnographic group Kapantsi from
Targovishte Province and Razgrad
Province, among whom the claim that they are direct descendants of
Bulgars is popular., but Slavic elements are
found among them.
Folk dress and music
Bulgarian folk dancers in a national costume with embroidery on the
penultimate row of the arpons showing the most spread Slavic
cryptogram Bur with a cross inside the rhombus representing the
sun and spirals indicating rain, which is similarly represented
as the Rising Sun decorative pattern of the Flag of Belarus.
Similar carpet patterns appear on the
Flag of Turkmenistan
Flag of Turkmenistan ultimately
derived from ancient Persia.
The Bulgarian folk costumes feature long white robes, usually with red
embrdoiery and ornaments derived from the Slavic Rachenik. The
Bulgarian folk costume is considered to be mainly derived from the
dress of the ancient Slavs, the female dress with the overgarments
joined at the shoulders that evolved from
Sarafan and all the types of
soukman, saya and aprons fasten at the waist are said to be directly
descended from the ancient
Slavs only with negligible
mutation. The women's head-dress, which turned to be a must
for the Bulgarian costume is a decoration with flowers optionally on a
headband, that distinguishes all the Balto-Slavic peoples and is not
found in western cultures. The male dress is of likewise origin,
Riza "robe", poyas "belt", poturi "full-bottomed breeches"
typical for the
Slavs and often a tsarvul and kalpak for shoes and
jacket. Among the most similar relatives of the latter for example is
Ukrainian hutsul, but the kalpak is attributed to Ottoman influence.
The male skirt fustanella appears on the dress only of the Macedonian
Bulgarians and is of indigenous Balkan origin or influence. In some
Thrace the symbol of the snake as in medieval tombs is found
and is considered a Thracian cultural legacy and belief.
Folk songs are most often about the nymphs from Bulgarian and West
Slavic mythology samovili and the epic heroes yunaks. Instruments
Gadulka, Gusla Duduk, gaida
Dvoyanka are analogous to other Slavic
gudok, dudka and Dvodentsivka.
Kaval is common in the
Turkey and is akin to Arab Kawala, as well as Tapan, Goblet Drum,
Zurna. The most spread dance is a circle dance called horo and
khorovod. Songs are generally loud. Recent eastern influences from the
genre music chalga and turbo-folk even brought a prestige for the
masculine voices of females.
Valya Balkanska is a folk singer thanks to whom the Bulgarian speech
in her song "Izlel ye Delyo Haydutin" will be played in the Outer
space for at least 60,000 years more as part of the Voyager Golden
Record selection of music included in the two Voyager spacecraft
launched in 1977.
Main article: Sport in Bulgaria
Hristo Stoichkov, awarded the Golden Ball and regarded as one of the
best footballers by Barcelona.
Veselin Topalov, the 21st World Chess Champion.
As for most European peoples, football became by far the most popular
sport for the Bulgarians.
Hristo Stoichkov was one of the best
football (soccer) players in the second half of the 20th century,
having played with the national team and FC Barcelona. He received a
number of awards and was the joint top scorer at the 1994 World Cup.
Dimitar Berbatov, formerly in Manchester United, Tottenham Hotspur,
Bayer Leverkusen and others, the national team and two domestic clubs,
is still the most popular Bulgarian football player of the 21st
In the beginning of the 20th century
Bulgaria was famous for two of
the best wrestlers in the world –
Dan Kolov and Nikola Petroff.
Stefka Kostadinova is the best female high jumper, still holding the
world record from 1987, one of the oldest unbroken world records for
all kind of athletics.
Ivet Lalova along with
Irina Privalova is
currently the fastest white woman at 100 metres. Kaloyan Mahlyanov has
been the first European sumo wrestler to win the Emperor's Cup in
Veselin Topalov won the 2005 World Chess Championship. He was
ranked No. 1 in the world from April 2006 to January 2007, and had the
second highest Elo rating of all time (2813). He regained the world
No. 1 ranking again in October 2008.
The national symbols of the
Bulgarians are the Flag, the Coat of Arms,
the National anthem and the National Guard, as well other unofficial
symbols such as the Samara flag.
The national flag of
Bulgaria is a rectangle with three colours:
white, green, and red, positioned horizontally top to bottom. The
colour fields are of same form and equal size. It is generally known
that the white represents – the sky, the green – the forest and
nature and the red – the blood of the people, referencing the strong
bond of the nation through all the wars and revolutions that have
shaken the country in the past. The Coat of Arms of
Bulgaria is a
state symbol of the sovereignty and independence of the Bulgarian
people and state. It represents a crowned rampant golden lion on a
dark red background with the shape of a shield. Above the shield there
is a crown modeled after the crowns of the emperors of the Second
Bulgarian Empire, with five crosses and an additional cross on top.
Two crowned rampant golden lions hold the shield from both sides,
facing it. They stand upon two crossed oak branches with acorns, which
symbolize the power and the longevity of the Bulgarian state. Under
the shield, there is a white band lined with the three national
colours. The band is placed across the ends of the branches and the
phrase "Unity Makes Strength" is inscribed on it.
Both the Bulgarian flag and the Coat of Arms are also used as symbols
of various Bulgarian organisations, political parties and
The horse of the
Madara Rider is preserved on the back of the
Ethnic map of European
Turkey (i.e. Ottoman Empire), Guillaume Lejean
(1861), praised by Serbian authors
Мар of the Slavic World by Jos. Erban, 1868
Henry Wilkinson's map from 1876
Ethnic map of European
Turkey (i.e. Ottoman Empire) in 1877, by
Austro-Hungarian Consul Karl Sax
Peoples at the Balkan Peninsula, Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas, 1881
Hungarian ethnic map of Europe, 1897
Map of A. Scobel, Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas, 1908
Distribution of the Balkan peoples in 1911, Encyclopædia Britannica
Ethnic groups in the
Asia Minor by William R. Shepherd,
Distribution European peoples in 1914 according to L. Ravenstein
Swiss ethnographic map of Europe published in 1918 by Juozas Gabrys
Pomaks by first language according to the 1965 Census
Bulgarians in Odessa Oblast,
Ukraine according to the
Bulgarians by first language in Zaporizhia Oblast,
Ukraine according to the 2001 census
Distribution of predominant ethnic groups in
Bulgaria according to the
Romania according to the 2002 census
Moldova according to the 2004 census
Macedonians (ethnic group)
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in Modern Central Europe, Springer, 2008, ISBN 0230583474, p.
^ Detrez, Raymond (2005). Developing Cultural Identity in the Balkans:
Convergence Vs. Divergence. Peter Lang. p. 29.
^ Румен Даскалов, Чудният свят на
древните българи, Гутенберг, 2011,
ISBN 9546171212, pp. 7-11.
^ Александър Николов, "Параисторията
като феномен на прехода:
преоткриването на древните българи”
в „Историческият хабитус:
опредметената история", 2013, съст. Ю.
Тодоров и А. Лунин, стр. 24-63.
^ Raymond Detrez, Historical Dictionary of Bulgaria, Rowman &
Littlefield, 2014, ISBN 1442241802, pp. 189-190.
^ Tchavdar Marinov, Ancient
Thrace in the Modern Imagination:
Ideological Aspects of the Construction of Thracian Studies in
Southeast Europe (Romania, Greece, Bulgaria) in Entangled Histories of
Balkans - Volume Three, 2015, ISBN 9789004290365, pp 10-117.
^ Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages,
500–1250, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 221–222. ISBN 9780521815390. Retrieved
^ Poulton, Hugh (2000). Who are the Macedonians? (2nd ed.). C. Hurst
& Co. Publishers. pp. 19–20.
^ Vassil Karloukovski. "Средновековни градови и
тврдини во Македониjа. Иван Микулчиќ
(Скопjе, Македонска цивилизациjа, 1996),".
Kroraina.com. p. 72. ISBN 9989756074. Retrieved
^ Giatzidis, Emil (2002). An Introduction to Post-Communist Bulgaria:
Political, Economic and Social Transformations. Manchester University
Press. ISBN 9780719060953. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
^ Fine, Jr., John V. A. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical
Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of
Michigan. p. 165. ISBN 0472081497. Retrieved 2015-02-11 –
^ Sedlar, Jean W. (1994). East
Central Europe in the Middle Ages,
1000–1500. University of Washington Press. p. 364.
ISBN 9780295800646. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
Bulgaria – Ottoman rule".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Retrieved 21 December 2011. With the capture of a rump Bulgarian
kingdom centred at Bdin (Vidin) in 1396, the last remnant of Bulgarian
independence disappeared. ... The Bulgarian nobility was
destroyed—its members either perished, fled, or accepted Islam and
Turkicization—and the peasantry was enserfed to Turkish
^ Minkov, Anton (2004). Conversion to Islam in the Balkans: Kisve
Bahası – Petitions and Ottoman Social Life, 1670–1730. BRILL.
p. 193. ISBN 9004135766. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
^ Detrez, Raymond; Segaert, Barbara; Lang, Peter (2008). Europe and
the Historical Legacies in the Balkans,. p. 36.
ISBN 9789052013749. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
^ Karpat, Kemal H. (2002). Studies on Ottoman Social and Political
History: Selected Articles and Essays. Brill. p. 17.
ISBN 9004121013. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
^ Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, Disciplinary and Regional
Perspectives, Joshua A. Fishman, Ofelia García, Oxford University
Press, 2010, ISBN 0195374924, p. 276: "There were almost no
remnants of a Bulgarian ethnic identity; the population defined itself
as Christians, according to the Ottoman system of millets, that is,
communities of religious beliefs. The first attempts to define a
Bulgarian ethnicity started at the beginning of the 19th century."
^ Roudometof, Victor; Robertson, Roland (2001). Nationalism,
globalization, and orthodoxy: the social origins of ethnic conflict in
the Balkans. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 68–71.
^ Nikolova-Houston, Tatiana Nikolaeva (2008). Margins and Marginality:
Marginalia and Colophons in South Slavic Manuscripts During the
Ottoman Period, 1393–1878. The University of Texas at Austin,
ProQuest,. pp. 202–206. ISBN 9780549650751. Retrieved
^ Crampton,, R. J. (1987). Modern Bulgaria. Cambridge University
Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780521273237. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
^ Carvalho, Joaquim (2007). Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and
Convergence. Edizioni Plus. p. 261. ISBN 9788884924643.
^ Stith,, Spencer S. (2008). A Comparative Study of Post-Ottoman
Political Influences on Bulgarian National Identity Construction and
Conflict. University of Kansas, ProQuest,. pp. 22–23.
ISBN 9780549683957. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
^ Milchev, Vladimir (2002). "Два хусарски полка с
българско участие в системата на
държавната военна колонизация в Южна
Украйна (1759-1762/63 г.)" [Two
Hussar Regiments with
Bulgarian Participation in the System of the State Military
Colonization in Southern
Исторически преглед (in Bulgarian) (5–6):
^ Jelavich, Charles; Jelavich, Barbara (1977). Establishment of the
Balkan National States: 1804–1918,. University of Washington Press.
p. 128. ISBN 9780295803609. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
^ During the 20th century, Slavo Macedonian national feeling has
shifted. At the beginning of the 20th century, Slavic patriots in
Macedonia felt a strong attachment to Macedonia as a multi-ethnic
homeland. They imagined a Macedonian community uniting themselves with
non-Slavic Macedonians... Most of these Macedonian
Slavs also saw
themselves as Bulgarians. By the middle of the 20th. century, however
Macedonian patriots began to see Macedonian and Bulgarian loyalties as
mutually exclusive. Regional Macedonian nationalism had become ethnic
Macedonian nationalism... This transformation shows that the content
of collective loyalties can shift.Roth, Klaus; Brunnbauer, Ulf (2010).
Region, Regional Identity and Regionalism in Southeastern Europe,
Ethnologia Balkanica Series. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 127.
^ Up until the early 20th century and beyond, the international
community viewed Macedonians as regional variety of Bulgarians, i.e.
Western Bulgarians.Nationalism and Territory: Constructing Group
Identity in Southeastern Europe, Geographical perspectives on the
human past : Europe: Current Events, George W. White, Rowman
& Littlefield, 2000, ISBN 0847698092, p. 236.
^ "Most of the Slavophone inhabitants in all parts of divided
Macedonia, perhaps a million and a half in all – had a Bulgarian
national consciousness at the beginning of the Occupation; and most
Bulgarians, whether they supported the Communists, VMRO, or the
collaborating government, assumed that all Macedonia would fall to
Bulgaria after the WWII. Tito was determined that this should not
happen. "Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (2002). The struggle for
Greece, 1941–1949. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 67.
^ "At the end of the WWI there were very few historians or
ethnographers, who claimed that a separate Macedonian nation
existed... Of those
Slavs who had developed some sense of national
identity, the majority probably considered themselves to be
Bulgarians, although they were aware of differences between themselves
and the inhabitants of Bulgaria... The question as of whether a
Macedonian nation actually existed in the 1940s when a Communist
Yugoslavia decided to recognize one is difficult to answer. Some
observers argue that even at this time it was doubtful whether the
Slavs from Macedonia considered themselves to be a nationality
separate from the Bulgarians.Danforth, Loring M. (1997). The
Macedonian conflict: ethnic nationalism in a transnational world.
Princeton University Press. pp. 65–66.
^ Kaufman, Stuart J. (2001). Modern hatreds: the symbolic politics of
ethnic war. New York: Cornell University Press. p. 193.
ISBN 0-8014-8736-6. The key fact about Macedonian nationalism is
that it is new: in the early twentieth century, Macedonian villagers
defined their identity religiously—they were either "Bulgarian,"
"Serbian," or "Greek" depending on the affiliation of the village
priest. While Bulgarian was most common affiliation then, mistreatment
by occupying Bulgarian troops during WWII cured most Macedonians from
their pro-Bulgarian sympathies, leaving them embracing the new
Macedonian identity promoted by the Tito regime after the war.
^ "Experts for Census 2011" (in Bulgarian).
^ a b "Bulgarian 2001 census" (in Bulgarian). nsi.bg. Retrieved
^ "Chairman of Bulgaria's State Agency for
Bulgarians Abroad – 3–4
Bulgarians abroad in 2009" (in Bulgarian). 2009. Retrieved
^ "Божидар Димитров преброи 4 млн.
българи зад граница" (in Bulgarian). 2010. Archived
from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
^ Cousinéry, Esprit Marie; Langlumé (20 December 2017). "Voyage dans
la Macédoine: contenant des recherches sur l'histoire, la géographie
et les antiquités de ce pays". Imprimerie Royale. Retrieved 20
December 2017 – via Google Books.
^ "I. The Middle Ages 1". Promacedonia.org. Retrieved 20 December
^ "II. The National Revival Period 1". Promacedonia.org. Retrieved 20
^ Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (2002). The Struggle for Greece,
1941–1949. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 67.
ISBN 9781850654926. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
^ Who are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton. C. Hurst & Co.
Publishers, 1995, ISBN 1-85065-238-4, p. 109.
^ Felix Philipp Kanitz, (Das Konigreich Serbien und das Serbenvolk von
der Romerzeit bis dur Gegenwart, 1904, in two volume) # "In this time
(1872) they (the inhabitants of Pirot) did not presume that six years
later the often damn Turkish rule in their town will be finished, and
at least they did not presume that they will be include in Serbia,
because 'they always feel that they are Bulgarians'. ("Србија,
земља и становништво од римског доба
до краја XIX века", Друга књига, Београд
1986, p. 215)"And today (in the end of the 19th century) among the
older generation there are many fondness to Bulgarians, that it led
him to collision with Serbian government. Some hesitation can be
noticed among the youngs..." ("Србија, земља и
становништво од римског доба до краја
XIX века", Друга књига, Београд 1986, c. 218;
Serbia – its land and inhabitants, Belgrade 1986, p. 218)
^ Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui, "Voyage en Bulgarie pendant l'année 1841"
(Жером-Адолф Бланки. Пътуване из
България през 1841 година. Прев. от
френски Ел. Райчева, предг. Ив. Илчев.
София: Колибри, 2005, 219 с. ISBN 9789545293672.) It
describes a population in Nish sandjak as Bulgarian, see: 
^ Стойков, Стойко: Българска
диалектология, Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин
^ Girdenis A., Maziulis V. Baltu kalbu divercencine chronologija //
Baltistica. T. XXVII (2). - Vilnius, 1994. - P. 9.
^ "Топоров В.Н. Прусский язык. Словарь. А
- D. - М., 1975. - С. 5". S7.hostingkartinok.com. Retrieved 20
^ Hupchick, D.The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe,
p. 67. Springer, 2016, ISBN 9781137048172
^ "Social Construction of Identities:
Pomaks in Bulgaria, Ali Eminov,
JEMIE 6 (2007) 2 © 2007 by European Centre for Minority Issues"
(PDF). Retrieved 2015-02-11.
^ От Труд онлайн. "Архивът е в процес на
прехвърляне – Труд". Trud.bg. Retrieved
^ [dead link]
^ Harry Henderson (2014-05-14). A to Z of Computer Scientists.
Books.google.com. p. 8. ISBN 9781438109183. Retrieved
^ Clark R. Mollenhoff (1999-02-28). Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of the
Computer. Books.google.com. ISBN 9780813800325. Retrieved
^ "Bulgaria- Eastern Europe's Newest Hot Spot Offshoring Business
Intelligence & Tools EU Out-Sourcing Specialists Platform
German Market-Entry offshoring Vendor Services".
Outsourcingmonitor.eu. 6 August 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
^ "Outsourcing to Bulgaria". Archived from the original on
^ "World's cleverest woman needs a job". theregister.co.uk.
^ Independent Newspapers Online (8 November 2004). "The world's
'smartest woman' can't find a job – Back Page IOL News".
IOL.co.za. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
Bulgarians uncover the birth of the Universe", dir.bg, 21 December
Bulgaria Poultry and Products Meat Market Update". The Poultry
Site. 2006-05-08. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
^ Колева Т. А. Болгары // Календарные
обычаи и обряды в странах зарубежной
Европы. Конец XIX — начало XX в. Весенние
праздники. — М.: Наука, 1977. — С. 274–295. —
^ "??" (PDF). Tangrabg.files.wordpress.com. Retrieved
^ a b "??" (PDF). Bkks.org. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
^ Анчо Калоянов. СТАРОБЪЛГАРСКОТО
ЕЗИЧЕСТВО. LiterNet, 06. 11. 2002. ISBN 954-304-009-5
^ История во кратце о болгарском
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "??" (PDF).
Mling.ru. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
^ "Русалии - древните български обичаи
по Коледа". Bgnow.eu. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
^ Следи от бита и езика на прабългарите
в нашата народна култура, Иван Коев,
^ a b MacDermott, Mercia (1998-01-01). Bulgarian Folk Customs. Jessica
Kingsley Publishers. pp. 41, 44. ISBN 9781853024856. The
so-called Kapantsi - an ethnographic group living mainly in the
Razgrad and Turgovishte, area of north-east
Bulgaria - are believed to
be descendants of Asparuh's Proto-
Bulgars who have maintained at least
something of their original heritage...the traditional costumes of
Bulgaria are derived mainly from the ancient Slav costumes...Women's
costumes fall into four main categories: one-apron, two-apron, sukman
and saya. Like men's costumes, these are not intrinsically separate
types, but have evolved from the original chemise and apron worn by
the early Slavs...Directly descended with little mutation from the
dress of the ancient Slavs, the one-apron ...
^ "Д. Ангелов, Образуване на
българската народност - 4.3". Promacedonia.org.
^ "Ekip7 Разград - Коренните жители на
Разград и района – българи, ама не
какви да е, а капанци!". Ekip7.bg. 2015-09-14.
^ "Значение узоров и орнаментов -
Русские орнаменты и узоры". Web.archive.org. 21
November 2013. Archived from the original on 21 November 2013.
Retrieved 20 December 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
^ "Символы в орнаментах древних
славян". Etnoxata.com.ua. 2015-01-25. Retrieved
^ В. В. Якжик, Государственный флаг
Республики Беларусь, w: Рекомендации
по использованию государственной
символики в учреждениях образования,
^ Mellish, Liz.
Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion
Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion Vol 9:
East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus. Bloomsbury. p. PART 5:
Southeast Europe, Bulgaria: Ethnic Dress. ISBN 9781847883988.
Bulgarian women's dress include overgarments that are joined at the
shoulders and are considered to have evolved from the sarafan. (the
pinafore dress typically worn by women of various Slav nations). This
type of garment includes the soukman and the saya and aprons that
fasten at the waist that are also attributed to a Slavic origin.
^ "HRISTO STOICHKOV FCBarcelona.cat". Fcbarcelona.com. Archived from
the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
^ Dave Meltzer; Bret Hart (2004-01-01). Tributes II: Remembering More
of the World's Greatest Professional Wrestlers. Books.google.com.
ISBN 9781582618173. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
Komatina, Predrag (2010). "The
Slavs of the mid-
Danube basin and the
Bulgarian expansion in the first half of the 9th century" (PDF).
Зборник радова Византолошког
института. 47: 55–82.
Obolensky, Dimitri (1974) . The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern
Europe, 500-1453. London: Cardinal.
Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford:
Media related to People of
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