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The Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
(Bulgarian: Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church. It is the oldest Slavic Orthodox Church with some 6.5 million members in the Republic of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and between 1.5 and 2.0 million members in a number of European countries, the Americas
Americas
and Australia. It was recognized as an independent Church by the Patriarchate of Constantinople
Patriarchate of Constantinople
in 870 AD.

Contents

1 Canonical status and organization 2 Organization 3 History

3.1 Early Christianity 3.2 Establishment 3.3 Autocephaly
Autocephaly
(Patriarchate) 3.4 The Ohrid
Ohrid
Archbishopric 3.5 The Tarnovo
Tarnovo
Patriarchate 3.6 Ottoman rule 3.7 The Bulgarian Exarchate

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Canonical status and organization[edit] The Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
considers itself an inseparable member of the one, holy, synodal and apostolic church and is organized as a self-governing body under the name of Patriarchate. It is divided into thirteen dioceses within the boundaries of the Republic of Bulgaria and has jurisdiction over additional two dioceses for Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in Western and Central Europe, the Americas, Canada
Canada
and Australia. The dioceses of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
are divided into 58 church counties, which, in turn, are subdivided into some 2,600 parishes. The supreme clerical, judicial and administrative power for the whole domain of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
is exercised by the Holy Synod, which includes the Patriarch and the diocesan prelates, who are called metropolitans. Church life in the parishes is guided by the parish priests, numbering some 1,500. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church also has some 120 monasteries in Bulgaria, with about 2,000 monks and nearly as many nuns. Organization[edit]

Part of a series on the

Eastern Orthodox Church

Mosaic of Christ Pantocrator, Hagia Sophia

Overview

Structure Theology (History of theology) Liturgy Church history Holy Mysteries View of salvation View of Mary View of icons

Background

Crucifixion / Resurrection / Ascension of Jesus

Christianity Christian Church Apostolic succession Four Marks of the Church Orthodoxy

Organization

Autocephaly Patriarchate Ecumenical Patriarch Episcopal polity Clergy Bishops Priests Deacons Monasticism Degrees of monasticism

Autocephalous
Autocephalous
jurisdictions

Constantinople Alexandria Antioch Jerusalem Russia Serbia Romania Bulgaria Georgia Cyprus Greece Poland Albania Czech lands and Slovakia North America

Ecumenical Councils

Seven Ecumenical Councils:

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh

Other important councils:

Quinisext Council Constantinople
Constantinople
IV Constantinople
Constantinople
V Jassy Jerusalem

History

Church Fathers Pentarchy Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire Christianization of Bulgaria Christianization of Kievan Rus' Great Schism Russia Ottoman Empire North America

Theology

History of Orthodox Theology

(20th century (Neo-Palamism))

Apophaticism Chrismation Contemplative prayer Essence vs. Energies Hesychasm Holy Trinity Hypostatic union Icons Metousiosis Mystical theology Nicene Creed Nepsis Oikonomia Ousia Palamism Philokalia Phronema Sin Theosis Theotokos

Differences from the Catholic Church Opposition to the Filioque Opposition to papal supremacy

Liturgy and worship

Divine Liturgy Divine Services

Akathist Apolytikion Artos Ectenia Euchologion Holy Water Iconostasis Jesus Prayer Kontakion Liturgical entrances Liturgical fans Lity Memorial service Memory Eternal Omophorion Orthodox bowing Orthodox marriage Praxis Paraklesis Paschal greeting Paschal Homily Paschal troparion Prayer rope Prosphora Russian bell ringing Semantron Sign of the cross Sticheron Troparion Vestments Use of incense

Liturgical calendar

Paschal cycle 12 Great Feasts Other feasts:

Feast of Orthodoxy Intercession of the Theotokos

The four fasting periods:

Nativity Fast Great Lent Apostles' Fast Dormition Fast

Major figures

Athanasius of Alexandria Ephrem the Syrian Basil of Caesarea Cyril of Jerusalem Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa John Chrysostom Cyril of Alexandria John Climacus Maximus the Confessor John of Damascus Theodore the Studite Kassiani Cyril and Methodius Photios I of Constantinople Gregory Palamas

Other topics

Architecture Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs Orthodox cross Saint titles Statistics by country

v t e

Eparchies in Bulgaria: (with Bulgarian names
Bulgarian names
in brackets)

Eparchy of Vidin
Vidin
(Видинска епархия) Eparchy of Vratsa
Vratsa
(Врачанска епархия) Eparchy of Lovech
Lovech
(Ловешка епархия) Eparchy of Veliko Tarnovo
Veliko Tarnovo
(Търновска епархия) Eparchy of Dorostol (Доростолска епархия) (seat in Silistra) Eparchy of Varna
Varna
and Veliki Preslav
Veliki Preslav
(Варненскa и Bеликопреславска епархия) (seat in Varna) Eparchy of Sliven
Sliven
(Сливенска епархия) Eparchy of Stara Zagora
Stara Zagora
(Старозагорска епархия) Eparchy of Plovdiv
Plovdiv
(Пловдивска епархия) Eparchy of Sofia
Sofia
(Софийска епархия) Eparchy of Nevrokop (Неврокопска епархия) (seat in Blagoevgrad) Eparchy of Pleven
Pleven
(Плевенска епархия) Eparchy of Ruse (Русенска епархия)

Eparchies abroad:

Eparchy of Central and Western Europe
Western Europe
(with seat in Berlin); Eparchy of USA, Canada
Canada
and Australia
Australia
(with seat in New York City)

History[edit] Early Christianity[edit]

The St. George Rotunda (4th century AD), Sofia

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
has its origin in the flourishing Christian communities and churches, set up in the Balkans
Balkans
as early as the first centuries of the Christian era. Christianity
Christianity
was brought to the Bulgarian lands and the rest of the Balkans
Balkans
by the apostles Paul and Andrew in the 1st century AD, when the first organised Christian communities were formed. By the beginning of the 4th century, Christianity
Christianity
had become the dominant religion in the region. Towns such as Serdica (Sofia), Philipopolis (Plovdiv), Odessus (Varna) and Adrianople (Edirne) were significant centres of Christianity
Christianity
in the Roman Empire. The barbarian raids and incursions in the 4th and the 5th and the settlement of Slavs
Slavs
and Bulgars
Bulgars
in the 6th and the 7th centuries wrought considerable damage to the ecclesiastical organisation of the Christian Church
Christian Church
in the Bulgarian lands, yet they were far from destroying it. Kubrat
Kubrat
and Organa were both baptized together in Constantinople
Constantinople
and Christianity
Christianity
started to pave its way from the surviving Christian communities to the surrounding Bulgar-Slavic mass. By the middle of the 9th century, the majority of the Bulgarian Slavs, especially those living in Thrace
Thrace
and Macedonia, were Christianised. The process of conversion also enjoyed some success among the Bulgar nobility. It was not until the official adoption of Christianity
Christianity
by Khan Boris I
Boris I
in 865 that an independent Bulgarian ecclesiastical entity was established. Establishment[edit] Boris I
Boris I
believed that cultural advancement and the sovereignty and prestige of a Christian Bulgaria
Bulgaria
could be achieved through an enlightened clergy governed by an autocephalous church. To this end, he manoeuvred between the Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Roman Pope for a period of five years until in 870 AD, the Fourth Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
granted the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
an autonomous Bulgarian archbishopric. The archbishopric had its seat in the Bulgarian capital of Pliska
Pliska
and its diocese covered the whole territory of the Bulgarian state. The tug-of-war between Rome and Constantinople
Constantinople
was resolved by putting the Bulgarian archbishopric under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople, from whom it obtained its first primate, its clergy and theological books.

Ceramic icon of St. Theodor, Preslav, ca. 900 AD, National Archaeological Museum, Sofia

Although the archbishopric enjoyed full internal autonomy, the goals of Boris I
Boris I
were scarcely fulfilled. A Greek liturgy offered by a Byzantine
Byzantine
clergy furthered neither the cultural development of the Bulgarians, nor the consolidation of the Bulgarian state; it would have eventually resulted in the loss of both the identity of the people and the statehood of Bulgaria. Thus, Boris I
Boris I
greeted the arrival of the disciples of the recently deceased Saints Cyril and Methodius in 886 as an opportunity. Boris I
Boris I
gave them the task to instruct the future Bulgarian clergy in the Glagolitic alphabet
Glagolitic alphabet
and the Slavonic liturgy prepared by Cyril. The liturgy was based on the vernacular of the Slavs
Slavs
from the region of Thessaloniki. In 893, Boris I expelled the Greek clergy from the country and ordered the replacement of the Greek language
Greek language
with the Slav-Bulgarian vernacular. Autocephaly
Autocephaly
(Patriarchate)[edit] Following Bulgaria's two decisive victories over the Byzantines at Acheloos (near the present-day city of Pomorie) and Katasyrtai (near Constantinople), the government declared the autonomous Bulgarian Archbishopric as autocephalous and elevated it to the rank of Patriarchate
Patriarchate
at an ecclesiastical and national council held in 919. After Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
signed a peace treaty in 927 that concluded the 20-year-long war between them, the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople
Constantinople
recognised the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
and acknowledged its patriarchal dignity.[1][2] The Bulgarian Patriarchate
Patriarchate
was the first autocephalous Slavic Orthodox Church, preceding the autocephaly of the Serbian Orthodox Church (1219) by 300 years and of the Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
(1596) by some 600 years. It was the sixth Patriarchate
Patriarchate
after Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch. The seat of the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
was the new Bulgarian capital of Preslav. The Patriarch was likely to have resided in the town of Drastar (Silistra), an old Christian centre famous for its martyrs and Christian traditions. The Ohrid
Ohrid
Archbishopric[edit]

Part of a series on

Bulgarians българи

Culture

Literature Music Art Cinema Names Cuisine Dances Costume Sport Public holidays in Bulgaria

By country

Australia Albania Canada Czechoslovakia Greece Romania South America Turkey Ukraine United States Serbia

Bulgarian citizens

France Germany Hungary Italy Lebanon Lithuania Macedonia Spain United Kingdom

Subgroups

Anatolian Balkanian Banat Bulgarians Bessarabian Bulgarian Dobrujans Macedonian Ruptsi Balkandzhii Pomaks
Pomaks
(Bulgarian Muslims) Thracian Shopi/Torlaks Şchei

Religion

Bulgarian Orthodox Church Islam Catholic Church Protestant denominations

Language

Bulgarian Dialects

Banat Bulgarian

Other

List of Bulgarians People of Bulgarian descent

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Main article: Archbishopric of Ohrid On April 5, 972, Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor John I Tzimisces
John I Tzimisces
conquered and burned down Preslav, and captured Bulgarian Tsar
Tsar
Boris II. Patriarch Damyan managed to escape, initially to Sredetz (Sofia) in western Bulgaria. In the coming years, the residence of the Bulgarian patriarchs remained closely connected to the developments in the war between the next Bulgarian royal dynasty, the Comitopuli, and the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. Patriarch German resided consecutively in Medieval Bulgarian cities of Maglen (Almopia) and Voden (Edessa) (both in present-day north-western Greece), and Prespa (in present-day southern Republic of Macedonia). Around 990, the next patriarch, Philip, moved to Ohrid
Ohrid
(in present-day south-western Republic of Macedonia), which became the permanent seat of the Patriarchate. After the fall of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
under Byzantine
Byzantine
domination in 1018, Emperor Basil II
Basil II
Bulgaroktonos (the “Bulgar-Slayer”) acknowledged the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. By special charters (royal decrees), his government set up its boundaries, dioceses, property and other privileges. The church was deprived of its Patriarchal title and reduced to the rank of an archbishopric. Although the first appointed archbishop (John of Debar) was a Bulgarian, his successors, as well as the whole higher clergy, were invariably Byzantine. The monks and the ordinary priests remained, however, predominantly Bulgarian. To a large extent the archbishopric preserved its national character, upheld the Slavonic liturgy and continued its contribution to the development of Bulgarian literature. The autocephaly of the Ohrid
Ohrid
Archbishopric remained respected during the periods of Byzantine, Bulgarian, Serbian and Ottoman rule. The church continued to exist until its unlawful abolition in 1767. The Tarnovo
Tarnovo
Patriarchate[edit] As a result of the successful uprising of the brothers Peter IV and Ivan Asen I
Ivan Asen I
in 1185/1186, the foundations of the Second Bulgarian Empire were laid with Tarnovo
Tarnovo
as its capital. Following Boris I’s principle that the sovereignty of the state is inextricably linked to the autocephaly of the Church, the two brothers immediately took steps to restore the Bulgarian Patriarchate. As a start, they established an independent archbishopric in Tarnovo
Tarnovo
in 1186. The struggle to have the archbishopric recognized according to the canonical order and elevated to the rank of a Patriarchate
Patriarchate
took almost 50 years. Following the example of Boris I, Bulgarian Tsar
Tsar
Kaloyan
Kaloyan
manoeuvred for years between the Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
and Pope Innocent III. Finally in 1203 the latter proclaimed the Tarnovo
Tarnovo
Archbishop
Archbishop
Vassily "Primate and Archbishop
Archbishop
of all Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Walachia." The union with the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
continued for well over three decades.

Tsar
Tsar
Ivan Alexander (1331-1371), an illustration from the Four Gospels of Tsar
Tsar
Ivan Alexander (the London Gospel), ca. 1356, the British Library

Under the reign of Tsar
Tsar
Ivan Asen II (1218–1241), conditions were created for the termination of the union with Rome and for the recognition of the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. In 1235 a church council was convened in the town of Lampsakos. Under the presidency of Patriarch Germanus II of Constantinople
Constantinople
and with the consent of all Eastern Patriarchs, the council confirmed the Patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and consecrated the Bulgarian archbishop German as Patriarch. Despite the shrinking of the diocese of the Tarnovo
Tarnovo
Patriarchate
Patriarchate
at the end of the 13th century, its authority in the Eastern Orthodox world remained high. It was the Patriarch of Tarnovo
Tarnovo
who confirmed the patriarchal dignity of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in 1346, despite protests by the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople. It was under the wing of the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
that the Tarnovo
Tarnovo
Literary School developed in the 14th century, with scholars of the rank of Patriarch Evtimiy, Gregory Tsamblak, and Konstantin of Kostenets. A considerable flowering was noted in the fields of literature, architecture, and painting; the religious and theological literature also flourished. After the fall of Tarnovo
Tarnovo
under the Ottomans in 1393 and the sending of Patriarch Evtimiy
Patriarch Evtimiy
into exile, the autocephalous church organization was destroyed again. The Bulgarian diocese was subordinated to the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople. The other Bulgarian religious centre – the Ohrid
Ohrid
Archbishopric – managed to survive a few centuries more (until 1767), as a stronghold of faith and piety. Ottoman rule[edit] As the Ottomans were Muslim, the period of Ottoman rule was the most difficult in the history of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, to the same extent as it was the hardest in the history of the Bulgarian people. During and immediately after the Ottoman conquest, a significant number of the Bulgarian churches and monasteries south of the Danube, including the Patriarchal Cathedral church of the Holy Ascension in Tarnovo, were razed to the ground. Some of the surviving ones were converted into mosques. Many of the clergy were killed, while the intelligentsia associated with the Tarnovo
Tarnovo
Literary School fled north of the Danube, where Bulgarian Boyars continued to rule in neighbouring Wallachia, but also in fellow Orthodox Christian Moldavia and Russia.

St. George, the Newmartyr of Sofia, icon from the 19th century

There were martyrs to the Church as many districts and almost all larger towns in the Bulgarian provinces of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
were subjected to forceful conversion to Islam
Islam
as early as the first years after the conquest. St. George of Kratovo (d. 1515), St. Nicholas of Sofia
Sofia
(d. 1515), Saint Vissarion of Smolyan (d. 1670), St. Damaskin of Gabrovo (d. 1771), St. Zlata of Muglen (d. 1795), St. John the Bulgarian (d. 1814), St. Ignatius of Stara Zagora
Stara Zagora
(d. 1814), St. Onouphry of Gabrovo (d. 1818) and many others perished defending their faith. After many of the leadership of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
were executed, it was fully subordinated to the Patriarch of Constantinople. The millet system in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
granted a number of important civil and judicial functions to the Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
and the diocesan metropolitans. As the higher Bulgarian church clerics were replaced by Greek ones at the beginning of the Ottoman domination, the Bulgarian population was subjected to double oppression – political by the Ottomans and cultural by the Greek clergy. With the rise of Greek nationalism in the second half of the 18th century, the clergy imposed the Greek language
Greek language
and a Greek consciousness on the emerging Bulgarian bourgeoisie. The Patriarchate of Constantinople
Constantinople
became its tool to assimilate other peoples. At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, the clergy opened numerous schools with all-round Greek language
Greek language
curriculum and nearly banned the Bulgarian liturgy. These actions threatened the survival of the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
as a separate nation and people with its own, distinct national culture. The monasteries were instrumental in the preservation of the Bulgarian language and the Bulgarian national consciousness throughout the centuries of Ottoman domination. Especially important were the Zograph and Hilandar monasteries on Mount Athos, as well as the Rila, Troyan, Etropole, Dryanovo, Cherepish and Dragalevtsi monasteries in Bulgaria. The monks managed to preserve their national character in the monasteries, continuing traditions of the Slavonic liturgy and Bulgarian literature. They continued to operate monastery schools and carried out other educational activities, which managed to keep the flame of the Bulgarian culture burning. The Bulgarian Exarchate[edit] Main article: Bulgarian Exarchate

A 17th-century church in Arbanasi.

In 1762, St. Paisius of Hilendar
Paisius of Hilendar
(1722–1773), a monk from the south-western Bulgarian town of Bansko, wrote a short historical work. It was the first work written in the modern Bulgarian vernacular and was also the first call for a national awakening. In History of Slav-Bulgarians, Paissiy urged his compatriots to throw off subjugation to the Greek language
Greek language
and culture. The example of Paissiy was followed by a number of other activists, including St. Sophroniy of Vratsa
Vratsa
(Sofroni Vrachanski) (1739–1813), hieromonk Spiridon of Gabrovo, hieromonk Yoakim Karchovski
Yoakim Karchovski
(d. 1820), hieromonk Kiril Peychinovich (d. 1845). Discontent with the supremacy of the Greek clergy started to flare up in several Bulgarian dioceses as early as the 1820s. It was not until 1850 that the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
initiated a purposeful struggle against the Greek clerics in a number of bishoprics, demanding their replacement with Bulgarian ones. By that time, most Bulgarian clergy had realised that further struggle for the rights of the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
in the Ottoman Empire could not succeed unless they managed to obtain some degree of autonomy from the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople. As the Ottomans identified nationality with religion, and the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
were Eastern Orthodox, the Ottomans considered them part of the Roum-Milet, i.e., the Greeks. To gain Bulgarian schools and liturgy, the Bulgarians needed to achieve an independent ecclesiastical organisation. The struggle between the Bulgarians, led by Neofit Bozveli and Ilarion Makariopolski, and the Greeks intensified throughout the 1860s. By the end of the decade, Bulgarian bishoprics had expelled most of the Greek clerics, thus the whole of northern Bulgaria, as well as the northern parts of Thrace
Thrace
and Macedonia had effectively seceded from the Patriarchate. The Ottoman government restored the Bulgarian Patriarchate
Patriarchate
under the name of "Bulgarian Exarchate" by a decree (firman) of the Sultan
Sultan
promulgated on February 28, 1870. The original Exarchate extended over present-day northern Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(Moesia), Thrace without the Vilayet of Adrianople, as well as over north-eastern Macedonia. After the Christian population of the bishoprics of Skopje and Ohrid
Ohrid
voted in 1874 overwhelmingly in favour of joining the Exarchate ( Skopje
Skopje
by 91%, Ohrid
Ohrid
by 97%), the Bulgarian Exarchate became in control of the whole of Vardar and Pirin
Pirin
Macedonia. The Bulgarian Exarchate
Bulgarian Exarchate
was partially represented in southern Macedonia and the Vilayet of Adrianople
Vilayet of Adrianople
by vicars. Thus, the borders of the Exarchate included all Bulgarian districts in the Ottoman Empire.

Map of the Bulgarian Exarchate
Bulgarian Exarchate
(1870–1913).

The Patriarchate of Constantinople
Patriarchate of Constantinople
opposed the change, promptly declaring the Bulgarian Exarchate
Bulgarian Exarchate
schismatic and its adherents heretics. Although the status and the guiding principles of the Exarchate reflected the canons, the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
argued that “surrender of Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
to ethnic nationalism” was essentially a manifestation of heresy.[citation needed] The first Bulgarian Exarch was Antim I, who was elected by the Holy Synod of the Exarchate in February, 1872. He was discharged by the Ottoman government immediately after the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War on April 24, 1877, and was sent into exile in Ankara. His successor, Joseph I, managed to develop and considerably extend its church and school network in the Bulgarian Principality, Eastern Rumelia, Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilayet. In 1895, the Tarnovo Constitution formally established the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
as the national religion of the nation. On the eve of the Balkan Wars, in Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilayet, the Bulgarian Exarchate
Bulgarian Exarchate
had seven dioceses with prelates and eight more with acting chairmen in charge and 38 vicariates; 1,218 parishes and 1,212 parish priests; 64 monasteries and 202 chapels; as well as of 1,373 schools with 2,266 teachers and 78,854 pupils. After World War I, by virtue of the peace treaties, the Bulgarian Exarchate was deprived of its dioceses in Macedonia and Aegean Thrace. Exarch Joseph I transferred his offices from Istanbul
Istanbul
to Sofia
Sofia
as early as 1913. After the death of Joseph I in 1915, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
was not in a position to elect its regular head for a total of three decades. Second restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate
Patriarchate
[3]

Sofia's patriarchal cathedral, St. Alexander Nevsky

Conditions for the restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate
Patriarchate
and the election of a head of the Bulgarian Church were created after World War II. In 1945 the schism was lifted and the Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
recognised the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Church. In 1950, the Holy Synod
Holy Synod
adopted a new Statute which paved the way for the restoration of the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
and in 1953, it elected the Metropolitan of Plovdiv, Cyril, Bulgarian Patriarch.[4] After the death of Patriarch Cyril in 1971, in his place was elected the Metropolitan of Lovech, Maxim, leading the church until his death in 2012. On 10 November 2012 Metropolitan Cyril of Varna
Varna
and Veliki Preslav
Preslav
was chosen was interim leader to organize the election of the new Patriarch within four months.[5] At the church council convened to elect a new Patriarch 24 February 2013, the Metropolitan of Ruse, Neophyt was elected Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
with 90 votes against 47 for Metropolitan Gabriel of Lovech.[6]

His Holiness Maxim, the late Patriarch of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Metropolitan of Sofia.

Eparchy of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Under Communism (1944–89), Bulgaria's rulers worked to control rather than destroy the church. Still, the early postwar years were unsettling to church hierarchs. During 1944-47 the church was deprived of jurisdiction in marriage, divorce, issuance of birth and death certificates, and other passages that had been sacraments as well as state events. Communists removed study of the catechism and church history from school curricula. They generated anti-religious propaganda and persecuted some priests. From 1947-49 was the height of the campaign to intimidate the church. Bishop Boris was assassinated; Egumenius Kalistrat, administrator of the Rila
Rila
Monastery, was imprisoned; and various other clergy were murdered or charged with crimes against the state. The communists soon replaced all clergy who refused to endorse the regime's policies. They banished Exarch Stefan, who had co-authored a book in 1948 that was considered anti-Communist.[7]

Bulgarian Orthodox priest

From that time until the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of Communist rule in 1989, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
and the Bulgarian Communist Party
Bulgarian Communist Party
and State Security coexisted in a closely symbiotic partnership, in which each supported the other. 11 (out of 15) members of Bulgarian Orthodox Church's Holy Synod
Holy Synod
worked for communist State Security.[8] The party supported the elevation of the exarchate to the rank of patriarchate in May 1953. The 1970 commemoration served to recall that the exarchate (which retained its jurisdictional borders until after World War I) included Macedonia and Thrace
Thrace
in addition to present-day Bulgaria. Along with other autocephalous Orthodox churches, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
does not recognize the autocephaly of the Macedonian Orthodox Church.[9] See also[edit]

Eastern Christianity
Christianity
portal Bulgaria
Bulgaria
portal

List of Orthodox Churches Bulgarian Alternative Synod

References[edit]

^ Kiminas, Demetrius (1 March 2009). "The Ecumenical Patriarchate". Wildside Press LLC. Retrieved 18 October 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Carvalho, Joaquim (18 October 2017). "Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and Convergence". Edizioni Plus. Retrieved 18 October 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Kalkandjieva, Daniela (2002). "The Restoration of the Patriarchal Dignity of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church". Bulgarian Historical Review. 3–4: 188-206.  ^ Daniela Kalkandjieva, 26. Balgarskata pravoslavna tsarkva i darzhavata, 1944-1953 [The Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
and the State], (Sofia: Albatros, 1997). ^ " Varna
Varna
Bishop Kiril Chosen Interim Bulgarian Orthodox Patriarch". Novinite.com. Retrieved 18 October 2017.  ^ "Неофит е новият патриарх на Българската православна църква". Dnevnik.bg. Retrieved 18 October 2017.  ^ Ramet, Pedro and Ramet, Sabrina P. Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and East European Politics, p. 20-21. Duke University Press, (1989), ISBN 0-8223-0891-6. ^ "Kapital Quarterly". Sofiaecho.com. Retrieved 18 October 2017.  ^ Ramet, p. 21

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bulgarian Orthodox Church.

The official website of the Bulgarian Patriarchate Unofficial web portal of Bulgarian Orthodox Christianity: in Bulgarian language  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Bulgaria". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  History of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
according to the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913). A short history of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
by CNEWA, the papal agency for humanitarian and pastoral support The Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
according to Overview of World Religions Article about the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
and Religion in Bulgaria Orthodox Life Info Portal: a Bulgarian Orthodox site (in English) Article on the medieval history of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in the repository of the Institute for Byzantine
Byzantine
Studies of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (in German)

v t e

Topics on the Bulgarian Empire

State Military Culture

Origin

Bulgars South Slavs Old Great Bulgaria

States

First Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
(681–1018) Second Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
(1185–1396/1422)

De facto independent Bulgarian states from the Second Empire

Tsardom of Vidin
Vidin
(1371–1396/1422) Despotate of Dobruja
Despotate of Dobruja
(Principality of Karvuna) (1337/1346–1413)

Administration

Aristocracy • Great Boyar Council • Council of Preslav Capitals: Pliska
Pliska
(681–893) • Preslav
Preslav
(893–972) • Skopje (972–992) • Ohrid
Ohrid
(992–1018) • Tarnovo
Tarnovo
(1185–1393) • Nicopolis (1393–1396) • Vidin
Vidin
(1393–1396)

Important rulers First Bulgarian Empire Asparukh • Tervel • Krum
Krum
• Omurtag • Boris I
Boris I
• Simeon I • Peter I • Samuel Second Bulgarian Empire Ivan Asen I
Ivan Asen I
Kaloyan
Kaloyan
Ivan Asen II Konstantin Tih
Konstantin Tih
• Michael Shishman • Ivan Alexander Economy

Bulgarian coinage Bulgarian economy

Bulgarian army Bulgarian navy

Conflicts

Byzantine–Bulgarian wars Croatian–Bulgarian wars Bulgarian–Hungarian wars Bulgarian–Latin wars Bulgarian–Ottoman wars Bulgarian–Serbian wars

Major battles First Bulgarian Empire Battle of Ongal
Battle of Ongal
• Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
• Battle of Marcellae • Battle of Pliska
Pliska
Battle of Southern Buh • Battle of Achelous • Battle of the Gates of Trajan
Battle of the Gates of Trajan
Battle of Kleidion
Battle of Kleidion
• Battle of Dyrrhachium Second Bulgarian Empire Battle of Tryavna
Battle of Tryavna
• Battle of Adrianople • Battle of Klokotnitsa • Battle of Skafida
Battle of Skafida
Battle of Velbazhd
Battle of Velbazhd
• Battle of Rusokastro • Battle of Chernomen • Siege of Tarnovo
Tarnovo
• Battle of Nicopolis Major uprisings

Uprising of Peter Delyan Uprising of Georgi Voiteh Uprising of Asen and Peter Uprising of Ivaylo Uprising of Konstantin and Fruzhin

Literature

Bulgarian literature Glagolitic script Early Cyrillic alphabet Cyrillic script Old Church Slavonic Preslav
Preslav
Literary School Ohrid
Ohrid
Literary School Royal charters

Prominent writers and scholars: Saint Naum
Saint Naum
• Clement of Ohrid
Ohrid
Chernorizets Hrabar
Chernorizets Hrabar
• Constantine of Preslav
Preslav
John the Exarch
John the Exarch
• Evtimiy of Tarnovo
Tarnovo
• Gregory Tsamblak Art and architecture

Architecture of the Tarnovo
Tarnovo
Artistic School Painting of the Tarnovo
Tarnovo
Artistic School

Famous examples: Madara Rider
Madara Rider
• Great Basilica • Round Church • Holy Forty Martyrs Church • Boyana Church
Boyana Church
• Tsarevets • Baba Vida
Baba Vida
• Cherven Religion

Tengrism Slavic Paganism Christianisation Eastern Orthodox Bulgarian Orthodox Archbishopric of Ohrid Roman Catholic Bogomilism

Portal

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Bulgaria articles

History

Odrysian kingdom Old Great Bulgaria First Bulgarian Empire Second Bulgarian Empire Ottoman period Principality Tsardom People's Republic Bulgaria
Bulgaria
since 1989

Geography

Balkan Mountains Balkan Peninsula Black Sea coast Cities and towns Earthquakes Islands Provinces Pirin Rila Rivers Rhodope Mountains Villages

Politics

Constitution Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights

LGBT

Law

enforcement

Armed Forces National Assembly Political parties

Economy

Agriculture Economic statistics Energy Industry Lev (currency) National bank Property bubble Science and technology Stock Exchange Tourism Transport

Society

Crime Demographics

Turks in Bulgaria

Education Health Languages Religion

Culture

Media Cinema Coat of arms Cuisine Customs Dances Language Literature Music Public holidays Sports

Outline

Category Portal

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Eastern Orthodox Church

Current Eastern Orthodox Patriarchs, Metropolitans and Archbishops of autocephalous and autonomous churches

Autocephalous patriarchates

Pentarchy

Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople Patriarch Theodore II of Alexandria Patriarch John X of Antioch Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem

National

Patriarch Kirill of the Russian Orthodox Church Patriarch Ilia II of the Georgian Orthodox Church Patriarch Irinej of the Serbian Orthodox Church Patriarch Daniel of the Romanian Orthodox Church Patriarch Neophyte of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Other autocephalous churches

Archbishop
Archbishop
Chrysostomos II of the Church of Cyprus Archbishop
Archbishop
Ieronymos II of the Church of Greece Archbishop
Archbishop
Anastasios of the Albanian Orthodox Church Metropolitan Sawa of the Polish Orthodox Church Metropolitan Rastislav of the Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church Metropolitan Tikhon of the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in America

Autonomous churches

Church of Sinai Finnish Orthodox Church Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church[a] Latvian Orthodox Church Japanese Orthodox Church[a] Chinese Orthodox Church[a] Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
(Moscow Patriarchate)[a] Orthodox Ohrid
Ohrid
Archbishopric Russian Orthodox Exarchate in Western Europe[a] Metropolis of Bessarabia[a] Moldovan Orthodox Church[a]

Semi-autonomous churches

Church of Crete Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
Outside Russia[b]

Liturgy

Byzantine
Byzantine
Rite Western Rite

Eastern Christianity
Christianity
portal

^ a b c d e f g Autocephaly
Autocephaly
or autonomy is not universally recognized. ^ Semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
whose autonomy is not universally recognized.

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Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
in Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of M

.