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BULGARIANS (Bulgarian : българи, Bǎlgari, IPA: ) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and its neighboring regions.

CONTENTS

* 1 Citizenship * 2 Ethnogenesis * 3 Genetic origins

* 4 History

* 4.1 Bulgarian national movement

* 5 Demographics * 6 Related ethnic groups

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Language

* 7.1.1 Cyrillic alphabet * 7.1.2 Name system

* 7.2 Religion * 7.3 Art and science * 7.4 Cuisine * 7.5 Folk beliefs and customs * 7.6 Folk dress and music * 7.7 Sport * 7.8 Symbols

* 8 Maps * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

CITIZENSHIP

According to the Art.25 (1) of Constitution of Republic of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, a Bulgarian citizen shall be anyone born of at least one parent holding a Bulgarian citizenship, or born on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria, should they not be entitled to any other citizenship by virtue of origin. Bulgarian citizenship shall further be acquirable through naturalization.

ETHNOGENESIS

The population of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
descend from peoples with different origins and numbers. They became assimilated by the Slavic settlers in the First Bulgarian Empire , three of which left something remarkable:

* the ancient pre-Slavic indigenous peoples, notably Thracians
Thracians
, from whom cultural and ethnic elements were taken; * the Early Slavs
Early Slavs
from whom the language was inherited; * the Bulgars
Bulgars
from whom the ethnonym and the early statehood were inherited.

From the indigenous Thracian people certain cultural and ethnic elements were taken. Other pre-Slavic Indo-European peoples, including Dacians (if distinct from Thracians), Celts , Goths
Goths
, Romans , Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
, Sarmatians , Paeonians and Illyrians
Illyrians
also settled into the later Bulgarian land. The Thracian language
Thracian language
has been described as a southern Baltic language. It was still spoken in the 6th century, probably becoming extinct afterwards, but that in a later period the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
replaced long-established Greek/Latin toponyms with Thracian toponyms might suggest that Thracian had not been completely obliterated then. Some pre-Slavic linguistic and cultural traces might have been preserved in modern Bulgarians
Bulgarians
(and Macedonians). Scythia Minor and Moesia Inferior appear to have been Romanized , although the region became a focus of barbarian re-settlements (various Goths
Goths
and Huns) during the 4th and early 5th centuries AD, before a further "Romanization" episode during the early 6th century. According to archeological evidence from the late periods of Roman rule, the Romans
Romans
did not decrease the number of Thracians
Thracians
significantly in major cities. By the 4th century the major city of Serdica had predominantly Thracian populace based on epigraphic evidence, which shows prevailing Latino-Thracian given names, but thereafter the names were completely replaced by Christian ones.

The Early Slavs
Early Slavs
emerged from their original homeland in the early 6th century, and spread to most of the eastern Central Europe
Central Europe
, Eastern Europe and the Balkans
Balkans
, thus forming three main branches: the West Slavs
Slavs
in eastern Central Europe, the East Slavs
East Slavs
in Eastern Europe, and the South Slavs
South Slavs
in Southeastern Europe (Balkans). The latter gradually inflicted total linguistic replacement of Thracian, if the Thracians had not already been Romanized or Hellenized. Most scholars accept that they began large-scale settling of the Balkans
Balkans
in the 580s based on the statement of the 6th century historian Menander speaking of 100,000 Slavs
Slavs
in Thrace
Thrace
and consecutive attacks of Greece
Greece
in 582. They continued coming to the Balkans
Balkans
in many waves, but also leaving, most notably Justinian II
Justinian II
(685-695) settled as many as 30,000 Slavs from Thrace
Thrace
in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
. The Byzantines grouped the numerous Slavic tribes into two groups: the Sklavenoi
Sklavenoi
and Antes . Some Bulgarian scholars suggest that the Antes became one of the ancestors of the modern Bulgarians. The north and south of Provadiyska river separates the area of Bulgar
Bulgar
burials from Slavic cremations, although the Slavs in the area were expelled in Thrace
Thrace
and replaced by settlements of northern Bulgar
Bulgar
refugees fleeing attacks of the Pechenegs further south up to the Balkan Mountains and the northeastern Upper Thracian Plain . Despite the widely held belief of the whole Upper Thracian Plain massively settled by Slavs, archeological evidence and medieval written accounts confirm Slavic presence in the Maritsa
Maritsa
basin with especial concentration along the line Haskovo - Adrianople , which was settled by Severians after they had been expelled from Moesia
Moesia
, whereas the Bulgars
Bulgars
expelled the Slavic colonists completely from the Black Sea
Black Sea
area of Thrace
Thrace
between Nessebar and Burgas
Burgas
in 816, but the remaining eastern Thrace
Thrace
was also settled by Severian colonists. The control of the Bulgars
Bulgars
in the west was indirect and in the hands of the Slavic chiefs.

The Bulgars
Bulgars
are first mentioned in the 4th century in the vicinity of the North Caucasian steppe . Scholars often suggest that the ultimate origins of the Bulgars
Bulgars
can be traced to the Central Asian nomadic confederations , specifically as part of loosely related Oghuric tribes which spanned from the Pontic steppe to central Asia. However, any direct connection between the Bulgars
Bulgars
and postulated Asian counterparts rest on little more than speculative and "contorted etymologies". In the 670s, some Bulgar
Bulgar
tribes, the Danube
Danube
Bulgars
Bulgars
led by Asparukh and the Macedonian Bulgars, led by Kouber
Kouber
, crossed the Danube
Danube
river and settled in the Balkans
Balkans
with a single migration wave, the former of which Michael the Syrian described as numbering 10,000. The Bulgars
Bulgars
are not thought to have been numerous, becoming a ruling elite in the areas they controlled. Asparukh's Bulgars
Bulgars
made a tribal union with the Severians and the "Seven clans ", who were re-settled to protect the flanks of the Bulgar
Bulgar
settlements in Scythia Minor , as the capital Pliska
Pliska
was built on the site of a former Slavic settlement. Their archeological evidence is concentrated in northeast Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and in Macedonia and various of Bulgar
Bulgar
burial practices suggest the Bulgars
Bulgars
( Onoghurs ) were a mix of ethnic groups under a Bulgar
Bulgar
chief. Mixed Bulgar-Slavic settlements emerged according to archeological evidence. Omurtag was the last ruler with a Turkic name and during the reign of Boris the Slavonic language reached an official level. A small number of loan words of the Bulgar
Bulgar
language remained in the Medieval Bulgarian Slavic language and several survived in the modern.

During the Early Byzantine Era, the Roman provincials in Scythia Minor and Moesia
Moesia
Secunda were already engaged in economic and social exchange with the 'barbarians' north of the Danube
Danube
. This might have facilitated their eventual Slavonization, although the majority of the population appears to have been withdrawn to the hinterland of Constantinople
Constantinople
or Asia Minor
Asia Minor
prior to any permanent Slavic and Bulgar settlement south of the Danube. The major port towns in Pontic Bulgaria
Bulgaria
remained Byzantine Greek in their outlook. The large scale population transfers and territorial expansions during the 8th and 9th century, additionally increased the number of the Slavs
Slavs
and Byzantine Christians within the state, making the Bulgars
Bulgars
quite obviously a minority. The establishment of a new state molded the various Slav, Bulgar
Bulgar
and earlier or later populations into the "Bulgarian people" of the First Bulgarian Empire speaking a South Slav language . In different periods to the ethnogenesis of the local population contributed also different Indo-European and Turkic people, who settled or lived on the Balkans.

GENETIC ORIGINS

Main article: Genetic studies on Bulgarians
Genetic studies on Bulgarians
Genetic distance of Balto- Slavs
Slavs
by A (atDNA), B (Y-DNA) and C (mtDNA plot).

Bulgarians
Bulgarians
are genetically nearest either to peoples from the Balkan, central European people, or both, depending on the type of DNA and the samples of populations included in the studies. According to a triple autosomal , mitochondrial and paternal analysis of available data from large-scale studies on Balto - Slavs
Slavs
and their proximal populations, the whole genome SNP data situates Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in a cluster with Romanians
Romanians
and Macedonians , and they are at similar proximity to Gagauzes
Gagauzes
, Montenegrins and Serbs
Serbs
who are not part of another cluster but are described as 'in between' clusters. Bulgarians
Bulgarians
are least distanced from the same populations according to the Y-DNA analysis. Genetic distance calculated by SNP data of the multiple autosomes, ranked most proximal to Bulgarians
Bulgarians
the Serbs, followed by Macedonians, Montenegrins, Romanians, Gagauzes, Macedonian Greeks
Greeks
, the rest of the South Slavs
South Slavs
, Hungarians
Hungarians
, Slovaks , Czechs , and then by Greeks
Greeks
from Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, Central Greece
Greece
and Peloponese . At the mtDNA plot the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
share their most proximal position with Macedonians , Czechs , Romanians
Romanians
and Hungarians. It was concluded that the contributions to the Bulgarian gene pool from the pre-Slavic indigenous population definitely outnumber that of the Slavic settlers who spread their language in the Balkans
Balkans
mainly by assimilation. Autosomal studies detect a connection between modern Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and North Slavs
Slavs
that is a result of migrations no earlier than 1,500 years ago. Anyway most of the East- West Slavs
West Slavs
share only a modest gene flow with Bulgarians. While the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
share significantly fewer IBD segments for length classes with Greeks
Greeks
than with the group of East-West Slavs, most of the East- West Slavs
West Slavs
share as much as IBD segments with the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
as with the inter-Slavic populations Romanians
Romanians
and Hungarians. Despite various invasions of Altaic peoples in Europe, no significant impact from such Asian descent is recorded throughout southern and central Europe.

HISTORY

Part of a series on

Bulgarians българи

CULTURE

* Literature * Music * Art * Cinema * Names * Cuisine * Dances * Costume * Sport * Public holidays in Bulgaria
Bulgaria

BY COUNTRY

* Australia
Australia
* Albania * Canada
Canada
* Czechoslovakia * Greece
Greece
* Romania
Romania
* South America * Turkey
Turkey
* Ukraine
Ukraine
* United States
United States
* Serbia
Serbia

BULGARIAN CITIZENS

* France
France
* Germany
Germany
* Hungary * Italy
Italy
* Lebanon * Lithuania * Macedonia * Spain
Spain
* United Kingdom
United Kingdom

SUBGROUPS

* Anatolian * Balkanian * Banat Bulgarians
Banat Bulgarians
* Bessarabian Bulgarian
Bessarabian Bulgarian
* Dobrujans * Macedonian * Ruptsi * Balkandzhii * Pomaks ( Bulgarian Muslims
Bulgarian Muslims
) * Thracian * Shopi / Torlaks
Torlaks
* Şchei
Şchei

RELIGION

* Bulgarian Orthodox Church * Islam
Islam
* Catholic Church
Catholic Church
* Protestant denominations

LANGUAGE

* Bulgarian * Dialects

* Banat Bulgarian

OTHER

* List of Bulgarians * People of Bulgarian descent

* v * t * e

Officers from Bulgarian hussar regiment in Russia
Russia
(1776–1783) See also: Byzantine commonwealth and Rum Millet

The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681. After the adoption of Orthodox Christianity in 864 it became one of the cultural centres of Slavic Europe. Its leading cultural position was consolidated with the invention of the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
in its capital Preslav
Preslav
at the eve of the 10th century. The development of Old Church Slavonic literacy in the country had the effect of preventing the assimilation of the South Slavs
Slavs
into neighbouring cultures and it also stimulated the development of a distinct ethnic identity. A symbiosis was carried out between the numerically weak Bulgars
Bulgars
and the numerous Slavic tribes in that broad area from the Danube
Danube
to the north, to the Aegean Sea to the south, and from the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to the west, to the Black Sea to the east, who accepted the common ethnonym "Bulgarians". During the 10th century the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
established a form of national identity that was far from modern nationalism but helped them to survive as a distinct entity through the centuries.

In 1018 Bulgaria
Bulgaria
lost its independence and remained a Byzantine subject until 1185, when the Second Bulgarian Empire was created. Hungarian chronicle Gesta Hungarorum , completed sometime between 1200 and 1230, mentions in pages 46–47 the Macedonians , the Bulgarians, and the Greeks
Greeks
as the peoples inhabiting the regions south of Serdica . Nevertheless, at the end of the 14th century, the Ottomans conquered the whole of Bulgaria. Under the Ottoman system, Christians were considered an inferior class of people. Thus, Bulgarians, like other Christians, were subjected to heavy taxes and a small portion of the Bulgarian populace experienced partial or complete Islamisation. Orthodox Christians were included in a specific ethno-religious community called Rum Millet . To the common people, belonging to this Orthodox commonwealth became more important than their ethnic origins. This community became both, basic form of social organization and source of identity for all the ethnic groups inside it. In this way, ethnonyms were rarely used and between the 15th and 19th centuries, most of the local people gradually began to identify themselves simply as Christians. However, the public-spirited clergy in some isolated monasteries still kept the distinct Bulgarian identity alive, and this helped it to survive predominantly in rural, remote areas. Despite the process of ethno-religious fusion among the Orthodox Christians, strong nationalist sentiments persisted into the Catholic community in the northwestern part of the country. At that time, a process of partial hellenisation occurred among the intelligentsia and the urban population, as a result of the higher status of the Greek culture and the Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
among the Balkan Christians. During the second half of the 18th century, the Enlightenment in Western Europe
Western Europe
provided influence for the initiation of the National awakening of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1762.

Some Bulgarians
Bulgarians
supported the Russian Army when they crossed the Danube
Danube
in the middle of the 18th century. Russia
Russia
worked to convince them to settle in areas recently conquered by it, especially in Bessarabia
Bessarabia
. As a consequence, many Bulgarian colonists settled there, and later they formed two military regiments, as part of the Russian military colonization of the area in 1759–1763.

BULGARIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT

See also: Bulgarian Millet

During the Russo-Turkish Wars (1806–1812) and (1828–1829) Bulgarian emigrants formed the Bulgarian Countrymen's Army and joined the Russian army , hoping Russia
Russia
would bring Bulgarian liberation, but its imperial interests were focused then on Greece
Greece
and Valachia . The rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
led to a struggle for cultural and religious autonomy of the Bulgarian people. The Bulgarians
Bulgarians
wanted to have their own schools and liturgy in Bulgarian, and they needed an independent ecclesiastical organisation. Discontent with the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox clergy, the struggle started to flare up in several Bulgarian dioceses in the 1820s.

It was not until the 1850s when the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
initiated a purposeful struggle against the Patriarchate of Constantinople
Constantinople
. The struggle between the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and the Greek Phanariotes intensified throughout the 1860s. In 1861 the Vatican and the Ottoman government recognized a separate Bulgarian Uniat Church . As the Greek clerics were ousted from most Bulgarian bishoprics at the end of the decade, significant areas had been seceded from the Patriarchate's control. This movement restored the distinct Bulgarian national consciousness among the common people and led to the recognition of the Bulgarian Millet in 1870 by the Ottomans. As result, two armed struggle movements started to develop as late as the beginning of the 1870s: the Internal Revolutionary Organisation and the Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee . Their armed struggle reached its peak with the April Uprising which broke out in 1876. It resulted in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) , and led to the foundation of the third Bulgarian state after the Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano
. The issue of Bulgarian nationalism
Bulgarian nationalism
gained greater significance, following the Congress of Berlin which took back the regions of Macedonia and Adrianople area, returning them under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Also an autonomous Ottoman province, called Eastern Rumelia was created in northern Thrace. Аs a consequence, the Bulgarian national movement proclaimed as its aim the inclusion of most of Macedonia , Thrace
Thrace
and Moesia
Moesia
under Greater Bulgaria.

Eastern Rumelia was annexed to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1885 through bloodless revolution. During the early 1890s, two pro-Bulgarian revolutionary organizations were founded: the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization and the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee . In 1903 they participated in the unsuccessful Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottomans in Macedonia and the Adrianople vilayet . Macedonian Slavs were identified then predominantly as Bulgarians, and significant Bulgarophile sentiments endured up among them until the end of the Second World War.

In the early 20th century the control over Macedonia became a key point of contention between Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia
Serbia
, who fought the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
of (1912–1913) and the Second Balkan War of (1913) . The area was further fought over during the World War I (1915–1918) and the World War II (1941–1944) .

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Bulgaria
Bulgaria

Most Bulgarians
Bulgarians
live in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, where they number around 6 million, constituting 85% of the population. There are significant Bulgarian minorities in Serbia
Serbia
, Turkey
Turkey
, Albania , Romania
Romania
(Banat Bulgarians
Bulgarians
), as well as in Ukraine
Ukraine
and Moldova
Moldova
(see Bessarabian Bulgarians
Bulgarians
). Many Bulgarians
Bulgarians
also live in the diaspora, which is formed by representatives and descendants of the old (before 1989) and new (after 1989) emigration. The old emigration was made up of some 2,470,000 economic and several tens of thousands of political emigrants, and was directed for the most part to the U.S., Canada, Argentina, Brazil
Brazil
and Germany. The new emigration is estimated at some 970,000 people and can be divided into two major subcategories: permanent emigration at the beginning of the 1990s, directed mostly to the U.S. , Canada
Canada
, Austria, and Germany
Germany
and labour emigration at the end of the 1990s, directed for the most part to Greece
Greece
, Italy, the UK and Spain. Migrations to the West have been quite steady even in the late 1990s and early 21st century, as people continue moving to countries like the US, Canada
Canada
and Australia. Most Bulgarians
Bulgarians
living in Canada
Canada
can be found in Toronto, Ontario, and the provinces with the most Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Canada
Canada
are Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec
Quebec
. According to the 2001 census there were 1,124,240 Bulgarian citizens in the city of Sofia
Sofia
, 302,858 in Plovdiv
Plovdiv
, 300,000 in Varna
Varna
and about 200,000 in Burgas
Burgas
. The total number of Bulgarians
Bulgarians
stood at over 9 million.

RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS

Until the early 20th century, ethnic Macedonians , Torlaks
Torlaks
and Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia usually self-identified as Bulgarians.

Bulgarians
Bulgarians
are considered most closely related to the neighbouring Macedonians; indeed it is sometimes said there is no discernible ethnic difference between them. The ethnic Macedonians were considered Macedonian Bulgarians by most ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond with a big portion of them evidently self-identifying as such. The Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia and most among the Torlaks
Torlaks
in Serbia
Serbia
have also had a history of identifying as Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and many were members of the Bulgarian Exarchate , which included most of the territory regarded as Torlak. The greater part of these people were also considered Bulgarians
Bulgarians
by most ethnographers until the early 20th century and beyond.

CULTURE

The Bulgarian culture has largely the product of influence of incoming cultures and is now going through westernization, especially the cuisine.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language

Bulgarians
Bulgarians
speak a Southern Slavic language which is mutually intelligible with Macedonian and to a lesser degree with Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
, especially the western dialects. The lexical similarities between Bulgarian and Macedonian are 86%, between Bulgarian and each other Slavic language are 71%-80%, but with the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
they are 40-46%, while with English are about 20%. Only fewer than a dozen of Bulgarian words are derived from Turkic Bulgar.

Bulgarian demonstrates some linguistic developments that set it apart from other Slavic languages
Slavic languages
shared with Romanian , Albanian and Greek (see Balkan language area ). Bulgarian was influenced lexically by medieval and modern Greek , and Turkish . Medieval Bulgarian influenced the other South Slavic and Romanian. With Bulgarian and Russian there was a mutual influence in both directions. The language of each other was official or lingua franca of each other in the Middle Ages and the Cold War. Recently, Bulgarian has borrowed many words from German, French and English.

The Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language
is spoken by the majority of the Bulgarian diaspora , but less so by the descendants of earlier emigrants to the U.S., Canada, Argentina
Argentina
and Brazil
Brazil
.

Bulgarian linguists consider the officialized Macedonian language (since 1944) a local variation of Bulgarian, just as most ethnographers and linguists until the early 20th century considered the local Slavic speech in the Macedonian region. The president of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Zhelyu Zhelev , declined to recognize Macedonian as a separate language when the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
became a new independent state. The Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language
is written in the Cyrillic script .

Cyrillic
Cyrillic
Alphabet

Main article: Cyrillic alphabet Cyrillic alphabet of the medieval Old Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language

In the first half of the 10th century, the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
was devised in the Preslav
Preslav
Literary School , Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, based on the Glagolitic , the Greek and Latin alphabets . Modern versions of the alphabet are now used to write five more Slavic languages
Slavic languages
such as Belarusian , Macedonian , Russian, Serbian and Ukrainian as well as Mongolian and some other 60 languages spoken in the former Soviet Union . Medieval Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was the most important cultural centre of the Slavic peoples at the end of the 9th and throughout the 10th century. The two literary schools of Preslav
Preslav
and Ohrid developed a rich literary and cultural activity with authors of the rank of Constantine of Preslav
Preslav
, John Exarch , Chernorizets Hrabar , Clement and Naum of Ohrid . Bulgaria
Bulgaria
exerted similar influence on her neighbouring countries in the mid- to late 14th century, at the time of the Tarnovo Literary School
Tarnovo Literary School
, with the work of Patriarch Evtimiy
Patriarch Evtimiy
, Gregory Tsamblak , Constantine of Kostenets (Konstantin Kostenechki). Bulgarian cultural influence was especially strong in Wallachia and Moldova
Moldova
where the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
was used until 1860, while Church Slavonic was the official language of the princely chancellery and of the church until the end of the 17th century.

Name System

Main article: Bulgarian name

There are several different layers of Bulgarian names. The vast majority of them have either Christian (names like Lazar, Ivan , Anna, Maria, Ekaterina) or Slavic origin (Vladimir, Svetoslav, Velislava). After the Liberation in 1878, the names of historical Bulgar
Bulgar
rulers like Asparuh , Krum
Krum
, Kubrat
Kubrat
and Tervel were resurrected. The old Bulgar
Bulgar
name Boris has spread from Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to a number of countries in the world.

Most Bulgarian male surnames have an -ov surname suffix ( Cyrillic
Cyrillic
: -ов), a tradition used mostly by Eastern Slavic nations such as Russia
Russia
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus
Belarus
. This is sometimes transcribed as -off or "-of" (John Atanasov— John Atanasoff
John Atanasoff
), but more often as -ov (e.g. Boyko Borisov ). The -ov suffix is the Slavic gender-agreeing suffix, thus Ivanov (Bulgarian : Иванов) literally means "Ivan's". Bulgarian middle names are patronymic and use the gender-agreeing suffix as well, thus the middle name of Nikola's son becomes Nikolov, and the middle name of Ivan's son becomes Ivanov. Since names in Bulgarian are gender-based, Bulgarian women have the -ova surname suffix (Cyrillic: -овa), for example, Maria Ivanova. The plural form of Bulgarian names ends in -ovi (Cyrillic: -ови), for example the Ivanovi family (Иванови).

Other common Bulgarian male surnames have the -ev surname suffix (Cyrillic: -ев), for example Stoev, Ganchev, Peev, and so on. The female surname in this case would have the -eva surname suffix (Cyrillic: -ева), for example: Galina Stoeva. The last name of the entire family then would have the plural form of -evi (Cyrillic: -еви), for example: the Stoevi family (Стоеви).

Another typical Bulgarian surname suffix, though less common, is -ski. This surname ending also gets an –a when the bearer of the name is female (Smirnenski becomes Smirnenska). The plural form of the surname suffix -ski is still -ski, e.g. the Smirnenski family (Bulgarian : Смирненски).

The ending –in (female -ina) also appears rarely. It used to be given to the child of an unmarried woman (for example the son of Kuna will get the surname Kunin and the son of Gana – Ganin). The surname suffix -ich can be found only occasionally, primarily among the Roman Catholic Bulgarians
Bulgarians
. The surname ending –ich does not get an additional –a if the bearer of the name is female.

RELIGION

Main articles: Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
and Bulgarian Orthodox Church Map of the Bulgarian Exarchate
Bulgarian Exarchate
(1870–1913). The Ottomans required a threshold of two thirds of positive votes of the Orthodox population to include a region into this jurisdiction.

Most Bulgarians
Bulgarians
are at least nominally members of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
founded in 870 AD (autocephalous since 927 AD). The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
like the other national branches of the Orthodox communion and is considered a dominating element of Bulgarian national consciousness. The church was abolished once, during the period of Ottoman rule (1396—1878), in 1873 it was revived as Bulgarian Exarchate and soon after raised again to Bulgarian Patriarchate . In 2011, the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
at least nominally had a total of 4,374,000 members in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(59% of the population), down from 6,552,000 (83%) at the 2001 census. 4,240,000 of these pointed out the Bulgarian ethnic group. The Orthodox Bulgarian minorities in the Republic of Macedonia , Serbia, Greece
Greece
, Albania, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Moldova
Moldova
nowadays hold allegiance to the respective national Orthodox churches.

Despite the position of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church as a unifying symbol for all Bulgarians, small groups of Bulgarians
Bulgarians
have converted to other faiths through the course of time. During Ottoman rule, a substantial number of Bulgarians
Bulgarians
converted to Islam, forming the community of the Pomaks or Muslim Bulgarians . In the 16th and the 17th centuries Roman Catholic missionaries converted a small number of Bulgarian Paulicians in the districts of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
and Svishtov
Svishtov
to Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
. Nowadays there are some 40,000 Roman Catholic Bulgarians in Bulgaria, additional 10,000 in the Banat in Romania
Romania
and up to 100,000 people of Bulgarian ancenstry in South America. The Roman Catholic Bulgarians
Bulgarians
of the Banat are also descendants of Paulicians who fled there at the end of the 17th century after an unsuccessful uprising against the Ottomans. Protestantism
Protestantism
was introduced in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
by missionaries from the United States
United States
in 1857. Missionary work continued throughout the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. Nowadays there are some 25,000 Protestant Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Bulgaria.

ART AND SCIENCE

Main articles: Cinema of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Bulgarian literature
Bulgarian literature
, Music of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, and Bulgarian dances
Bulgarian dances
Assen Jordanoff (left), Bulgarian American
Bulgarian American
inventor considered by prominent aviation specialists the main contributor to the American knowledge of aviation, likewise the Boeing
Boeing
, airbag and tape recorder . John Vincent Atanasoff (right), Bulgarian American
Bulgarian American
inventor of the Atanasoff-Berry computer
Atanasoff-Berry computer
, legally the inventor of the electronic digital computer in the U.S. and considered the "father of the computer".

Boris Christoff , Nicolai Ghiaurov , Raina Kabaivanska and Ghena Dimitrova made a precious contribution to opera singing with Ghiaurov and Christoff being two of the greatest bassos in the post-war period. The name of the harpist- Anna-Maria Ravnopolska-Dean is one of the best-known harpists today. Bulgarians
Bulgarians
have made valuable contributions to world culture in modern times as well. Julia Kristeva and Tzvetan Todorov were among the most influential European philosophers in the second half of the 20th century. The artist Christo is among the most famous representatives of environmental art with projects such as the Wrapped Reichstag
Wrapped Reichstag
.

Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in the diaspora have also been active. American scientists and inventors of Bulgarian descent include John Atanasoff
John Atanasoff
, Peter Petroff , and Assen Jordanoff . Bulgarian-American Stephane Groueff wrote the celebrated book " Manhattan Project ", about the making of the first atomic bomb and also penned "Crown of Thorns", a biography of Tsar
Tsar
Boris III of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
. According to Mensa International , Bulgaria
Bulgaria
ranks 2nd in the world in Mensa IQ test-scores and its students rate second in the world in SAT
SAT
scores. Also, international MENSA IQ testing completed in 2004 identified as the world's smartest woman (and one of the smartest people in the world) Daniela Simidchieva of Bulgaria, who has an IQ of 200. As of 2007 CERN employed more than 90 Bulgarian scientists, and about 30 of them will actively participate in the Large Hadron Collider experiments.

CUISINE

Main article: Bulgarian cuisine Bulgarian Peach Kompot - non alcoholic clear juice obtained by cooking fruit

Famous for its rich salads required at every meal, Bulgarian cuisine is also noted for the diversity and quality of dairy products and the variety of local wines and alcoholic beverages such as rakia , mastika and menta . Bulgarian cuisine features also a variety of hot and cold soups, an example of a cold soup being tarator . There are many different Bulgarian pastries as well such as banitsa .

Most Bulgarian dishes are oven baked, steamed, or in the form of stew. Deep-frying is not very typical, but grilling—especially different kinds of meats—is very common. Pork meat is the most common meat in the Bulgarian cuisine. Oriental dishes do exist in Bulgarian cuisine with most common being moussaka , gyuvetch, and baklava . A very popular ingredient in Bulgarian cuisine is the Bulgarian white brine cheese called "sirene " (сирене). It is the main ingredient in many salads, as well as in a variety of pastries. Fish and chicken are widely eaten and while beef is less common as most cattle are bred for milk production rather than meat, veal is a natural byproduct of this process and it is found in many popular recipes. Bulgaria
Bulgaria
is a net exporter of lamb and its own consumption of the meat is prevalent during its production time in spring. Bread and salt
Bread and salt
tradition in context of welcoming, which is spread in Balto-Slavs, is the usual welcoming of strangers and politicians.

FOLK BELIEFS AND CUSTOMS

Main articles: Bulgarian customs and Slavic mythology Kukeri from the area of Burgas
Burgas
Girls celebrating Lazaruvane from Gabrа, Sofia
Sofia
Province

Bulgarians
Bulgarians
may celebrate Saint Theodore\'s Day with horse racings. At Christmas
Christmas
Eve a Pogača with fortunes is cooked, which are afterwards put under the pillow. At Easter
Easter
the first egg is painted red and is kept for a whole year. On the Baptism of Jesus a competition to catch the cross in the river is held and is believed the sky is "opened" and any wish will be fulfilled.

Bulgarians
Bulgarians
as Albanians
Albanians
nod the head up and down to indicates "no" and shake to indicate "yes". They may wear the martenitsa (мартеница)—an adornment made of white and red yarn and worn on the wrist or pinned on the clothes—from 1 March until the end of the month. Alternatively, one can take off the martenitsa earlier if one sees a stork (considered a harbinger of spring). One can then tie the martenitsa to the blossoming branch of a tree. Family-members and friends in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
customarily exchange martenitsas, which they regard as symbols of health and longevity. When a stork is seen, the martenitsa should be left on a tree. The white thread represents peace and tranquility, while the red one stands for the cycles of life. Bulgarians
Bulgarians
may also refer to the holiday of 1 March as Baba Marta (Баба Марта), meaning Grandmother March. It preserves an ancient pagan tradition, possibly celebrating the old Roman new Year , beginning on 1 March, identical with Romanian Mărțișor . Pagan customs found their way to the Christian holidays. The ancient ritual of kukeri (кукери), similar to Slovenian Kurentovanje , Busójárás
Busójárás
and Halloween
Halloween
, is performed by costumed men in different times of the year and after Easter. This seeks to scare away evil spirits and bring good harvest and health to the community. Goat is symbolized, that was left from the Thracian cult of Dionysian Mysteries . The ritual consists of dancing, jumping, shouting and collect gifts from the houses in an attempt to banish all evil from the village. The adornments on the costumes vary from one region to another. The Thracian Heros
Thracian Heros
remains in the image of Saint George
Saint George
, at whose feast the agriculture is celebrated, a lamb is traditionally eaten, accomplished with ritual bathing. Saint Tryphon 's fertility and wine is attributed a Thracian origin, considered to preserve the cult to Sabazius as the Kukeri
Kukeri
. This is followed in February by Pokladi, a tradition of setting massively large fire and jump over as at the Kupala Night and a competition between couples to eat an egg on a thread is held. Another characteristic custom called nestinarstvo (нестинарство), or firedancing, distinguishes the Strandzha region, as well as Dog spinning . The authentic nestinarstvo with states of trance is only preserved in the village Balgari . This ancient custom involves dancing into fire or over live embers. Women dance into the fire with their bare feet without suffering any injury or pain.

Slavic pagan customs are preserved in Bulgarian Christian holidays. The Miladinov brothers and foreign authors noticed that even pagan prayers are preserved quoting plenty of Slavic pagan rite songs and tales remained in Bulgarians, including Macedonians and Pomaks , mainly dedicated to the divine nymphs samovili and peperuna for the feasts surva , Saint George\'s Day , Koleda , etc. with evidence of toponymy throughout the regional groups linking directly to the deities Svarog , Perun
Perun
, Hors
Hors
and Veles , while the regional group Hartsoi derive their name from god Hors
Hors
. Songs dedicated to the Thracian divinity Orpheus were found in Pomaks, who is said to marry the samovili. The old Bulgarian name of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple was Gromnitsa and Perunov den dedicated to the supreme Slavic thunder god Perun
Perun
. In the mix of Christian and pagan patrons of thunder, at Saint Elijah
Saint Elijah
's feast day Ognyena Maria is worshiped, the Slavic goddesses assisting Perun
Perun
that took a substitutional dual position of the Christian Mother of God. The custom for rain begging Peperuna
Peperuna
is derived from the wife of Perun
Perun
and the god of the rain Dodola , this was described by a 1792 Bulgarian book as a continued worship of Perun
Perun
at times of absence of rain with a ritual performed by a boy or a girl dressed like Perun. Similar rain begging is called German . In case of continuous lack of rain, a custom of driving out the zmey from the area is performed. In the dualistic Slavic belief the zmey may be both good tutelary spirit and evil, in which case is considered not local and good, but evil and trying to inflict harm and drought. Saint Jeremiah 's feast is of the snakes and the reptiles, there is a tradition of jumping over fire. At the Rusalska Week the girls don't go outside to prevent themselves from diseases and harm that the dead forces Rusalii can cause. This remained the holiday of the samovili. The men performing the custom are also called Rusalii, they don't let anybody pass through between them, don't talk with each other except for the evening, avoid water, if someone lacks behind a member swoops the sword over the lacker's head to prevent him from evil spirits. If the group encounter on their way a well, dry tree, old cemeteries, crossroads, they go round them three times. Before leaving rusalii say goodbye to their relatives as if they went to war, which is not surprising because some of them are killed. When two rusalii groups met there was a fight to the death in which the dead were buried in special "rusaliyski cemetery." Each year there are holidays in honour of wolves and mouses. A relief for the scared believers is celebrated at the Beheading of St. John the Baptist , when according to Bulgarian belief all the mythical figures go back to their caves in a mythical village in the middle of nowhere Zmeykovo of the zmey king, along with the rusalki , samodivi, an return at Annunciation
Annunciation
. According to other beliefs the danger peaks at the so-called few days around the New Year Eve "Dirty Days", this time starts at Koleda , which merged with Christmas
Christmas
, when groups of kids koledari visit houses, singing carols and receiving a gift at parting. It is believed that no man can go in Zmeyovo and only the magpie knows the location of this place. At many of the holidays a sexual taboo is said to be practiced to prevent conceiving a vampire or werewolf and not to work, not to go to Sedenki or go out. Live fire is set in case of epidemics. Babinden for example is rooted in the mother-goddess. On the day of St. Vlas
St. Vlas
, the tradition of a "wooly" god Veles established itself, a god who is considered to be a protector of shepherds, and bread is given to the livestock on that day. The ancient Slavic custom to marry died people occurred in Bulgarian society. Survakane is performed each new year with a decorated stick by children, who hit adults on the back for health at the New Year Eve, usually in exchange of money. In the Chech
Chech
region there is a custom forbidding "touching the land", i.e. construction and agriculture, at the equinox on 25 March and the same custom is found in Belarusian Volhynia
Volhynia
and Polesia .

Bulgarian mythology and fairy tales are mainly about forest figures, such as the dragon zmey , the nymphs samovili (samodivi), the witch veshtitsa. They are usually harmful and devastating, but can also help the people. The samovili are said to live in beeches and sycamores the, which are therefore considered holy and not permitted burning. Samovili, although believed to be masters of everything between the sky and the earth, "run away" from fraxinus, garlic, dew and walnut. Walnut remained in Christianity to be used in prayers to "see" the dead in Spirits Day. Dictamnus is believed to be their favourite herb, which is intoxicating. The samovili are spirits in Bulgarian beliefs are the diseases themselves and punish people, kidnap shepherds, make blind the people or drown them and are in white colored dress, they are in odd numbers, which suggest they are ones of the "dead". Epic heroes as Prince Marko are believed to be descended from the samodivi. The elm is believed to scare the evil forces. Sacral trees in Bulgarian beliefs are beeches and oaks. Hawthorn is believed to expel all evil forces and is applied to cure suspected vampires. The tradition forbids killing of sacred animals - deer, while it is hold a belief the samodivi runaway from horse. The alleged as "unclean" animals resembling the devil such as the goat are, however, exempted from being eaten as the holy ones. The zmey is transhuman and can turn "into" animals, plants and items, he is also "responsible" for diseases, madness and missing women. The female version of the Slavic zmey is Lamia and Ala is another version. The girls who practiced Lazaruvane and other rituals "could not" be kidnapped by the zmey. The main enemy of the Sun is the zmey, which tries to eat the Sun, which scene is preserved in church art. The sun is painted one eyed as recorded by beliefs Perun
Perun
stabbed one of the sun's eyes to save the world from overheating. The born on Saturday are thought as having supernatural powers, those born at the wolves' holidays and a number of people are alleged as varkolaks and vampires. The most spread Bulgarian view of the vampire was that of a rolling bulbous balloon of blood derived from the Slavic term pir "drink". Rusalka
Rusalka
is believed to be a variety of the samodivi and Nav\' , but the latter are considered little fairies. The Thursdays remained feasts of Perun
Perun
in Bulgarian beliefs. The wind and the hot steam of the bread is believed to be the souls of the dead. From Easter
Easter
to Fist of the Ascension it is believed that the death are in the flowers and the animals. Mora in Bulgarian beliefs is a black hairy evil spirit with four firing eyes associated with nightmares when causing someone to scream, similarly to Kikimora . Polunoshtnitsa and Poludnica
Poludnica
are believed to be evil spirits causing death, while to Lesnik , Domovnik and Vodnik a dualistic nature is attributed. Thanks to the Vlshebnik , a man of the community, a magician and a priest, communication with the "other" world was held. Torbalan is the Sack Man used to scare children, along with Baba Yaga , who is a witch in her Bulgarian version

Kuma Lisa and Hitar Petar are the tricky fox and villager from the fairy tales, the tricked antagonist is often Nasreddin Hoca
Nasreddin Hoca
, whereas Bay Ganyo is a ridiculed Bulgarian villager. Ivancho and Mariika are the protagonists of the jokes.

Despite eastern Ottoman influence is obvious in areas such as cuisine and music, Bulgarian folk beliefs and mythology seem to lack analogies with Turkic mythology , paganism and any non-European folk beliefs, sо in pre-Christian times the ancient Bulgars
Bulgars
were much inferior to the Slavs
Slavs
in the ethnogenesis and culture that resulted in modern Bulgarians. The Slavic language was officialized at the same time with Christianity, so Slavic paganism has never been a state religion of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
or more influential than Tengriism . 80% of Bulgarian land lack any archeology left from the Bulgars. Although legacy indicating ancient Bulgar
Bulgar
culture is at most virtually absent in modern Bulgarian culture, some authors claim there is a similarity between the dress and customs of the Chuvashes , who descend from the Volga Bulgars
Bulgars
, and the Bulgarian ethnographic group Kapantsi from Targovishte Province and Razgrad Province
Razgrad Province
, among whom the claim that they are direct descendants of Asparukh 's Bulgars
Bulgars
is popular., but Slavic elements are found among them.

FOLK DRESS AND MUSIC

Bulgarian folk dancers in a national costume with embroidery on the penultimate row of the arpons showing the most spread Slavic cryptogram Bur
Bur
with a cross inside the rhombus representing the sun and spirals indicating rain, which is similarly represented as the Rising Sun decorative pattern of the Flag of Belarus
Belarus
. Similar carpet patterns appear on the Flag of Turkmenistan
Flag of Turkmenistan
ultimately derived from ancient Persia .

The Bulgarian folk costumes feature long white robes, usually with red embrdoiery and ornaments derived from the Slavic Rachenik . The Bulgarian folk costume is considered to be mainly derived from the dress of the ancient Slavs
Slavs
, the female dress with the overgarments joined at the shoulders that evolved from Sarafan and all the types of soukman , saya and aprons fasten at the waist are said to be directly descended from the ancient Slavs
Slavs
only with negligible mutation. The women's head-dress, which turned to be a must for the Bulgarian costume is a decoration with flowers optionally on a headband, that distinguishes all the Balto-Slavic peoples and is not found in western cultures. The male dress is of likewise origin, usually Riza
Riza
"robe", poyas "belt", poturi "full-bottomed breeches" typical for the Slavs and often a tsarvul and kalpak for shoes and jacket. Among the most similar relatives of the latter for example is Ukrainian hutsul, but the kalpak is attributed to Ottoman influence. The male skirt fustanella appears on the dress only of the Macedonian Bulgarians and is of indigenous Balkan origin or influence. In some dress of Thrace the symbol of the snake as in medieval tombs is found and is considered a Thracian cultural legacy and belief.

Folk songs are most often about the nymphs from Bulgarian and West Slavic mythology samovili and the epic heroes yunaks . Instruments Gadulka , Gusla Duduk
Duduk
, gaida Dvoyanka are analogous to other Slavic gudok , dudka and Dvodentsivka . Kaval is common in the Balkans
Balkans
and Turkey
Turkey
and is akin to Arab Kawala , as well as Tapan, Goblet Drum, Zurna . The most spread dance is a circle dance called horo and khorovod . Songs are generally loud. Recent eastern influences from the genre music chalga and turbo-folk even brought a prestige for the masculine voices of females.

Valya Balkanska is a folk singer thanks to whom the Bulgarian speech in her song " Izlel ye Delyo Haydutin " will be played in the Outer space for at least 60,000 years more as part of the Voyager Golden Record selection of music included in the two Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.

SPORT

Main articles: Sport in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Football in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Hristo Stoichkov
Hristo Stoichkov
, awarded the Golden Ball and regarded as one of the best footballers by Barcelona. Veselin Topalov , the 21st World Chess Champion .

As for most European peoples, football became by far the most popular sport for the Bulgarians. Hristo Stoichkov
Hristo Stoichkov
was one of the best football (soccer) players in the second half of the 20th century, having played with the national team and FC Barcelona
FC Barcelona
. He received a number of awards and was the joint top scorer at the 1994 World Cup
1994 World Cup
. Dimitar Berbatov , formerly in Manchester United , Tottenham Hotspur , Bayer Leverkusen and others, the national team and two domestic clubs, is still the most popular Bulgarian football player of the 21st century.

In the beginning of the 20th century Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was famous for two of the best wrestlers in the world – Dan Kolov
Dan Kolov
and Nikola Petroff
Nikola Petroff
. Stefka Kostadinova is the best female high jumper , still holding the world record from 1987, one of the oldest unbroken world records for all kind of athletics. Ivet Lalova
Ivet Lalova
along with Irina Privalova is currently the fastest white woman at 100 metres . Kaloyan Mahlyanov has been the first European sumo wrestler to win the Emperor's Cup in Japan. Veselin Topalov won the 2005 World Chess Championship . He was ranked No. 1 in the world from April 2006 to January 2007, and had the second highest Elo rating of all time (2813). He regained the world No. 1 ranking again in October 2008.

SYMBOLS

The national symbols of the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
are the Flag , the Coat of Arms , the National anthem and the National Guard , as well other unofficial symbols such as the Samara flag .

The national flag of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
is a rectangle with three colours: white, green, and red, positioned horizontally top to bottom. The colour fields are of same form and equal size. It is generally known that the white represents – the sky, the green – the forest and nature and the red – the blood of the people, referencing the strong bond of the nation through all the wars and revolutions that have shaken the country in the past. The Coat of Arms of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
is a state symbol of the sovereignty and independence of the Bulgarian people and state. It represents a crowned rampant golden lion on a dark red background with the shape of a shield. Above the shield there is a crown modeled after the crowns of the emperors of the Second Bulgarian Empire , with five crosses and an additional cross on top. Two crowned rampant golden lions hold the shield from both sides, facing it. They stand upon two crossed oak branches with acorns, which symbolize the power and the longevity of the Bulgarian state. Under the shield, there is a white band lined with the three national colours. The band is placed across the ends of the branches and the phrase "Unity Makes Strength" is inscribed on it.

Both the Bulgarian flag and the Coat of Arms are also used as symbols of various Bulgarian organisations, political parties and institutions.

The horse of the Madara Rider is preserved on the back of the Bulgarian stotinka .

MAPS

*

Ethnic map of European Turkey, Guillaume Lejean
Guillaume Lejean
(1861), praised by Serbian authors *

Мар of the Slavic World by Jos. Erban, 1868 *

Henry Wilkinson 's map from 1876 *

Ethnic map of European Turkey
Turkey
in 1877, by Austro-Hungarian Consul Karl Sax *

Peoples at the Balkan Peninsula, Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas
Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas
, 1881, *

Hungarian ethnic map of Europe, 1897 *

Map of A. Scobel, Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas
Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas
, 1908 *

Distribution of the Balkan peoples in 1911, Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
*

Distribution European peoples in 1914 according to L. Ravenstein *

Swiss Ethnographic map of Europe published in 1918 by Juozas Gabrys and Sudare *

Percentage of Pomaks by first language according to the 1965 Census excluding Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language
*

Distribution of Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Odessa Oblast , Ukraine
Ukraine
according to the 2001 census *

Distribution of Bulgarians
Bulgarians
by first language in Zaporizhia Oblast
Zaporizhia Oblast
, Ukraine
Ukraine
according to the 2001 census *

Distribution of predominant ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
according to the 2011 census *

Distribution of Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Romania
Romania
according to the 2002 census

*

Distribution of Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Moldova
Moldova
according to the 2004 census

SEE ALSO

* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
portal

* Macedonians (Bulgarians)
Macedonians (Bulgarians)
* Macedonians (ethnic group) * Thracian Bulgarians
Thracian Bulgarians

REFERENCES

* ^ "Native Peoples of the World". google.bg. * ^ A B "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia". google.bg. * ^ "On the Margins of Nations". google.bg. * ^ A B "Брой на българите в чужбина по данни от МВнР по ЗДОИ, 2011" (in Bulgarian). EuroChicago.com. * ^ "Ukrainian 2001 census". ukrcensus.gov.ua. Retrieved 2008-04-28. * ^ " Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Ukraine". Bulgarian Parliament. Retrieved 21 October 2015. (in Bulgarian) * ^ "Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit - Ausländische Bevölkerung, Ergebnisse des Ausländerzentralregisters (2017)" (PDF).

* ^ A B "Италианските българи" (in Bulgarian). 24 Chasa. * ^ INE 2016 * ^ Dimitrova, Tanya; Kahl, Thede (2013-11-01). Migration from and towards Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1989–2011. Books.google.com. p. 56. ISBN 9783865965202 . Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "TOTAL ANCESTRY REPORTED : Universe: Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported more information : 2011-2013 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ Cortés, Carlos E (2013-08-15). Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. Books.google.com. p. 404. ISBN 9781452276267 . Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ http://www.statistica.md/ (2009-09-30). "National Bureau of Statistics // Population Census 2004". Statistica.md. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Argentina". Mfa.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2008-04-29. * ^ "UK Migration Statistics Quarterly 2014 – Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in the UK". Ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ Roth, Klaus; Bacas, Jutta Lauth (2011-07-22). Southeast European (post)modernities. Books.google.com. p. 351. ISBN 9783643903006 . Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ De acordo com dados do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), cerca de 62.000 brasileiros declararam possuir ascendência búlgara no ano de 2006, o que faz com que o país abrigue a nona maior colônia búlgara do mundo. * ^ "bTV – estimate for Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Brazil" (in Bulgarian). btv.bg. * ^ DEMOSTAT * ^ "Demo ISTAT". ISTAT. Retrieved January 15, 2016. * ^ "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Statistics Canada
Canada
. Retrieved 11 February 2014. * ^ "Migration from and towards Bulgaria
Bulgaria
1989–2011". p. 39. * ^ Russia
Russia
2010 census (in Russian) * ^ STATISTIK AUSTRIA. "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". statistik.at. * ^ "CBS StatLine - Bevolking; generatie, geslacht, leeftijd en herkomstgroepering, 1 januari". cbs.nl. * ^ "Cypriot 2011 census". cystat.gov.cy. * ^ "Serbian 2011 census" (PDF). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 2012-12-25. * ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in South Africa" (in Bulgarian). mfa.bg. Retrieved 2011-02-08. * ^ "Population par nationalité, sexe, groupe et classe d\'âges au 1er janvier 2010". fgov.be. * ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Poland" (in Bulgarian). mfa.bg. * ^ "Utrikes födda efter födelseland, kön och år". www.scb.se. Statistiska Centralbyrån. Retrieved 25 May 2017. * ^ "Population and elections - StatBank Denmark
Denmark
- data and statistics". statistikbanken.dk. * ^ "National Institute of Statistics of Portugal
Portugal
– Foreigners in 2013" (PDF) (in Portuguese). sefstat.sef.pt. Retrieved 2011-04-16. * ^ "Bulgaria\'s State Agency for Bulgarians
Bulgarians
Abroad – Study about the number of Bulgarian immigrants as of 03.2011". Aba.government.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "Czech Statistical Office – Foreigners in 12.2014" (PDF). czso.cz. * ^ "Romanian 2011 census" (XLS) (in Romanian). edrc.ro. * ^ "Kazakh 1999 census". Missing or empty url= (help ) * ^ "UAE" (in Bulgarian). * ^ "Australian 2011 census" (PDF). abs.gov.au. * ^ * ^ A B Day, Alan John; East, Roger; Thomas, Richard (2002). Political and economic dictionary of Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 9780203403747 . Retrieved 2011-11-13. * ^ "Bulgarian 2011 census" (PDF) (in Bulgarian). nsi.bg. p. 25. Retrieved 2012-10-15. * ^ "EPC 2014". Epc2014.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2015-08-30. * ^ Свободно време (2011-07-27). "Експерти по демография оспориха преброяването Dnes.bg Новини". Dnes.bg. Retrieved 2015-08-30. * ^ Raymond G. Gordon, Jr.; Barbara F. Grimes, eds. (2005). "Languages of Turkey
Turkey
(Europe)". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6 . Retrieved 14 June 2016. * ^ "Türkiye\'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!" (in Turkish). 6 June 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2010. * ^ Thomas, Raju G. C. Yugoslavia Unraveled: Sovereignty, Self-Determination, Intervention. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739107577 . Most scholars categorize Pomaks as "Slav Bulgarians... * ^ Poulton, Hugh; Committee, Minnesota Lawyers International Human Rights. Minorities in the Balkans. Minority Rights Group. p. 7. ...'Pomaks', are a religious minority. They are Slav Bulgarians
Bulgarians
who speak Bulgarian... * ^ "Народно събрание на Република България - Конституция". Parliament.bg. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "Many Thracian survivals have been detected in the sphere of Bulgarian national costume and folk tradition." The Bulgarians: from pagan times to the Ottoman conquest, David Marshall Lang, Westview Press, 1976, ISBN 0-89158-530-3 , p. 27. * ^ A B C D E F G H Kushniarevich, Alena; Utevska, Olga; Chuhryaeva, Marina; Agdzhoyan, Anastasia; Dibirova, Khadizhat; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Möls, Märt; Mulahasanovic, Lejla; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Frolova, Svetlana; Shanko, Andrey; Metspalu, Ene; Reidla, Maere; Tambets, Kristiina; Tamm, Erika; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Atramentova, Lubov; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Davydenko, Oleg; Goncharova, Olga; Evseeva, Irina; Churnosov, Michail; Pocheshchova, Elvira; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Marjanović, Damir; Rudan, Pavao; Rootsi, Siiri; et al. (2015). "Genetic Heritage of the Balto-Slavic Speaking Populations: A Synthesis of Autosomal, Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Data" . PLoS ONE. 10 (9): e0135820. Bibcode :2015PLoSO..1035820K. PMC 4558026  . PMID 26332464 . doi :10.1371/journal.pone.0135820 . * ^ ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA, Bulgar
Bulgar
People, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Bulgar * ^ A B C D E F G H Fine, John V. A.; Fine, John Van Antwerp. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan Press. pp. 31–69. ISBN 0472081497 . * ^ "The so-called Bulgar
Bulgar
inscriptions are, with few exceptions, written in Greek rather than in Turkic runes; they mention officials with late antique titles, and use late Antique terminology and indictional dating. Contemporary Byzantine inscriptions are not obviously similar, implying that this (Bulgar) epigraphic habit was not imported from Constantinople
Constantinople
but was a local Bulgar
Bulgar
development, or rather, it was an indigenous 'Roman' inheritance." Nicopolis ad Istrium: Backward and Balkan, by M Whittow. * ^ "Many Thracian survivals have been detected in the sphere of Bulgarian national costume and folk tradition." The Bulgarians: from pagan times to the Ottoman conquest, David Marshall Lang, Westview Press, 1976, ISBN 0-89158-530-3 , p. 27. * ^ Harvey E. Mayer. DACIAN AND THRACIAN AS SOUTHERN BALTOIDIC LITUANUS. LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. Volume 38, No.2 - Summer 1992. Editor of this issue: Antanas Klimas, University of Rochester. ISSN 0024-5089 . 1992 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc. * ^ Bulgarian historical review, Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, pp. 53 * ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece
Greece
and Rome, 7th edition, pp. 57 * ^ Ethnic Continuity in the Carpatho-Danubian Area, Elemér Illyés * ^ editors; Mallory, J.P.; Adams, D.Q. Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. p. 576. ISBN 9781884964985 . * ^ Bulgarian Folk Customs, Mercia MacDermott, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1853024856 , pp. 18-19. * ^ Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Radoslav Katicic, Walter de Gruyter, 1976, ISBN 3111568873 , pp. 9-10; 71. * ^ Liviu Petculescu. "The Roman Army as a Factor of Romanisation in the North-Eastern Part of Moesia
Moesia
Inferior" (PDF). Pontos.dk. Retrieved 2015-08-30. * ^ "Landscapes of Change - Chapter 8". google.com.au. * ^ "War and Warfare in Late Antiquity (2 vol. set)". google.com.au. p. 781. * ^ Sofia
Sofia
- 127 years capital. Sofia
Sofia
Municipality * ^ Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, by Douglas Q. Adams, pp. 576 * ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1983), The Early Medieval Balkans, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-08149-7 , p. 31 * ^ A B Hupchick, Dennis P. The Balkans: From Constantinople
Constantinople
to Communism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 1-4039-6417-3 * ^ A B A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT THE FATE OF SEVERI TRIBE AFTER THE CAMPANIAN OF NICEPHOROS I IN 811 * ^ Образуване на българската държава. проф. Петър Петров (Издателство Наука и изкуство, София, 1981) * ^ "Образуване на българската народност.проф. Димитър Ангелов (Издателство Наука и изкуство, "Векове", София, 1971)". Kroraina.com. Retrieved 2011-11-13. * ^ Runciman, Steven . 1930. A history of the First Bulgarian Empire. London: G. Bell II изд., Наука и изкуство, София 1970, под ред. на проф. Петър Хр. Петров)". Kroraina.com. Retrieved 2011-11-13. * ^ Rasho Rashev, Die Protobulgaren im 5.-7. Jahrhundert, Orbel, Sofia, 2005. (in Bulgarian, German summary) * ^ Sinor, Denis (2005). "Reflections on the History and Historiography of the Nomad Empires of Central Eurasia". Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 58 (1): 3–14. JSTOR 23658601 . * ^ Hupchick, D. The Balkans: From Constantinople
Constantinople
to Communism. Springer. ISBN 9780312299132 . * ^ "The Slavs
Slavs
of the Mid- Danube
Danube
basin and the Bulgarian Expansion in the first half of the Ninth Century" (PDF), Zbornik Radova Vizantološkog Instituta, DOI Serbia, 2010, retrieved 2013-08-11 * ^ An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B.C.-A.D. 1330, p. 189 * ^ Goetz, Hans-Werner; Jarnut, Jörg; Pohl, Walter (2003). Regna and gentes: the relationship between late antique and early medieval peoples and kingdoms in the transformation of the Roman world. Brill. pp. 582–583. ISBN 9004125248 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Florin Curta. Horsemen in forts or peasants in villages? Remarks on the archaeology of warfare in the 6th to 7th century Balkansmore; 2013 * ^ A Concise History of Bulgaria, R. J. Crampton, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521616379 , p. 13. * ^ John, Norman (1977). An historical geography of Europe, 450 B.C.-A.D.1330. CUP Archive. p. 179. ISBN 9780521291262 . Retrieved 2011-11-13. * ^ "The Formation of the Bulgarian Nation, Academician Dimitŭr Simeonov Angelov, Summary, Sofia-Press, 1978". Kroraina.com. Retrieved 2011-11-13. * ^ L. Ivanov. Essential History of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in Seven Pages. Sofia, 2007. * ^ Rębała, Krzysztof; Mikulich, Alexei I.; Tsybovsky, Iosif S.; Siváková, Daniela; Džupinková, Zuzana; Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Szczerkowska, Zofia (2007). "Y-STR variation among Slavs: Evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin". Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (5): 406–14. PMID 17364156 . doi :10.1007/s10038-007-0125-6 . * ^ Ralph, Peter; Coop, Graham (2013). "The Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry across Europe" . PLoS Biology. 11 (5): e1001555. PMC 3646727  . PMID 23667324 . doi :10.1371/journal.pbio.1001555 . * ^ Lazaridis, I.; Patterson, N.; Mittnik, A.; Renaud, G.; Mallick, S.; Kirsanow, K.; Sudmant, P. H.; Schraiber, J. G.; Castellano, S.; Lipson, M.; Berger, B.; Economou, C.; Bollongino, R.; Fu, Q.; Bos, K.; Nordenfelt, S.; Li, H.; De Filippo, C.; Prufer, K.; Sawyer, S.; Posth, C.; Haak, W.; Hallgren, F.; Fornander, E.; Rohland, N.; Delsate, D.; Francken, M.; Guinet, J.-M.; Wahl, J.; et al. (2013). "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans" . Nature. 513 (7518): 409–13. PMC 4170574  . PMID 25230663 . doi :10.1101/001552 . * ^ Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge University Press. pp. 221–222. ISBN 9780521815390 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Poulton, Hugh (2000). Who are the Macedonians? (2nd ed.). C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-1-85065-534-3 . * ^ Vassil Karloukovski. "Средновековни градови и тврдини во Македониjа. Иван Микулчиќ (Скопjе, Македонска цивилизациjа, 1996),". Kroraina.com. p. 72. ISBN 9989756074 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Giatzidis, Emil (2002). An Introduction to Post-Communist Bulgaria: Political, Economic and Social Transformations. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719060953 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Fine, Jr., John V. A. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan. p. 165. ISBN 0472081497 . Retrieved 2015-02-11 – via Books.google.bg. * ^ Sedlar, Jean W. (1994). East Central Europe
Central Europe
in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500. University of Washington Press. p. 364. ISBN 9780295800646 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Full text of Gesta Hungarum, pages 46-47 * ^ " Bulgaria
Bulgaria
– Ottoman rule". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Retrieved 21 December 2011. With the capture of a rump Bulgarian kingdom centred at Bdin (Vidin) in 1396, the last remnant of Bulgarian independence disappeared. ... The Bulgarian nobility was destroyed—its members either perished, fled, or accepted Islam
Islam
and Turkicization—and the peasantry was enserfed to Turkish masters. * ^ Minkov, Anton (2004). Conversion to Islam
Islam
in the Balkans: Kisve Bahası – Petitions and Ottoman Social Life, 1670–1730. BRILL. p. 193. ISBN 9004135766 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Detrez, Raymond; Segaert, Barbara; Lang, Peter (2008). Europe and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans,. p. 36. ISBN 9789052013749 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Karpat, Kemal H. (2002). Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History: Selected Articles and Essays. Brill. p. 17. ISBN 9004121013 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, Disciplinary and Regional Perspectives, Joshua A. Fishman, Ofelia García, Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 0195374924 , p. 276: "There were almost no remnants of a Bulgarian ethnic identity; the population defined itself as Christians, according to the Ottoman system of millets, that is, communities of religious beliefs. The first attempts to define a Bulgarian ethnicity started at the beginning of the 19-th century." * ^ Roudometof, Victor; Robertson, Roland (2001). Nationalism, globalization, and orthodoxy: the social origins of ethnic conflict in the Balkans. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 68–71. ISBN 0313319499 . * ^ Nikolova-Houston, Tatiana Nikolaeva (2008). Margins and Marginality: Marginalia and Colophons in South Slavic Manuscripts During the Ottoman Period, 1393–1878. The University of Texas at Austin, ProQuest,. pp. 202–206. ISBN 9780549650751 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Crampton,, R. J. (1987). Modern Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780521273237 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Carvalho, Joaquim (2007). Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and Convergence. Edizioni Plus. p. 261. ISBN 9788884924643 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Stith,, Spencer S. (2008). A Comparative Study of Post-Ottoman Political Influences on Bulgarian National Identity Construction and Conflict. University of Kansas, ProQuest,. pp. 22–23. ISBN 9780549683957 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Milchev, Vladimir (2002). "Два хусарски полка с българско участие в системата на държавната военна колонизация в Южна Украйна (1759-1762/63 г.)" . Исторически преглед (in Bulgarian) (5–6): 154–65. * ^ Jelavich, Charles; Jelavich, Barbara (1977). Establishment of the Balkan National States: 1804–1918,. University of Washington Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780295803609 . Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ During the 20th century, Slavo Macedonian national feeling has shifted. At the beginning of the 20th century, Slavic patriots in Macedonia felt a strong attachment to Macedonia as a multi-ethnic homeland. They imagined a Macedonian community uniting themselves with non-Slavic Macedonians... Most of these Macedonian Slavs also saw themselves as Bulgarians. By the middle of the 20th. century, however Macedonian patriots began to see Macedonian and Bulgarian loyalties as mutually exclusive. Regional Macedonian nationalism had become ethnic Macedonian nationalism... This transformation shows that the content of collective loyalties can shift.Roth, Klaus; Brunnbauer, Ulf (2010). Region, Regional Identity and Regionalism in Southeastern Europe, Ethnologia Balkanica Series. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 127. ISBN 3825813878 . * ^ Up until the early 20th century and beyond, the international community viewed Macedonians as regional variety of Bulgarians, i.e. Western Bulgarians.Nationalism and Territory: Constructing Group Identity in Southeastern Europe, Geographical perspectives on the human past : Europe: Current Events, George W. White, Rowman and most Bulgarians, whether they supported the Communists, VMRO, or the collaborating government, assumed that all Macedonia would fall to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
after the WWII. Tito was determined that this should not happen. "Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (2002). The struggle for Greece, 1941–1949. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 67. ISBN 1-85065-492-1 . * ^ "At the end of the WWI there were very few historians or ethnographers, who claimed that a separate Macedonian nation existed... Of those Slavs
Slavs
who had developed some sense of national identity, the majority probably considered themselves to be Bulgarians, although they were aware of differences between themselves and the inhabitants of Bulgaria... The question as of whether a Macedonian nation actually existed in the 1940s when a Communist Yugoslavia decided to recognize one is difficult to answer. Some observers argue that even at this time it was doubtful whether the Slavs
Slavs
from Macedonia considered themselves to be a nationality separate from the Bulgarians.Danforth, Loring M. (1997). The Macedonian conflict: ethnic nationalism in a transnational world. Princeton University Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-691-04356-6 . * ^ Kaufman, Stuart J. (2001). Modern hatreds: the symbolic politics of ethnic war. New York: Cornell University Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-8014-8736-6 . The key fact about Macedonian nationalism is that it is new: in the early twentieth century, Macedonian villagers defined their identity religiously—they were either "Bulgarian," "Serbian," or "Greek" depending on the affiliation of the village priest. While Bulgarian was most common affiliation then, mistreatment by occupying Bulgarian troops during WWII cured most Macedonians from their pro-Bulgarian sympathies, leaving them embracing the new Macedonian identity promoted by the Tito regime after the war. * ^ "Experts for Census 2011" (in Bulgarian). * ^ A B "Bulgarian 2001 census" (in Bulgarian). nsi.bg. Retrieved 2011-07-21. * ^ "Chairman of Bulgaria\'s State Agency for Bulgarians
Bulgarians
Abroad – 3–4 million Bulgarians
Bulgarians
abroad in 2009" (in Bulgarian). 2009. Retrieved 2011-03-07. * ^ "Божидар Димитров преброи 4 млн. българи зад граница" (in Bulgarian). 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-03-07. * ^ dans la Macédoine - Cousinéry, Esprit Marie. Voyage dans la Macédoine: contenant des recherches sur l\'histoire, la géographie, les antiquités de ce pays, Paris, 1831, Vol. II, p. 15-17, one of the passages in English – , Engin Deniz Tanir, The Mid-Nineteenth century Ottoman Bulgaria
Bulgaria
from the viewpoints of the French Travelers, A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical University, 2005, p. 99, 142 * ^ Pulcherius, Recueil des historiens des Croisades. Historiens orientaux. III, p. 331 – a passage in English -http://promacedonia.org/en/ban/nr1.html#4 * ^ Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (2002). The Struggle for Greece, 1941–1949. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 67. ISBN 9781850654926 . Retrieved 2011-11-13. * ^ Who are the Macedonians? Hugh Poulton. C. Hurst Serbia
Serbia
– its land and inhabitants, Belgrade 1986, p. 218) * ^ Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui , "Voyage en Bulgarie pendant l'année 1841" (Жером-Адолф Бланки. Пътуване из България през 1841 година. Прев. от френски Ел. Райчева, предг. Ив. Илчев. София: Колибри, 2005, 219 с. ISBN 9789545293672 .) It describes a population in Nish sandjak as Bulgarian, see: * ^ Стойков, Стойко: Българска диалектология, Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов", 2006 * ^ Girdenis A., Maziulis V. Baltu kalbu divercencine chronologija // Baltistica. T. XXVII (2). - Vilnius, 1994. - P. 9. * ^ Топоров В.Н. Прусский язык. Словарь. А - D. - М., 1975. - С. 5 * ^ Hupchick, D.The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe, p. 67. Springer, 2016, ISBN 9781137048172 * ^ "Social Construction of Identities: Pomaks in Bulgaria, Ali Eminov, JEMIE 6 (2007) 2 © 2007 by European Centre for Minority Issues" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ От Труд онлайн. "Архивът е в процес на прехвърляне – Труд". Trud.bg. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ * ^ Harry Henderson (2014-05-14). A to Z of Computer Scientists. Books.google.com. p. 8. ISBN 9781438109183 . Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ Clark R. Mollenhoff (1999-02-28). Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of the Computer. Books.google.com. ISBN 9780813800325 . Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "Bulgaria- Eastern Europe\'s Newest Hot Spot Offshoring Business Intelligence & Tools EU Out-Sourcing Specialists Platform German Market-Entry offshoring Vendor Services". Outsourcingmonitor.eu. 6 August 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-15. * ^ "Outsourcing to Bulgaria". Archived from the original on 2010-06-20. * ^ "World\'s cleverest woman needs a job". theregister.co.uk. * ^ Independent Newspapers Online (8 November 2004). "The world\'s \'smartest woman\' can\'t find a job – Back Page IOL News". IOL.co.za. Retrieved 2011-11-13. * ^ " Bulgarians
Bulgarians
uncover the birth of the Universe", dir.bg, 21 December 2007 * ^ " Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Poultry and Products Meat Market Update". The Poultry Site. 2006-05-08. Retrieved 2015-08-30. * ^ Колева Т. А. Болгары // Календарные обычаи и обряды в странах зарубежной Европы. Конец XIX — начало XX в. Весенние праздники. — М.: Наука, 1977. — С. 274–295. — 360 с. * ^ "??" (PDF). Tangrabg.files.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2016-11-22.

* ^ "??" (PDF). Bkks.org. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ Анчо Калоянов. СТАРОБЪЛГАРСКОТО ЕЗИЧЕСТВО. LiterNet, 06. 11. 2002. ISBN 954-304-009-5 * ^ История во кратце о болгарском народе словенском * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y "??" (PDF). Mling.ru. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "Русалии - древните български обичаи по Коледа". Bgnow.eu. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ Следи от бита и езика на прабългарите в нашата народна култура, Иван Коев, София, 1971 * ^ A B MacDermott, Mercia (1998-01-01). Bulgarian Folk Customs. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 41, 44. ISBN 9781853024856 . The so-called Kapantsi - an ethnographic group living mainly in the Razgrad and Turgovishte, area of north-east Bulgaria
Bulgaria
- are believed to be descendants of Asparuh's Proto- Bulgars
Bulgars
who have maintained at least something of their original heritage...the traditional costumes of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
are derived mainly from the ancient Slav costumes...Women's costumes fall into four main categories: one-apron, two-apron, sukman and saya. Like men's costumes, these are not intrinsically separate types, but have evolved from the original chemise and apron worn by the early Slavs...Directly descended with little mutation from the dress of the ancient Slavs, the one-apron ... * ^ "Д. Ангелов, Образуване на българската народност - 4.3". Promacedonia.org. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "Ekip7 Разград - Коренните жители на Разград и района – българи, ама не какви да е, а капанци!". Ekip7.bg. 2015-09-14. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ * ^ "Символы в орнаментах древних славян". Etnoxata.com.ua. 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ В. В. Якжик, Государственный флаг Республики Беларусь, w: Рекомендации по использованию государственной символики в учреждениях образования, page 3. * ^ Mellish, Liz. Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion
Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion
Vol 9: East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus. Bloomsbury. p. PART 5: Southeast Europe, Bulgaria: Ethnic Dress. ISBN 9781847883988 . Bulgarian women's dress include overgarments that are joined at the shoulders and are considered to have evolved from the sarafan. (the pinafore dress typically worn by women of various Slav nations). This type of garment includes the soukman and the saya and aprons that fasten at the waist that are also attributed to a Slavic origin. * ^ "??" (PDF). Bkks.org. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "HRISTO STOICHKOV FCBarcelona.cat". Fcbarcelona.com. Retrieved 2015-02-11. * ^ Dave Meltzer; Bret Hart (2004-01). Tributes II: Remembering More of the World\'s Greatest Professional Wrestlers. Books.google.com. ISBN 9781582618173 . Retrieved 2016-11-22. Check date values in: date= (help )

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