BULGARIANS (Bulgarian : българи, Bǎlgari, IPA: ) are a South
Slavic ethnic group who are native to
Bulgaria and its neighboring
* 1 Citizenship
* 3 Genetic origins
* 4 History
* 4.1 Bulgarian national movement
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Related ethnic groups
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Language
* 7.1.2 Name system
* 7.2 Religion
* 7.3 Art and science
* 7.4 Cuisine
* 7.5 Folk beliefs and customs
* 7.6 Folk dress and music
* 7.7 Sport
* 7.8 Symbols
* 8 Maps
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 External links
According to the Art.25 (1) of Constitution of Republic of
a Bulgarian citizen shall be anyone born of at least one parent
holding a Bulgarian citizenship, or born on the territory of the
Republic of Bulgaria, should they not be entitled to any other
citizenship by virtue of origin. Bulgarian citizenship shall further
be acquirable through naturalization.
The population of
Bulgaria descend from peoples with different
origins and numbers. They became assimilated by the Slavic settlers in
First Bulgarian Empire , three of which left something remarkable:
* the ancient pre-Slavic indigenous peoples, notably
from whom cultural and ethnic elements were taken;
Early Slavs from whom the language was inherited;
Bulgars from whom the ethnonym and the early statehood were
From the indigenous Thracian people certain cultural and ethnic
elements were taken. Other pre-Slavic Indo-European peoples,
Dacians (if distinct from Thracians),
Goths , Romans
Ancient Greeks ,
Illyrians also settled
into the later Bulgarian land. The
Thracian language has been
described as a southern Baltic language. It was still spoken in the
6th century, probably becoming extinct afterwards, but that in a
later period the
Bulgarians replaced long-established Greek/Latin
toponyms with Thracian toponyms might suggest that Thracian had not
been completely obliterated then. Some pre-Slavic linguistic and
cultural traces might have been preserved in modern
Scythia Minor and
Moesia Inferior appear to have been
Romanized , although the region became a focus of barbarian
Goths and Huns) during the 4th and early 5th
centuries AD, before a further "Romanization" episode during the
early 6th century. According to archeological evidence from the late
periods of Roman rule, the
Romans did not decrease the number of
Thracians significantly in major cities. By the 4th century the major
Serdica had predominantly Thracian populace based on
epigraphic evidence, which shows prevailing Latino-Thracian given
names, but thereafter the names were completely replaced by Christian
Early Slavs emerged from their original homeland in the early 6th
century, and spread to most of the eastern
Central Europe , Eastern
Europe and the
Balkans , thus forming three main branches: the West
Slavs in eastern Central Europe, the
East Slavs in Eastern Europe, and
South Slavs in Southeastern Europe (Balkans). The latter gradually
inflicted total linguistic replacement of Thracian, if the Thracians
had not already been Romanized or Hellenized. Most scholars accept
that they began large-scale settling of the
Balkans in the 580s based
on the statement of the 6th century historian
Menander speaking of
Thrace and consecutive attacks of
Greece in 582.
They continued coming to the
Balkans in many waves, but also leaving,
Justinian II (685-695) settled as many as 30,000 Slavs
Asia Minor . The Byzantines grouped the numerous Slavic
tribes into two groups: the
Sklavenoi and Antes . Some Bulgarian
scholars suggest that the Antes became one of the ancestors of the
modern Bulgarians. The north and south of Provadiyska river separates
the area of
Bulgar burials from Slavic cremations, although the Slavs
in the area were expelled in
Thrace and replaced by settlements of
Bulgar refugees fleeing attacks of the
south up to the
Balkan Mountains and the northeastern Upper Thracian
Plain . Despite the widely held belief of the whole Upper Thracian
Plain massively settled by Slavs, archeological evidence and medieval
written accounts confirm Slavic presence in the
Maritsa basin with
especial concentration along the line
Adrianople , which was
Severians after they had been expelled from
Bulgars expelled the Slavic colonists completely from the
Black Sea area of
Burgas in 816, but the
Thrace was also settled by Severian colonists. The
control of the
Bulgars in the west was indirect and in the hands of
the Slavic chiefs.
Bulgars are first mentioned in the 4th century in the vicinity of
the North Caucasian steppe . Scholars often suggest that the ultimate
origins of the
Bulgars can be traced to the Central Asian nomadic
confederations , specifically as part of loosely related Oghuric
tribes which spanned from the Pontic steppe to central Asia. However,
any direct connection between the
Bulgars and postulated Asian
counterparts rest on little more than speculative and "contorted
etymologies". In the 670s, some
Bulgar tribes, the
Asparukh and the Macedonian Bulgars, led by
Kouber , crossed the
Danube river and settled in the
Balkans with a single migration wave,
the former of which
Michael the Syrian described as numbering 10,000.
Bulgars are not thought to have been numerous, becoming a ruling
elite in the areas they controlled. Asparukh's
Bulgars made a tribal
union with the
Severians and the "Seven clans ", who were re-settled
to protect the flanks of the
Bulgar settlements in
Scythia Minor , as
Pliska was built on the site of a former Slavic
settlement. Their archeological evidence is concentrated in northeast
Bulgaria and in Macedonia and various of
Bulgar burial practices
Onoghurs ) were a mix of ethnic groups under a
Bulgar chief. Mixed Bulgar-Slavic settlements emerged according to
Omurtag was the last ruler with a Turkic name
and during the reign of Boris the Slavonic language reached an
official level. A small number of loan words of the
remained in the Medieval Bulgarian Slavic language and several
survived in the modern.
During the Early Byzantine Era, the Roman provincials in Scythia
Moesia Secunda were already engaged in economic and social
exchange with the 'barbarians' north of the
Danube . This might have
facilitated their eventual Slavonization, although the majority of
the population appears to have been withdrawn to the hinterland of
Asia Minor prior to any permanent Slavic and Bulgar
settlement south of the Danube. The major port towns in Pontic
Bulgaria remained Byzantine Greek in their outlook. The large scale
population transfers and territorial expansions during the 8th and 9th
century, additionally increased the number of the
Slavs and Byzantine
Christians within the state, making the
Bulgars quite obviously a
minority. The establishment of a new state molded the various Slav,
Bulgar and earlier or later populations into the "Bulgarian people" of
First Bulgarian Empire speaking a South Slav language . In
different periods to the ethnogenesis of the local population
contributed also different Indo-European and Turkic people, who
settled or lived on the Balkans.
Genetic studies on Bulgarians
Genetic studies on Bulgarians Genetic distance of
Slavs by A (atDNA), B (Y-DNA) and C (mtDNA plot).
Bulgarians are genetically nearest either to peoples from the Balkan,
central European people, or both, depending on the type of DNA and the
samples of populations included in the studies. According to a triple
autosomal , mitochondrial and paternal analysis of available data from
large-scale studies on Balto -
Slavs and their proximal populations,
the whole genome SNP data situates
Bulgarians in a cluster with
Romanians and Macedonians , and they are at similar proximity to
Serbs who are not part of another cluster
but are described as 'in between' clusters.
Bulgarians are least
distanced from the same populations according to the
Genetic distance calculated by SNP data of the multiple autosomes,
ranked most proximal to
Bulgarians the Serbs, followed by Macedonians,
Montenegrins, Romanians, Gagauzes, Macedonian
Greeks , the rest of the
South Slavs ,
Czechs , and then by
Thessaloniki , Central
Peloponese . At the mtDNA plot the
Bulgarians share their most proximal position with Macedonians ,
Romanians and Hungarians. It was concluded that the
contributions to the Bulgarian gene pool from the pre-Slavic
indigenous population definitely outnumber that of the Slavic settlers
who spread their language in the
Balkans mainly by assimilation.
Autosomal studies detect a connection between modern
Slavs that is a result of migrations no earlier than 1,500 years
ago. Anyway most of the East-
West Slavs share only a modest gene flow
with Bulgarians. While the
Bulgarians share significantly fewer IBD
segments for length classes with
Greeks than with the group of
East-West Slavs, most of the East-
West Slavs share as much as IBD
segments with the
Bulgarians as with the inter-Slavic populations
Romanians and Hungarians. Despite various invasions of Altaic peoples
in Europe, no significant impact from such Asian descent is recorded
throughout southern and central Europe.
Part of a series on
* Public holidays in
* South America
Bulgarian Muslims )
Bulgarian Orthodox Church
* Protestant denominations
List of Bulgarians
* People of Bulgarian descent
Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in
Byzantine commonwealth and
First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681. After the adoption of
Orthodox Christianity in 864 it became one of the cultural centres of
Slavic Europe. Its leading cultural position was consolidated with the
invention of the
Cyrillic script in its capital
Preslav at the eve of
the 10th century. The development of
Old Church Slavonic literacy in
the country had the effect of preventing the assimilation of the South
Slavs into neighbouring cultures and it also stimulated the
development of a distinct ethnic identity. A symbiosis was carried
out between the numerically weak
Bulgars and the numerous Slavic
tribes in that broad area from the
Danube to the north, to the Aegean
Sea to the south, and from the
Adriatic Sea to the west, to the Black
Sea to the east, who accepted the common ethnonym "Bulgarians".
During the 10th century the
Bulgarians established a form of national
identity that was far from modern nationalism but helped them to
survive as a distinct entity through the centuries.
Bulgaria lost its independence and remained a Byzantine
subject until 1185, when the
Second Bulgarian Empire was created.
Gesta Hungarorum , completed sometime between 1200
and 1230, mentions in pages 46–47 the Macedonians , the Bulgarians,
Greeks as the peoples inhabiting the regions south of Serdica
. Nevertheless, at the end of the 14th century, the Ottomans
conquered the whole of Bulgaria. Under the Ottoman system, Christians
were considered an inferior class of people. Thus, Bulgarians, like
other Christians, were subjected to heavy taxes and a small portion of
the Bulgarian populace experienced partial or complete Islamisation.
Orthodox Christians were included in a specific ethno-religious
Rum Millet . To the common people, belonging to this
Orthodox commonwealth became more important than their ethnic origins.
This community became both, basic form of social organization and
source of identity for all the ethnic groups inside it. In this way,
ethnonyms were rarely used and between the 15th and 19th centuries,
most of the local people gradually began to identify themselves simply
as Christians. However, the public-spirited clergy in some isolated
monasteries still kept the distinct Bulgarian identity alive, and
this helped it to survive predominantly in rural, remote areas.
Despite the process of ethno-religious fusion among the Orthodox
Christians, strong nationalist sentiments persisted into the Catholic
community in the northwestern part of the country. At that time, a
process of partial hellenisation occurred among the intelligentsia and
the urban population, as a result of the higher status of the Greek
culture and the
Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church among the Balkan Christians.
During the second half of the 18th century, the Enlightenment in
Western Europe provided influence for the initiation of the National
Bulgaria in 1762.
Bulgarians supported the Russian Army when they crossed the
Danube in the middle of the 18th century.
Russia worked to convince
them to settle in areas recently conquered by it, especially in
Bessarabia . As a consequence, many Bulgarian colonists settled there,
and later they formed two military regiments, as part of the Russian
military colonization of the area in 1759–1763.
BULGARIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
During the Russo-Turkish Wars (1806–1812) and (1828–1829)
Bulgarian emigrants formed the Bulgarian Countrymen's Army and joined
the Russian army , hoping
Russia would bring Bulgarian liberation, but
its imperial interests were focused then on
Greece and Valachia . The
rise of nationalism under the
Ottoman Empire led to a struggle for
cultural and religious autonomy of the Bulgarian people. The
Bulgarians wanted to have their own schools and liturgy in Bulgarian,
and they needed an independent ecclesiastical organisation. Discontent
with the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox clergy, the struggle started
to flare up in several Bulgarian dioceses in the 1820s.
It was not until the 1850s when the
Bulgarians initiated a purposeful
struggle against the
Constantinople . The struggle
Bulgarians and the Greek
throughout the 1860s. In 1861 the Vatican and the Ottoman government
recognized a separate
Bulgarian Uniat Church . As the Greek clerics
were ousted from most Bulgarian bishoprics at the end of the decade,
significant areas had been seceded from the Patriarchate's control.
This movement restored the distinct Bulgarian national consciousness
among the common people and led to the recognition of the Bulgarian
Millet in 1870 by the Ottomans. As result, two armed struggle
movements started to develop as late as the beginning of the 1870s:
Internal Revolutionary Organisation and the Bulgarian
Revolutionary Central Committee . Their armed struggle reached its
peak with the
April Uprising which broke out in 1876. It resulted in
the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) , and led to the foundation of the
third Bulgarian state after the
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano . The issue of
Bulgarian nationalism gained greater significance, following the
Congress of Berlin which took back the regions of Macedonia and
Adrianople area, returning them under the control of the Ottoman
Empire. Also an autonomous Ottoman province, called Eastern Rumelia
was created in northern Thrace. Аs a consequence, the Bulgarian
national movement proclaimed as its aim the inclusion of most of
Moesia under Greater Bulgaria.
Eastern Rumelia was annexed to
Bulgaria in 1885 through bloodless
revolution. During the early 1890s, two pro-Bulgarian revolutionary
organizations were founded: the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople
Revolutionary Organization and the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople
Committee . In 1903 they participated in the unsuccessful
Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans in Macedonia and
Adrianople vilayet .
Macedonian Slavs were identified then
predominantly as Bulgarians, and significant Bulgarophile sentiments
endured up among them until the end of the Second World War.
In the early 20th century the control over Macedonia became a key
point of contention between Bulgaria, Greece, and
Serbia , who fought
First Balkan War
First Balkan War of (1912–1913) and the
Second Balkan War of
(1913) . The area was further fought over during the World War I
(1915–1918) and the World War II (1941–1944) .
Main article: Demographics of
Bulgarians live in
Bulgaria , where they number around 6
million, constituting 85% of the population. There are significant
Bulgarian minorities in
Turkey , Albania ,
Bulgarians ), as well as in
Moldova (see Bessarabian
Bulgarians ). Many
Bulgarians also live in the diaspora, which is
formed by representatives and descendants of the old (before 1989) and
new (after 1989) emigration. The old emigration was made up of some
2,470,000 economic and several tens of thousands of political
emigrants, and was directed for the most part to the U.S., Canada,
Brazil and Germany. The new emigration is estimated at some
970,000 people and can be divided into two major subcategories:
permanent emigration at the beginning of the 1990s, directed mostly to
the U.S. ,
Canada , Austria, and
Germany and labour emigration at the
end of the 1990s, directed for the most part to
Greece , Italy, the UK
and Spain. Migrations to the West have been quite steady even in the
late 1990s and early 21st century, as people continue moving to
countries like the US,
Canada and Australia. Most
Bulgarians living in
Canada can be found in Toronto, Ontario, and the provinces with the
Quebec . According to the
2001 census there were 1,124,240 Bulgarian citizens in the city of
Sofia , 302,858 in
Plovdiv , 300,000 in
Varna and about 200,000 in
Burgas . The total number of
Bulgarians stood at over 9 million.
RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS
Until the early 20th century, ethnic Macedonians ,
Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia usually self-identified as
Bulgarians are considered most closely related to the neighbouring
Macedonians; indeed it is sometimes said there is no discernible
ethnic difference between them. The ethnic Macedonians were
Macedonian Bulgarians by most ethnographers until the early
20th century and beyond with a big portion of them evidently
self-identifying as such. The
Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia and
most among the
Serbia have also had a history of
Bulgarians and many were members of the Bulgarian
Exarchate , which included most of the territory regarded as Torlak.
The greater part of these people were also considered
most ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond.
The Bulgarian culture has largely the product of influence of
incoming cultures and is now going through westernization, especially
Bulgarians speak a Southern Slavic language which is mutually
intelligible with Macedonian and to a lesser degree with
Serbo-Croatian , especially the western dialects. The lexical
similarities between Bulgarian and Macedonian are 86%, between
Bulgarian and each other Slavic language are 71%-80%, but with the
Baltic languages they are 40-46%, while with English are about 20%.
Only fewer than a dozen of Bulgarian words are derived from Turkic
Bulgarian demonstrates some linguistic developments that set it apart
Slavic languages shared with Romanian , Albanian and Greek
Balkan language area ). Bulgarian was influenced lexically by
medieval and modern Greek , and Turkish . Medieval Bulgarian
influenced the other South Slavic and Romanian. With Bulgarian and
Russian there was a mutual influence in both directions. The language
of each other was official or lingua franca of each other in the
Middle Ages and the Cold War. Recently, Bulgarian has borrowed many
words from German, French and English.
Bulgarian language is spoken by the majority of the Bulgarian
diaspora , but less so by the descendants of earlier emigrants to the
Bulgarian linguists consider the officialized Macedonian language
(since 1944) a local variation of Bulgarian, just as most
ethnographers and linguists until the early 20th century considered
the local Slavic speech in the Macedonian region. The president of
Zhelyu Zhelev , declined to recognize Macedonian as a
separate language when the
Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia became a new
independent state. The
Bulgarian language is written in the Cyrillic
Cyrillic alphabet of the
In the first half of the 10th century, the
Cyrillic script was
devised in the
Preslav Literary School ,
Bulgaria , based on the
Glagolitic , the Greek and Latin alphabets . Modern versions of the
alphabet are now used to write five more
Slavic languages such as
Belarusian , Macedonian , Russian, Serbian and Ukrainian as well as
Mongolian and some other 60 languages spoken in the former Soviet
Union . Medieval
Bulgaria was the most important cultural centre of
the Slavic peoples at the end of the 9th and throughout the 10th
century. The two literary schools of
Preslav and Ohrid developed a
rich literary and cultural activity with authors of the rank of
John Exarch ,
Chernorizets Hrabar , Clement
Naum of Ohrid .
Bulgaria exerted similar influence on her
neighbouring countries in the mid- to late 14th century, at the time
Tarnovo Literary School
Tarnovo Literary School , with the work of
Patriarch Evtimiy ,
Gregory Tsamblak ,
Constantine of Kostenets (Konstantin Kostenechki).
Bulgarian cultural influence was especially strong in
Moldova where the
Cyrillic script was used until 1860, while Church
Slavonic was the official language of the princely chancellery and of
the church until the end of the 17th century.
There are several different layers of Bulgarian names. The vast
majority of them have either Christian (names like Lazar, Ivan , Anna,
Maria, Ekaterina) or Slavic origin (Vladimir, Svetoslav, Velislava).
After the Liberation in 1878, the names of historical
Tervel were resurrected. The old
Bulgar name Boris has spread from
Bulgaria to a number of countries in
Most Bulgarian male surnames have an -ov surname suffix (
-ов), a tradition used mostly by Eastern Slavic nations such as
Belarus . This is sometimes transcribed as -off
or "-of" (John Atanasov—
John Atanasoff ), but more often as -ov
Boyko Borisov ). The -ov suffix is the Slavic gender-agreeing
suffix, thus Ivanov (Bulgarian : Иванов) literally means
"Ivan's". Bulgarian middle names are patronymic and use the
gender-agreeing suffix as well, thus the middle name of Nikola's son
becomes Nikolov, and the middle name of Ivan's son becomes Ivanov.
Since names in Bulgarian are gender-based, Bulgarian women have the
-ova surname suffix (Cyrillic: -овa), for example, Maria Ivanova.
The plural form of
Bulgarian names ends in -ovi (Cyrillic: -ови),
for example the Ivanovi family (Иванови).
Other common Bulgarian male surnames have the -ev surname suffix
(Cyrillic: -ев), for example Stoev, Ganchev, Peev, and so on. The
female surname in this case would have the -eva surname suffix
(Cyrillic: -ева), for example: Galina Stoeva. The last name of the
entire family then would have the plural form of -evi (Cyrillic:
-еви), for example: the Stoevi family (Стоеви).
Another typical Bulgarian surname suffix, though less common, is
-ski. This surname ending also gets an –a when the bearer of the
name is female (Smirnenski becomes Smirnenska). The plural form of the
surname suffix -ski is still -ski, e.g. the Smirnenski family
(Bulgarian : Смирненски).
The ending –in (female -ina) also appears rarely. It used to be
given to the child of an unmarried woman (for example the son of Kuna
will get the surname Kunin and the son of Gana – Ganin). The surname
suffix -ich can be found only occasionally, primarily among the Roman
Bulgarians . The surname ending –ich does not get an
additional –a if the bearer of the name is female.
Orthodox Church and
Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Map of the
Bulgarian Exarchate (1870–1913). The Ottomans required a
threshold of two thirds of positive votes of the Orthodox population
to include a region into this jurisdiction.
Bulgarians are at least nominally members of the Bulgarian
Orthodox Church founded in 870 AD (autocephalous since 927 AD). The
Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of
Bulgaria like the other national branches of the Orthodox communion
and is considered a dominating element of Bulgarian national
consciousness. The church was abolished once, during the period of
Ottoman rule (1396—1878), in 1873 it was revived as Bulgarian
Exarchate and soon after raised again to Bulgarian
Patriarchate . In
Orthodox Church at least nominally had a total of 4,374,000
Bulgaria (59% of the population), down from 6,552,000 (83%)
at the 2001 census. 4,240,000 of these pointed out the Bulgarian
ethnic group. The Orthodox Bulgarian minorities in the Republic of
Macedonia , Serbia,
Greece , Albania,
hold allegiance to the respective national Orthodox churches.
Despite the position of the
Bulgarian Orthodox Church as a unifying
symbol for all Bulgarians, small groups of
Bulgarians have converted
to other faiths through the course of time. During Ottoman rule, a
substantial number of
Bulgarians converted to Islam, forming the
community of the
Muslim Bulgarians . In the 16th and the
17th centuries Roman Catholic missionaries converted a small number of
Paulicians in the districts of
Svishtov to Roman
Catholicism . Nowadays there are some 40,000 Roman Catholic Bulgarians
in Bulgaria, additional 10,000 in the
Romania and up to
100,000 people of Bulgarian ancenstry in South America. The Roman
Bulgarians of the
Banat are also descendants of Paulicians
who fled there at the end of the 17th century after an unsuccessful
uprising against the Ottomans.
Protestantism was introduced in
Bulgaria by missionaries from the
United States in 1857. Missionary
work continued throughout the second half of the 19th and the first
half of the 20th century. Nowadays there are some 25,000 Protestant
Bulgarians in Bulgaria.
ART AND SCIENCE
Main articles: Cinema of
Bulgarian literature , Music of
Bulgaria , and
Assen Jordanoff (left),
Bulgarian American inventor considered by prominent aviation
specialists the main contributor to the American knowledge of
aviation, likewise the
Boeing , airbag and tape recorder .
John Vincent Atanasoff (right),
Bulgarian American inventor of the
Atanasoff-Berry computer , legally the inventor of the electronic
digital computer in the U.S. and considered the "father of the
Boris Christoff ,
Nicolai Ghiaurov ,
Raina Kabaivanska and Ghena
Dimitrova made a precious contribution to opera singing with Ghiaurov
and Christoff being two of the greatest bassos in the post-war period.
The name of the harpist-
Anna-Maria Ravnopolska-Dean is one of the
best-known harpists today.
Bulgarians have made valuable contributions
to world culture in modern times as well.
Julia Kristeva and Tzvetan
Todorov were among the most influential European philosophers in the
second half of the 20th century. The artist
Christo is among the most
famous representatives of environmental art with projects such as the
Wrapped Reichstag .
Bulgarians in the diaspora have also been active. American scientists
and inventors of Bulgarian descent include
John Atanasoff , Peter
Petroff , and
Assen Jordanoff . Bulgarian-American Stephane Groueff
wrote the celebrated book "
Manhattan Project ", about the making of
the first atomic bomb and also penned "Crown of Thorns", a biography
Tsar Boris III of
Bulgaria . According to
Mensa International ,
Bulgaria ranks 2nd in the world in Mensa IQ test-scores and its
students rate second in the world in
SAT scores. Also, international
MENSA IQ testing completed in 2004 identified as the world's smartest
woman (and one of the smartest people in the world) Daniela
Simidchieva of Bulgaria, who has an IQ of 200. As of 2007 CERN
employed more than 90 Bulgarian scientists, and about 30 of them will
actively participate in the
Large Hadron Collider experiments.
Bulgarian cuisine Bulgarian Peach
Kompot - non
alcoholic clear juice obtained by cooking fruit
Famous for its rich salads required at every meal, Bulgarian cuisine
is also noted for the diversity and quality of dairy products and the
variety of local wines and alcoholic beverages such as rakia , mastika
and menta .
Bulgarian cuisine features also a variety of hot and cold
soups, an example of a cold soup being tarator . There are many
different Bulgarian pastries as well such as banitsa .
Most Bulgarian dishes are oven baked, steamed, or in the form of
stew. Deep-frying is not very typical, but grilling—especially
different kinds of meats—is very common. Pork meat is the most
common meat in the Bulgarian cuisine. Oriental dishes do exist in
Bulgarian cuisine with most common being moussaka , gyuvetch, and
baklava . A very popular ingredient in
Bulgarian cuisine is the
Bulgarian white brine cheese called "sirene " (сирене). It is
the main ingredient in many salads, as well as in a variety of
pastries. Fish and chicken are widely eaten and while beef is less
common as most cattle are bred for milk production rather than meat,
veal is a natural byproduct of this process and it is found in many
Bulgaria is a net exporter of lamb and its own
consumption of the meat is prevalent during its production time in
Bread and salt
Bread and salt tradition in context of welcoming, which is
spread in Balto-Slavs, is the usual welcoming of strangers and
FOLK BELIEFS AND CUSTOMS
Bulgarian customs and
Slavic mythology Kukeri
from the area of
Burgas Girls celebrating Lazaruvane from
Bulgarians may celebrate Saint Theodore\'s Day with horse racings. At
Christmas Eve a
Pogača with fortunes is cooked, which are afterwards
put under the pillow. At
Easter the first egg is painted red and is
kept for a whole year. On the
Baptism of Jesus a competition to catch
the cross in the river is held and is believed the sky is "opened" and
any wish will be fulfilled.
Albanians nod the head up and down to indicates "no"
and shake to indicate "yes". They may wear the martenitsa
(мартеница)—an adornment made of white and red yarn and
worn on the wrist or pinned on the clothes—from 1 March until the
end of the month. Alternatively, one can take off the martenitsa
earlier if one sees a stork (considered a harbinger of spring). One
can then tie the martenitsa to the blossoming branch of a tree.
Family-members and friends in
Bulgaria customarily exchange
martenitsas, which they regard as symbols of health and longevity.
When a stork is seen, the martenitsa should be left on a tree. The
white thread represents peace and tranquility, while the red one
stands for the cycles of life.
Bulgarians may also refer to the
holiday of 1 March as
Baba Marta (Баба Марта), meaning
Grandmother March. It preserves an ancient pagan tradition, possibly
celebrating the old Roman new Year , beginning on 1 March, identical
Mărțișor . Pagan customs found their way to the
Christian holidays. The ancient ritual of kukeri (кукери),
similar to Slovenian
Halloween , is
performed by costumed men in different times of the year and after
Easter. This seeks to scare away evil spirits and bring good harvest
and health to the community. Goat is symbolized, that was left from
the Thracian cult of
Dionysian Mysteries . The ritual consists of
dancing, jumping, shouting and collect gifts from the houses in an
attempt to banish all evil from the village. The adornments on the
costumes vary from one region to another. The
Thracian Heros remains
in the image of
Saint George , at whose feast the agriculture is
celebrated, a lamb is traditionally eaten, accomplished with ritual
bathing. Saint Tryphon 's fertility and wine is attributed a Thracian
origin, considered to preserve the cult to
Sabazius as the
This is followed in February by Pokladi, a tradition of setting
massively large fire and jump over as at the
Kupala Night and a
competition between couples to eat an egg on a thread is held. Another
characteristic custom called nestinarstvo (нестинарство),
or firedancing, distinguishes the
Strandzha region, as well as Dog
spinning . The authentic nestinarstvo with states of trance is only
preserved in the village
Balgari . This ancient custom involves
dancing into fire or over live embers. Women dance into the fire with
their bare feet without suffering any injury or pain.
Slavic pagan customs are preserved in Bulgarian Christian holidays.
Miladinov brothers and foreign authors noticed that even pagan
prayers are preserved quoting plenty of Slavic pagan rite songs and
tales remained in Bulgarians, including Macedonians and
mainly dedicated to the divine nymphs samovili and peperuna for the
feasts surva , Saint George\'s Day ,
Koleda , etc. with evidence of
toponymy throughout the regional groups linking directly to the
Hors and Veles , while the regional group
Hartsoi derive their name from god
Hors . Songs dedicated to the
Orpheus were found in Pomaks, who is said to marry
the samovili. The old
Bulgarian name of the Presentation of Jesus at
the Temple was Gromnitsa and Perunov den dedicated to the supreme
Slavic thunder god
Perun . In the mix of Christian and pagan patrons
of thunder, at
Saint Elijah 's feast day
Ognyena Maria is worshiped,
the Slavic goddesses assisting
Perun that took a substitutional dual
position of the Christian Mother of God. The custom for rain begging
Peperuna is derived from the wife of
Perun and the god of the rain
Dodola , this was described by a 1792 Bulgarian book as a continued
Perun at times of absence of rain with a ritual performed
by a boy or a girl dressed like Perun. Similar rain begging is called
German . In case of continuous lack of rain, a custom of driving out
the zmey from the area is performed. In the dualistic Slavic belief
the zmey may be both good tutelary spirit and evil, in which case is
considered not local and good, but evil and trying to inflict harm and
Jeremiah 's feast is of the snakes and the reptiles,
there is a tradition of jumping over fire. At the Rusalska Week the
girls don't go outside to prevent themselves from diseases and harm
that the dead forces Rusalii can cause. This remained the holiday of
the samovili. The men performing the custom are also called Rusalii,
they don't let anybody pass through between them, don't talk with each
other except for the evening, avoid water, if someone lacks behind a
member swoops the sword over the lacker's head to prevent him from
evil spirits. If the group encounter on their way a well, dry tree,
old cemeteries, crossroads, they go round them three times. Before
leaving rusalii say goodbye to their relatives as if they went to war,
which is not surprising because some of them are killed. When two
rusalii groups met there was a fight to the death in which the dead
were buried in special "rusaliyski cemetery." Each year there are
holidays in honour of wolves and mouses. A relief for the scared
believers is celebrated at the
Beheading of St. John the Baptist ,
when according to Bulgarian belief all the mythical figures go back to
their caves in a mythical village in the middle of nowhere Zmeykovo of
the zmey king, along with the rusalki , samodivi, an return at
Annunciation . According to other beliefs the danger peaks at the
so-called few days around the New Year Eve "Dirty Days", this time
Koleda , which merged with
Christmas , when groups of kids
koledari visit houses, singing carols and receiving a gift at parting.
It is believed that no man can go in Zmeyovo and only the magpie knows
the location of this place. At many of the holidays a sexual taboo is
said to be practiced to prevent conceiving a vampire or werewolf and
not to work, not to go to Sedenki or go out. Live fire is set in case
Babinden for example is rooted in the mother-goddess.
On the day of
St. Vlas , the tradition of a "wooly" god Veles
established itself, a god who is considered to be a protector of
shepherds, and bread is given to the livestock on that day. The
ancient Slavic custom to marry died people occurred in Bulgarian
Survakane is performed each new year with a decorated stick
by children, who hit adults on the back for health at the New Year
Eve, usually in exchange of money. In the
Chech region there is a
custom forbidding "touching the land", i.e. construction and
agriculture, at the equinox on 25 March and the same custom is found
Bulgarian mythology and fairy tales are mainly about forest figures,
such as the dragon zmey , the nymphs samovili (samodivi), the witch
veshtitsa. They are usually harmful and devastating, but can also help
the people. The samovili are said to live in beeches and sycamores
the, which are therefore considered holy and not permitted burning.
Samovili, although believed to be masters of everything between the
sky and the earth, "run away" from fraxinus, garlic, dew and walnut.
Walnut remained in Christianity to be used in prayers to "see" the
dead in Spirits Day.
Dictamnus is believed to be their favourite
herb, which is intoxicating. The samovili are spirits in Bulgarian
beliefs are the diseases themselves and punish people, kidnap
shepherds, make blind the people or drown them and are in white
colored dress, they are in odd numbers, which suggest they are ones of
the "dead". Epic heroes as
Prince Marko are believed to be descended
from the samodivi. The elm is believed to scare the evil forces.
Sacral trees in Bulgarian beliefs are beeches and oaks. Hawthorn is
believed to expel all evil forces and is applied to cure suspected
vampires. The tradition forbids killing of sacred animals - deer,
while it is hold a belief the samodivi runaway from horse. The alleged
as "unclean" animals resembling the devil such as the goat are,
however, exempted from being eaten as the holy ones. The zmey is
transhuman and can turn "into" animals, plants and items, he is also
"responsible" for diseases, madness and missing women. The female
version of the Slavic zmey is
Lamia and Ala is another version. The
girls who practiced Lazaruvane and other rituals "could not" be
kidnapped by the zmey. The main enemy of the Sun is the zmey, which
tries to eat the Sun, which scene is preserved in church art. The sun
is painted one eyed as recorded by beliefs
Perun stabbed one of the
sun's eyes to save the world from overheating. The born on Saturday
are thought as having supernatural powers, those born at the wolves'
holidays and a number of people are alleged as varkolaks and vampires.
The most spread Bulgarian view of the vampire was that of a rolling
bulbous balloon of blood derived from the Slavic term pir "drink".
Rusalka is believed to be a variety of the samodivi and Nav\' , but
the latter are considered little fairies. The Thursdays remained
Perun in Bulgarian beliefs. The wind and the hot steam of
the bread is believed to be the souls of the dead. From
Fist of the Ascension it is believed that the death are in the flowers
and the animals. Mora in Bulgarian beliefs is a black hairy evil
spirit with four firing eyes associated with nightmares when causing
someone to scream, similarly to
Kikimora . Polunoshtnitsa and
Poludnica are believed to be evil spirits causing death, while to
Lesnik , Domovnik and Vodnik a dualistic nature is attributed. Thanks
to the Vlshebnik , a man of the community, a magician and a priest,
communication with the "other" world was held. Torbalan is the Sack
Man used to scare children, along with
Baba Yaga , who is a witch in
her Bulgarian version
Kuma Lisa and
Hitar Petar are the tricky fox and villager from the
fairy tales, the tricked antagonist is often
Nasreddin Hoca , whereas
Bay Ganyo is a ridiculed Bulgarian villager. Ivancho and Mariika are
the protagonists of the jokes.
Despite eastern Ottoman influence is obvious in areas such as cuisine
and music, Bulgarian folk beliefs and mythology seem to lack analogies
Turkic mythology , paganism and any non-European folk beliefs,
sо in pre-Christian times the ancient
Bulgars were much inferior to
Slavs in the ethnogenesis and culture that resulted in modern
Bulgarians. The Slavic language was officialized at the same time with
Christianity, so Slavic paganism has never been a state religion of
Bulgaria or more influential than
Tengriism . 80% of Bulgarian land
lack any archeology left from the Bulgars. Although legacy indicating
Bulgar culture is at most virtually absent in modern Bulgarian
culture, some authors claim there is a similarity between the dress
and customs of the
Chuvashes , who descend from the Volga
and the Bulgarian ethnographic group Kapantsi from Targovishte
Razgrad Province , among whom the claim that they are
direct descendants of
Bulgars is popular., but Slavic
elements are found among them.
FOLK DRESS AND MUSIC
Bulgarian folk dancers in a national costume with embroidery on
the penultimate row of the arpons showing the most spread Slavic
Bur with a cross inside the rhombus representing the sun
and spirals indicating rain, which is similarly represented as the
Rising Sun decorative pattern of the Flag of
Belarus . Similar carpet
patterns appear on the
Flag of Turkmenistan
Flag of Turkmenistan ultimately derived from
ancient Persia .
The Bulgarian folk costumes feature long white robes, usually with
red embrdoiery and ornaments derived from the Slavic Rachenik . The
Bulgarian folk costume is considered to be mainly derived from the
dress of the ancient
Slavs , the female dress with the overgarments
joined at the shoulders that evolved from
Sarafan and all the types of
soukman , saya and aprons fasten at the waist are said to be directly
descended from the ancient
Slavs only with negligible mutation. The
women's head-dress, which turned to be a must for the Bulgarian
costume is a decoration with flowers optionally on a headband, that
distinguishes all the Balto-Slavic peoples and is not found in western
cultures. The male dress is of likewise origin, usually
poyas "belt", poturi "full-bottomed breeches" typical for the Slavs
and often a tsarvul and kalpak for shoes and jacket. Among the most
similar relatives of the latter for example is Ukrainian hutsul, but
the kalpak is attributed to Ottoman influence. The male skirt
fustanella appears on the dress only of the
Macedonian Bulgarians and
is of indigenous Balkan origin or influence. In some dress of Thrace
the symbol of the snake as in medieval tombs is found and is
considered a Thracian cultural legacy and belief.
Folk songs are most often about the nymphs from Bulgarian and West
Slavic mythology samovili and the epic heroes yunaks . Instruments
Gadulka , Gusla
Duduk , gaida
Dvoyanka are analogous to other Slavic
gudok , dudka and
Kaval is common in the
Turkey and is akin to Arab
Kawala , as well as Tapan, Goblet Drum,
Zurna . The most spread dance is a circle dance called horo and
khorovod . Songs are generally loud. Recent eastern influences from
the genre music chalga and turbo-folk even brought a prestige for the
masculine voices of females.
Valya Balkanska is a folk singer thanks to whom the Bulgarian speech
in her song "
Izlel ye Delyo Haydutin " will be played in the Outer
space for at least 60,000 years more as part of the Voyager Golden
Record selection of music included in the two Voyager spacecraft
launched in 1977.
Main articles: Sport in
Bulgaria and Football in
Hristo Stoichkov , awarded the Golden Ball and regarded as one of the
best footballers by Barcelona.
Veselin Topalov , the 21st World
Chess Champion .
As for most European peoples, football became by far the most popular
sport for the Bulgarians.
Hristo Stoichkov was one of the best
football (soccer) players in the second half of the 20th century,
having played with the national team and
FC Barcelona . He received a
number of awards and was the joint top scorer at the
1994 World Cup
1994 World Cup .
Dimitar Berbatov , formerly in Manchester United , Tottenham Hotspur ,
Bayer Leverkusen and others, the national team and two domestic clubs,
is still the most popular Bulgarian football player of the 21st
In the beginning of the 20th century
Bulgaria was famous for two of
the best wrestlers in the world –
Dan Kolov and
Nikola Petroff .
Stefka Kostadinova is the best female high jumper , still holding the
world record from 1987, one of the oldest unbroken world records for
all kind of athletics.
Ivet Lalova along with
Irina Privalova is
currently the fastest white woman at
100 metres . Kaloyan Mahlyanov
has been the first European sumo wrestler to win the Emperor's Cup in
Veselin Topalov won the 2005
World Chess Championship . He was
ranked No. 1 in the world from April 2006 to January 2007, and had the
second highest Elo rating of all time (2813). He regained the world
No. 1 ranking again in October 2008.
The national symbols of the
Bulgarians are the Flag , the Coat of
Arms , the National anthem and the National Guard , as well other
unofficial symbols such as the
Samara flag .
The national flag of
Bulgaria is a rectangle with three colours:
white, green, and red, positioned horizontally top to bottom. The
colour fields are of same form and equal size. It is generally known
that the white represents – the sky, the green – the forest and
nature and the red – the blood of the people, referencing the strong
bond of the nation through all the wars and revolutions that have
shaken the country in the past. The Coat of Arms of
Bulgaria is a
state symbol of the sovereignty and independence of the Bulgarian
people and state. It represents a crowned rampant golden lion on a
dark red background with the shape of a shield. Above the shield there
is a crown modeled after the crowns of the emperors of the Second
Bulgarian Empire , with five crosses and an additional cross on top.
Two crowned rampant golden lions hold the shield from both sides,
facing it. They stand upon two crossed oak branches with acorns, which
symbolize the power and the longevity of the Bulgarian state. Under
the shield, there is a white band lined with the three national
colours. The band is placed across the ends of the branches and the
phrase "Unity Makes Strength" is inscribed on it.
Both the Bulgarian flag and the Coat of Arms are also used as symbols
of various Bulgarian organisations, political parties and
The horse of the
Madara Rider is preserved on the back of the
Bulgarian stotinka .
Ethnic map of European Turkey,
Guillaume Lejean (1861), praised by
Мар of the Slavic World by Jos. Erban, 1868
Henry Wilkinson 's map from 1876
Ethnic map of European
Turkey in 1877, by Austro-Hungarian Consul
Peoples at the Balkan Peninsula,
Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas
Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas ,
Hungarian ethnic map of Europe, 1897
Map of A. Scobel,
Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas
Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas , 1908
Distribution of the Balkan peoples in 1911,
Distribution European peoples in 1914 according to L. Ravenstein
Swiss Ethnographic map of Europe published in 1918 by Juozas Gabrys
Pomaks by first language according to the 1965 Census
Odessa Oblast ,
Ukraine according to
the 2001 census
Bulgarians by first language in
Zaporizhia Oblast ,
Ukraine according to the 2001 census
Distribution of predominant ethnic groups in
Bulgaria according to
the 2011 census
Romania according to the 2002 census
Moldova according to the 2004 census
Macedonians (ethnic group)
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* ^ John, Norman (1977). An historical geography of Europe, 450
B.C.-A.D.1330. CUP Archive. p. 179. ISBN 9780521291262 . Retrieved
* ^ "The Formation of the Bulgarian Nation, Academician Dimitŭr
Simeonov Angelov, Summary, Sofia-Press, 1978". Kroraina.com. Retrieved
* ^ L. Ivanov. Essential History of
Bulgaria in Seven Pages. Sofia,
* ^ Rębała, Krzysztof; Mikulich, Alexei I.; Tsybovsky, Iosif S.;
Siváková, Daniela; Džupinková, Zuzana; Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta;
Szczerkowska, Zofia (2007). "Y-STR variation among Slavs: Evidence for
the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin". Journal of Human
Genetics. 52 (5): 406–14. PMID 17364156 . doi
* ^ Ralph, Peter; Coop, Graham (2013). "The Geography of Recent
Genetic Ancestry across Europe" . PLoS Biology. 11 (5): e1001555. PMC
3646727 . PMID 23667324 . doi :10.1371/journal.pbio.1001555 .
* ^ Lazaridis, I.; Patterson, N.; Mittnik, A.; Renaud, G.; Mallick,
S.; Kirsanow, K.; Sudmant, P. H.; Schraiber, J. G.; Castellano, S.;
Lipson, M.; Berger, B.; Economou, C.; Bollongino, R.; Fu, Q.; Bos, K.;
Nordenfelt, S.; Li, H.; De Filippo, C.; Prufer, K.; Sawyer, S.; Posth,
C.; Haak, W.; Hallgren, F.; Fornander, E.; Rohland, N.; Delsate, D.;
Francken, M.; Guinet, J.-M.; Wahl, J.; et al. (2013). "Ancient human
genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans"
. Nature. 513 (7518): 409–13. PMC 4170574 . PMID 25230663 . doi
* ^ Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages,
500–1250, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 221–222. ISBN 9780521815390 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Poulton, Hugh (2000). Who are the Macedonians? (2nd ed.). C.
Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-1-85065-534-3 .
* ^ Vassil Karloukovski. "Средновековни градови
и тврдини во Македониjа. Иван Микулчиќ
(Скопjе, Македонска цивилизациjа, 1996),".
Kroraina.com. p. 72. ISBN 9989756074 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Giatzidis, Emil (2002). An Introduction to Post-Communist
Bulgaria: Political, Economic and Social Transformations. Manchester
University Press. ISBN 9780719060953 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Fine, Jr., John V. A. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A
Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University
of Michigan. p. 165. ISBN 0472081497 . Retrieved 2015-02-11 – via
* ^ Sedlar, Jean W. (1994). East
Central Europe in the Middle Ages,
1000–1500. University of Washington Press. p. 364. ISBN
9780295800646 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Full text of Gesta Hungarum, pages 46-47
* ^ "
Bulgaria – Ottoman rule".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Retrieved 21 December 2011. With the capture of a rump Bulgarian
kingdom centred at Bdin (Vidin) in 1396, the last remnant of Bulgarian
independence disappeared. ... The Bulgarian nobility was
destroyed—its members either perished, fled, or accepted
Turkicization—and the peasantry was enserfed to Turkish masters.
* ^ Minkov, Anton (2004). Conversion to
Islam in the Balkans: Kisve
Bahası – Petitions and Ottoman Social Life, 1670–1730. BRILL. p.
193. ISBN 9004135766 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Detrez, Raymond; Segaert, Barbara; Lang, Peter (2008). Europe
and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans,. p. 36. ISBN 9789052013749
. Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Karpat, Kemal H. (2002). Studies on Ottoman Social and
Political History: Selected Articles and Essays. Brill. p. 17. ISBN
9004121013 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, Disciplinary and
Regional Perspectives, Joshua A. Fishman, Ofelia García, Oxford
University Press, 2010, ISBN 0195374924 , p. 276: "There were almost
no remnants of a Bulgarian ethnic identity; the population defined
itself as Christians, according to the Ottoman system of millets, that
is, communities of religious beliefs. The first attempts to define a
Bulgarian ethnicity started at the beginning of the 19-th century."
* ^ Roudometof, Victor; Robertson, Roland (2001). Nationalism,
globalization, and orthodoxy: the social origins of ethnic conflict in
the Balkans. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 68–71. ISBN 0313319499
* ^ Nikolova-Houston, Tatiana Nikolaeva (2008). Margins and
Marginality: Marginalia and Colophons in South Slavic Manuscripts
During the Ottoman Period, 1393–1878. The University of Texas at
Austin, ProQuest,. pp. 202–206. ISBN 9780549650751 . Retrieved
* ^ Crampton,, R. J. (1987). Modern Bulgaria. Cambridge University
Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780521273237 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Carvalho, Joaquim (2007). Religion and Power in Europe:
Conflict and Convergence. Edizioni Plus. p. 261. ISBN 9788884924643 .
* ^ Stith,, Spencer S. (2008). A Comparative Study of Post-Ottoman
Political Influences on Bulgarian National Identity Construction and
Conflict. University of Kansas, ProQuest,. pp. 22–23. ISBN
9780549683957 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ Milchev, Vladimir (2002). "Два хусарски полка
с българско участие в системата на
държавната военна колонизация в Южна
Украйна (1759-1762/63 г.)" . Исторически
преглед (in Bulgarian) (5–6): 154–65.
* ^ Jelavich, Charles; Jelavich, Barbara (1977). Establishment of
the Balkan National States: 1804–1918,. University of Washington
Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780295803609 . Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ During the 20th century, Slavo Macedonian national feeling has
shifted. At the beginning of the 20th century, Slavic patriots in
Macedonia felt a strong attachment to Macedonia as a multi-ethnic
homeland. They imagined a Macedonian community uniting themselves with
non-Slavic Macedonians... Most of these
Macedonian Slavs also saw
themselves as Bulgarians. By the middle of the 20th. century, however
Macedonian patriots began to see Macedonian and Bulgarian loyalties as
mutually exclusive. Regional Macedonian nationalism had become ethnic
Macedonian nationalism... This transformation shows that the content
of collective loyalties can shift.Roth, Klaus; Brunnbauer, Ulf (2010).
Region, Regional Identity and Regionalism in Southeastern Europe,
Ethnologia Balkanica Series. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 127. ISBN
* ^ Up until the early 20th century and beyond, the international
community viewed Macedonians as regional variety of Bulgarians, i.e.
Western Bulgarians.Nationalism and Territory: Constructing Group
Identity in Southeastern Europe, Geographical perspectives on the
human past : Europe: Current Events, George W. White, Rowman and most
Bulgarians, whether they supported the Communists, VMRO, or the
collaborating government, assumed that all Macedonia would fall to
Bulgaria after the WWII. Tito was determined that this should not
happen. "Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (2002). The struggle for
Greece, 1941–1949. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 67. ISBN
* ^ "At the end of the WWI there were very few historians or
ethnographers, who claimed that a separate Macedonian nation
existed... Of those
Slavs who had developed some sense of national
identity, the majority probably considered themselves to be
Bulgarians, although they were aware of differences between themselves
and the inhabitants of Bulgaria... The question as of whether a
Macedonian nation actually existed in the 1940s when a Communist
Yugoslavia decided to recognize one is difficult to answer. Some
observers argue that even at this time it was doubtful whether the
Slavs from Macedonia considered themselves to be a nationality
separate from the Bulgarians.Danforth, Loring M. (1997). The
Macedonian conflict: ethnic nationalism in a transnational world.
Princeton University Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-691-04356-6 .
* ^ Kaufman, Stuart J. (2001). Modern hatreds: the symbolic
politics of ethnic war. New York: Cornell University Press. p. 193.
ISBN 0-8014-8736-6 . The key fact about Macedonian nationalism is that
it is new: in the early twentieth century, Macedonian villagers
defined their identity religiously—they were either "Bulgarian,"
"Serbian," or "Greek" depending on the affiliation of the village
priest. While Bulgarian was most common affiliation then, mistreatment
by occupying Bulgarian troops during WWII cured most Macedonians from
their pro-Bulgarian sympathies, leaving them embracing the new
Macedonian identity promoted by the Tito regime after the war.
* ^ "Experts for Census 2011" (in Bulgarian).
* ^ A B "Bulgarian 2001 census" (in Bulgarian). nsi.bg. Retrieved
* ^ "Chairman of Bulgaria\'s State Agency for
Bulgarians Abroad –
Bulgarians abroad in 2009" (in Bulgarian). 2009.
* ^ "Божидар Димитров преброи 4 млн.
българи зад граница" (in Bulgarian). 2010. Archived
from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
* ^ dans la Macédoine - Cousinéry, Esprit Marie. Voyage dans la
Macédoine: contenant des recherches sur l\'histoire, la géographie,
les antiquités de ce pays, Paris, 1831, Vol. II, p. 15-17, one of the
passages in English – , Engin Deniz Tanir, The Mid-Nineteenth
Bulgaria from the viewpoints of the French Travelers,
A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle
East Technical University, 2005, p. 99, 142
* ^ Pulcherius, Recueil des historiens des Croisades. Historiens
orientaux. III, p. 331 – a passage in English
* ^ Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (2002). The Struggle for
Greece, 1941–1949. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 67. ISBN
9781850654926 . Retrieved 2011-11-13.
* ^ Who are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton. C. Hurst
Serbia – its
land and inhabitants, Belgrade 1986, p. 218)
Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui , "Voyage en Bulgarie pendant l'année
1841" (Жером-Адолф Бланки. Пътуване из
България през 1841 година. Прев. от
френски Ел. Райчева, предг. Ив. Илчев.
София: Колибри, 2005, 219 с. ISBN 9789545293672 .) It
describes a population in Nish sandjak as Bulgarian, see:
* ^ Стойков, Стойко: Българска
диалектология, Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин
* ^ Girdenis A., Maziulis V. Baltu kalbu divercencine chronologija
// Baltistica. T. XXVII (2). - Vilnius, 1994. - P. 9.
* ^ Топоров В.Н. Прусский язык.
Словарь. А - D. - М., 1975. - С. 5
* ^ Hupchick, D.The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Eastern
Europe, p. 67. Springer, 2016, ISBN 9781137048172
* ^ "Social Construction of Identities:
Pomaks in Bulgaria, Ali
Eminov, JEMIE 6 (2007) 2 © 2007 by European Centre for Minority
Issues" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-02-11.
* ^ От Труд онлайн. "Архивът е в процес
на прехвърляне – Труд". Trud.bg. Retrieved
* ^ Harry Henderson (2014-05-14). A to Z of Computer Scientists.
Books.google.com. p. 8. ISBN 9781438109183 . Retrieved 2016-11-22.
* ^ Clark R. Mollenhoff (1999-02-28). Atanasoff: Forgotten Father
of the Computer. Books.google.com. ISBN 9780813800325 . Retrieved
* ^ "Bulgaria- Eastern Europe\'s Newest Hot Spot Offshoring
Business Intelligence & Tools EU Out-Sourcing Specialists Platform
German Market-Entry offshoring Vendor Services".
Outsourcingmonitor.eu. 6 August 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
* ^ "Outsourcing to Bulgaria". Archived from the original on
* ^ "World\'s cleverest woman needs a job". theregister.co.uk.
* ^ Independent Newspapers Online (8 November 2004). "The world\'s
\'smartest woman\' can\'t find a job – Back Page IOL News".
IOL.co.za. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
* ^ "
Bulgarians uncover the birth of the Universe", dir.bg, 21
* ^ "
Bulgaria Poultry and Products Meat Market Update". The Poultry
Site. 2006-05-08. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
* ^ Колева Т. А. Болгары // Календарные
обычаи и обряды в странах зарубежной
Европы. Конец XIX — начало XX в. Весенние
праздники. — М.: Наука, 1977. — С. 274–295. —
* ^ "??" (PDF). Tangrabg.files.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
* ^ "??" (PDF). Bkks.org. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
* ^ Анчо Калоянов. СТАРОБЪЛГАРСКОТО
ЕЗИЧЕСТВО. LiterNet, 06. 11. 2002. ISBN 954-304-009-5
* ^ История во кратце о болгарском
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y "??" (PDF).
Mling.ru. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
* ^ "Русалии - древните български
обичаи по Коледа". Bgnow.eu. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
* ^ Следи от бита и езика на
прабългарите в нашата народна
култура, Иван Коев, София, 1971
* ^ A B MacDermott, Mercia (1998-01-01). Bulgarian Folk Customs.
Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 41, 44. ISBN 9781853024856 . The
so-called Kapantsi - an ethnographic group living mainly in the
Razgrad and Turgovishte, area of north-east
Bulgaria - are believed to
be descendants of Asparuh's Proto-
Bulgars who have maintained at least
something of their original heritage...the traditional costumes of
Bulgaria are derived mainly from the ancient Slav costumes...Women's
costumes fall into four main categories: one-apron, two-apron, sukman
and saya. Like men's costumes, these are not intrinsically separate
types, but have evolved from the original chemise and apron worn by
the early Slavs...Directly descended with little mutation from the
dress of the ancient Slavs, the one-apron ...
* ^ "Д. Ангелов, Образуване на
българската народност - 4.3". Promacedonia.org.
* ^ "Ekip7 Разград - Коренните жители на
Разград и района – българи, ама не
какви да е, а капанци!". Ekip7.bg. 2015-09-14.
* ^ "Символы в орнаментах древних
славян". Etnoxata.com.ua. 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
* ^ В. В. Якжик, Государственный флаг
Республики Беларусь, w: Рекомендации
по использованию государственной
символики в учреждениях образования,
* ^ Mellish, Liz.
Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion
Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion Vol
9: East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus. Bloomsbury. p. PART 5:
Southeast Europe, Bulgaria: Ethnic Dress. ISBN 9781847883988 .
Bulgarian women's dress include overgarments that are joined at the
shoulders and are considered to have evolved from the sarafan. (the
pinafore dress typically worn by women of various Slav nations). This
type of garment includes the soukman and the saya and aprons that
fasten at the waist that are also attributed to a Slavic origin.
* ^ "??" (PDF). Bkks.org. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
* ^ "HRISTO STOICHKOV FCBarcelona.cat". Fcbarcelona.com.
* ^ Dave Meltzer; Bret Hart (2004-01). Tributes II: Remembering
More of the World\'s Greatest Professional Wrestlers.
Books.google.com. ISBN 9781582618173 . Retrieved 2016-11-22. Check
date values in: date= (help )
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