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In the medieval history of Europe
Europe
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
's status as the BULGARIAN EMPIRE (Bulgarian : Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo ), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe
Europe
) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The two "Bulgarian Empires" are not treated as separate entities, but rather as one state restored after a period of Byzantine rule over its territory.

CONTENTS

* 1 First Bulgarian Empire * 2 Second Bulgarian Empire * 3 Maps * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading

FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE

Main article: First Bulgarian Empire Kanasubigi Omurtag (814–831)

The FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE was established on the territory both north and south of the lower course of the Danube River , and is usually described as having lasted between 681 and 1018, when it was subjugated by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
despite Emperor Samuel 's fierce resistance. It gradually reached its cultural and territorial apogee in the 9th century and early 10th century under Prince Boris I and Emperor Simeon the Great , when it developed into the cultural and literary center of Slavic Europe
Europe
, as well as one of the largest states in Europe.

SECOND BULGARIAN EMPIRE

Main article: Second Bulgarian Empire

The medieval Bulgarian state was restored as the SECOND BULGARIAN EMPIRE after a successful uprising of two nobles from Tarnovo , Asen and Peter , in 1185, and existed until it was conquered during the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans
Balkans
in the late 14th century, with the date of its subjugation usually given as 1396, although some fringe views place it at 1422. Under Ivan Asen II in the first half of the 13th century the country gradually recovered much of its former power, though this did not last long due to internal problems and foreign invasions. The Empire
Empire
became tributary to the Golden Horde , a successor state of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in the 13th to 14th centuries. After the death of Emperor Ivan Alexander
Ivan Alexander
in 1371 Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was split into three countries and in the following decades fell under the domination of the superior Ottomans which the Bulgarians were technologically and culturally inferior.

*

Tsar
Tsar
Ivan Alexander
Ivan Alexander
(1331–1371) *

Coat of Arms of Bulgaria
Bulgaria

MAPS

*

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
after its foundation by kanasubigi Asparukh in 681 *

Map of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
during its largest territorial extension under Simeon the Great *

Map of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
during the reign of Samuel *

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
under the brothers Peter and Asen *

The Bulgarian Empire
Empire
during the reign of Ivan Asen II *

The Second Bulgarian Empire after the death of Ivan Alexander
Ivan Alexander

SEE ALSO

* Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* History of Bulgaria
Bulgaria

REFERENCES

* ^ R. Craig Nation. War in the Balkans, 1991–2002. Lulu.com. Retrieved 2012-06-28. * ^ A Concise History of Bulgaria, R. J. Crampton, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521616379 , pp. 8-9. * ^ The New Cambridge Medieval
Medieval
History: Volume 1, c.500–c.700, Paul Fouracre, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521362911 , p. 301. * ^ Мутафчиев, П. Гюзелев. В, История на българския народ 681–1323. Българска Академия на науките, 1986. стр. 106–108. * ^ http://liternet.bg/publish13/p_pavlov/konstantin_II_asen.htm * ^ Peter Jackson, The Mongols and the West, p. 204 * ^ Denis Sinor, "The Mongols in the West", Journal of Asian History v. 33 n. 1 (1999).

FURTHER READING

* Zlatarski, Vasil N. (2006) . Medieval
Medieval
History of the Bulgarian State (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Science and Arts Publishers, 2nd Edition (Petar Petrov, Ed.), Zahari Stoyanov Publishers, 4th Edition, 2006. ISBN 978-954-739-928-0 . * Бакалов, Георги; Милен Куманов (2003). Електронна издание – История на България (in Bulgarian). София: Труд, Сирма. ISBN 978-954-528-613-1 . * Делев, Петър; Валери Кацунов; Пламен Митев; Евгения Калинова; Искра Баева; Боян Добрев (2006). История и цивилизация за 11. клас (in Bulgarian). Труд, Сирма. * Българите и България (in Bulgarian). Министерство на външните работи на България, Труд, Сирма. 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-11-10. * Fine, John V. A., Jr. (1991). The Early Medieval
Medieval
Balkans. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3 .

* v * t * e

Topics on the Bulgarian Empire
Empire

STATE MILITARY CULTURE

ORIGIN

* Bulgars
Bulgars
* South Slavs * Old Great Bulgaria
Bulgaria

STATES

* First Bulgarian Empire (681–1018) * Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1396/1422)

De facto independent Bulgarian states from the Second Empire
Empire

* Tsardom of Vidin
Vidin
(1371–1396/1422) * Despotate of Dobruja (Principality of Karvuna) (1337/1346–1413)

ADMINISTRATION

* Aristocracy • Great Boyar Council • Council of Preslav * Capitals: Pliska
Pliska
(681–893) • Preslav (893–972) • Skopje (972–992) • Ohrid
Ohrid
(992–1018) • Tarnovo (1185–1393) • Nicopolis (1393–1396) • Vidin
Vidin
(1393–1396)

IMPORTANT RULERS

FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE

Asparukh • Tervel • Krum
Krum
• Omurtag • Boris I • Simeon I • Peter I • Samuel

SECOND BULGARIAN EMPIRE

Ivan Asen I • Kaloyan • Ivan Asen II • Konstantin Tih • Michael Shishman • Ivan Alexander
Ivan Alexander
ECONOMY

* Bulgarian coinage * Bulgarian economy

* Bulgarian army * Bulgarian navy

CONFLICTS

* Byzantine–Bulgarian wars
Byzantine–Bulgarian wars
* Croatian–Bulgarian wars * Bulgarian–Hungarian wars * Bulgarian–Latin wars * Bulgarian–Ottoman wars * Bulgarian–Serbian wars

MAJOR BATTLES

FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE

Battle of Ongal • Siege of Constantinople • Battle of Marcellae • Battle of Pliska
Pliska
Battle of Southern Buh • Battle of Achelous • Battle of the Gates of Trajan Battle of Kleidion • Battle of Dyrrhachium

SECOND BULGARIAN EMPIRE

Battle of Tryavna • Battle of Adrianople • Battle of Klokotnitsa • Battle of Skafida Battle of Velbazhd • Battle of Rusokastro • Battle of Chernomen • Siege of Tarnovo Battle of Nicopolis
Battle of Nicopolis
MAJOR UPRISINGS

* Uprising of Peter Delyan * Uprising of Georgi Voiteh * Uprising of Asen and Peter * Uprising of Ivaylo * Uprising of Konstantin and Fruzhin

LITERATURE

* Bulgarian literature * Glagolitic script * Early Cyrillic alphabet * Cyrillic script * Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
* Preslav Literary School * Ohrid
Ohrid
Literary School * Royal charters

PROMINENT WRITERS AND SCHOLARS: Saint Naum • Clement of Ohrid
Ohrid
Chernorizets Hrabar • Constantine of Preslav John the Exarch • Evtimiy of Tarnovo Gregory Tsamblak ART AND ARCHITECTURE

* Architecture of the Tarnovo Artistic School * Painting of the Tarnovo Artistic School

FAMOUS EXAMPLES: Madara Rider • Great Basilica • Round Church • Holy Forty Martyrs Church • Boyana Church • Tsarevets • Baba Vida • Cherven RELIGION

* Tengrism
Tengrism
* Slavic Paganism * Christianisation * Eastern Orthodox * Bulgarian Orthodox * Archbishopric of Ohrid
Ohrid
* Roman Catholic * Bogomilism
Bogomilism

PORTAL

* v * t * e

Empires

ANCIENT

* Akkadian * Egyptian * Assyrian * Babylonian * Carthaginian

* Chinese

* Qin * Han * Jin * Northern Wei
Northern Wei

* Hellenistic

* Macedonian * Seleucid

* Hittite

* Indian

* Nanda * Maurya * Satavahana * Shunga * Gupta * Harsha

* Iranian

* Median * Achaemenid * Parthian * Sasanian

* Kushan

* Mongol

* Xianbei * Xiongnu
Xiongnu

* Roman

* Western * Eastern

* Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan

POST-CLASSICAL

* Arab

* Rashidun * Umayyad * Abbasid * Fatimid * Córdoba

* Aragonese * Angevin * Aztec * Benin * Bornu * Bruneian

* Bulgarian

* First * Second

* Byzantine

* Nicaea * Trebizond

* Carolingian

* Chinese

* Sui * Tang * Song * Yuan

* Ethiopian

* Zagwe * Solomonic

* Georgian * Hunnic * Inca

* Indian

* Chola * Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
* Pala * Eastern Ganga dynasty * Delhi * Vijayanagara

* Iranian

* Tahirid * Samanid * Buyid * Sallarid * Ziyarid

* Kanem * Khmer * Latin * Majapahit
Majapahit
* Malaccan * Mali

* Mongol

* Yuan * Golden Horde * Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
* Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate

* Moroccan

* Idrisid * Almoravid * Almohad * Marinid

* North Sea * Oyo * Roman * Serbian

* Somali

* Ajuran * Ifatite * Adalite * Mogadishan * Warsangali

* Songhai * Srivijaya * Tibetan

* Turko-Persian

* Ghaznavid * Great Seljuk * Khwarezmian * Timurid

* Vietnamese

* Ly * Tran * Le

* Wagadou

MODERN

* Ashanti * Austrian * Austro-Hungarian * Brazilian * Central African

* Chinese

* Ming * Qing * China * Manchukuo
Manchukuo

* Ethiopian

* French

* First * Second

* German

* First Reich * Second Reich * Third Reich

* Haitian

* First * Second

* Indian

* Maratha * Sikh * Mughal * British Raj
British Raj

* Iranian

* Safavid * Afsharid * Zand * Qajar * Pahlavi

* Japanese * Johor * Korean

* Mexican

* First * Second

* Moroccan

* Saadi * Alaouite

* Russian * USSR

* Somali

* Gobroon * Majeerteen * Hobyo * Dervish

* Swedish * Tongan

* Turkish

* Ottoman * Karaman * Ramazan

* Vietnamese

* Tay Son * Nguyen * Vietnam

COLONIAL

* American * Belgian

* British

* English

* Danish * Dutch * French * German * Italian * Japanese * Norwegian * Portuguese * Spanish * Swedish

LISTS

* Empires

* largest

* ancient great powers * medieval great powers * modern great powers

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