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Bukovina
Bukovina
(Romanian: Bucovina; German: Bukowina/Buchenland; Polish: Bukowina; Hungarian: Bukovina, Ukrainian: Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,[1][2] divided between Romania
Romania
and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains. A region of Moldavia
Moldavia
during the Middle Ages, the territory of what became known as Bukovina
Bukovina
was, from 1774 to 1918, an administrative division of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, and Austria-Hungary. After World War I, Romania
Romania
established its control over Bukovina. In 1940, the northern half of Bukovina
Bukovina
was annexed by the Soviet Union, and currently is part of Ukraine.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Background 2.2 Austrian Empire

2.2.1 Late-19th to early-20th centuries

2.3 Kingdom of Romania 2.4 Second World War 2.5 After the war

3 Geography 4 Population

4.1 Historical population 4.2 Current population 4.3 Cities and towns

4.3.1 Southern Bukovina 4.3.2 Northern Bukovina

5 Gallery

5.1 Urban landscapes 5.2 Rural landscapes

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Name[edit]

Map of Bukovina

The name Bukovina
Bukovina
came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia
Moldavia
to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
in 1804, and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1867. The official German name of the province under Austrian rule (1775–1918), die Bukowina, was derived from the Polish form Bukowina, which in turn was derived from the common Slavic form of buk, meaning beech tree (cf the Ukrainian бук [buk]; also the German Buche).[3][4] Another German name for the region, das Buchenland, is mostly used in poetry, and means "beech land", or "the land of beech trees". In Romanian, in literary or poetic contexts, the name Țara Fagilor ("the land of beech trees") is sometimes used. In English, an alternative form is The Bukovina, increasingly an archaism, which, however, is found in older literature. In modern Ukraine, the name "Bukovina" is unofficial, but is common when referring to the Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
Oblast, as over two thirds of the oblast is the northern part of Bukovina. In Romania
Romania
the term Northern Bukovina
Bukovina
is sometimes synonymous with the entire Chernivtsi Oblast
Chernivtsi Oblast
of Ukraine, while (Southern) Bukovina
Bukovina
refers to the Suceava County
Suceava County
of Romania
Romania
(although 30% of the present day Suceava County
Suceava County
covers territory outside of the historical Bukovina). History[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Romania

Prehistory

Cucuteni-Trypillian culture Hamangia culture Bronze Age in Romania Prehistory of Transylvania

Antiquity

Dacia Dacian Wars Roman Dacia Origin of the Romanians

Middle Ages (Early)

History of Transylvania Foundation of Wallachia Foundation of Moldavia

Early Modern Times

Principality of Transylvania Eyalet of Temesvar Varat Eyalet Phanariotes Danubian Principalities

National Awakening

Transylvanian School Organic Statute 1848 Moldavian Revolution 1848 Wallachian Revolution Union of the Romanian Principalities

United Principalities

ASTRA War of Independence

Kingdom of Romania

World War I Union with Banat Union with Bucovina Union with Transylvania Union with Bessarabia Greater Romania Soviet occupation of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina World War II

Socialist Republic of Romania

Soviet occupation Revolution

Post-Revolution

Romania
Romania
since 1989

By topic

Timeline Military history Christianity Romanian language

By historical region

Banat Bessarabia Bukovina Dobruja Crișana Maramureș Moldavia Muntenia Oltenia Transylvania Wallachia

Commons Centuries in Romania

Romania
Romania
portal

v t e

The territory of Bukovina
Bukovina
had been part of Moldavia
Moldavia
since the 14th century. It was first delineated as a separate district in 1775, and was made a nominal duchy within the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
in 1849. Background[edit] Further information: Moldavia, Romania
Romania
in the Early Middle Ages, and Origin of the Romanians

Bukovina
Bukovina
within historic Moldavia
Moldavia
over time

The Moldavian state had appeared by the mid-14th century, eventually expanding its territory all the way to the Black Sea. Bukovina
Bukovina
and neighboring regions were the nucleus of the Moldavian Principality, with the city of Suceava
Suceava
as its capital from 1388 (after Baia
Baia
and Siret). The name of Moldavia
Moldavia
(Moldova) is derived from a river (Moldova River) flowing in Bukovina. In the 15th century, Pokuttya, the region immediately to the north, became the subject of disputes between the Principality of Moldavia and the Polish Kingdom. Pokuttya
Pokuttya
was inhabited by Ruthenians
Ruthenians
(the predecessors of modern Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Rusyns) and Hutsuls; the latter also reside in western Bukovina. In 1497 a battle took place at the Cosmin Forest (the hilly forests separating Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
and Siret valleys), at which Stephen III of Moldavia
Moldavia
(Stephen the Great), managed to defeat the much-stronger but demoralized army of King John I Albert of Poland. The battle is known in Polish popular culture as "the battle when the knights have perished".

View over the western side of the Suceava
Suceava
medieval seat fortress

In this period, the patronage of Stephen the Great and his successors on the throne of Moldavia
Moldavia
saw the construction of the famous painted monasteries of Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Putna, Humor, Voroneţ, Dragomirna, Arbore and others. With their renowned exterior frescoes, these monasteries remain some of the greatest cultural treasures of Romania; some of them are World Heritage Sites, part of the painted churches of northern Moldavia. Stephen also settled the first Ruthenians
Ruthenians
in Bukovina
Bukovina
with the hope of having a loyal and more numerous population that would contribute with taxes.[citation needed] In Suceava, in the 16th century, two percent of the population (i.e. about 500–1000 people) was Ruthenian.[citation needed] In 1513, Moldavia
Moldavia
started to pay annual tribute to the Ottoman Empire, but remained autonomous and was governed as before by a native Voivod / Prince. In May, 1600 Mihai Viteazul (Michael the Brave), united the two Romanian principalities and Transylvania
Transylvania
under his leadership. For short periods of time (during wars), the Polish Kingdom occupied parts of northern Moldavia. However, the old border was re-established each time, as for example on 14 October 1703 the Polish delegate Martin Chometowski acknowledged "Between us and Wallachia
Wallachia
(i.e. Moldavia) God himself set Dniester
Dniester
as the border" (Inter nos et Valachiam ipse Deus flumine Tyras dislimitavit).

Monument in Iași
Iași
(1875) dedicated to Grigore III Ghica
Grigore III Ghica
and Moldavia's loss of Bukovina

In the course of the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, the Ottoman armies were defeated by the Russian Empire, which occupied the region during 15 December 1769 – September 1774, and previously during 14 September–October 1769. Bukovina
Bukovina
was the reward the Habsburgs received for aiding the Russians
Russians
in that war. Prince Grigore III Ghica of Moldavia
Moldavia
protested and was prepared to take action to recover the territory, but was assassinated, and a Greek-Phanariot foreigner was put on the throne of Moldavia
Moldavia
by the Ottomans. Austrian Empire[edit] Main article: Duchy of Bukovina See also: Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
and Early Modern Romania The Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
occupied Bukovina
Bukovina
in October 1774. Following the First Partition of Poland
First Partition of Poland
in 1772, the Austrians claimed that they needed it for a road between Galicia and Transylvania. Bukovina
Bukovina
was formally annexed in January 1775. On 2 July 1776, at Palamutka, Austrians and Ottomans signed a border convention, Austria giving back 59 of the previously occupied villages, retaining 278 villages.

Coat of arms of the Duchy of Bukovina

Bukovina
Bukovina
was a closed military district (1775–1786), then the largest district, Kreis Czernowitz
Czernowitz
(after its capital Czernowitz) of the Austrian constituent Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (1787–1849). On 4 March 1849, Bukovina
Bukovina
became a separate Austrian Kronland 'crown land' under a Landespräsident (not a Statthalter, as in other crown lands) and was declared the Herzogtum Bukowina (a nominal duchy, as part of the official full style of the Austrian Emperors). In 1860 it was again amalgamated with Galicia, but reinstated as a separate province once again 26 February 1861, a status that would last until 1918.[5] In 1849 Bukovina
Bukovina
got a representative assembly, the Landtag (diet). The Moldavian nobility had traditionally formed the ruling class in that territory. In 1867, with the re-organisation of the Austrian Empire as the Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
Empire, it became part of the Cisleithanian or Austrian territories of Austria-Hungary, and remained so until 1918. Late-19th to early-20th centuries[edit] Main article: Early Modern Romania

Bukovina
Bukovina
in 1901

Czernowitz

The 1871 and 1904 jubilees held at Putna Monastery, near the tomb of Ştefan cel Mare, have constituted tremendous moments for Romanian national identity in Bukovina. Since gaining its independence, Romania envisioned to incorporate this historic province which, as a core of Moldavian Principality, was of a great historic significance to its history and contained many prominent monuments of its art and architecture.[6] Despite the influx of migrants encouraged under the Austrian rule, Romanians
Romanians
continued to be the largest ethnic group in the province until 1880, when Ruthenians
Ruthenians
(Ukrainians) outnumbered the Romanians 5:4. According to the 1880 census there were 239,690 Ruthenians
Ruthenians
and Hutzuls, or roughly 41.5% of the population of the region, while Romanians
Romanians
were second with 190,005 people or 33%, a ratio that remained more or less the same until World War I. Ruthenian is an archaic name for Ukrainian, while the Hutsuls
Hutsuls
are a regional Ukrainian subgroup. Under Austrian rule Bukovina
Bukovina
remained ethnically mixed: predominantly Romanian in the south, Ukrainian (commonly referred to as Ruthenians in the Empire) in the north, with small numbers of Hungarian Székelys, Slovak and Polish peasants, and Germans, Poles
Poles
and Jews
Jews
in the towns. The 1910 census counted 800,198 people, of which: Ruthenian 38.88%, Romanian 34.38%, German 21.24% ( Jews
Jews
12.86% included), Polish 4.55%, Hungarian 1.31%, Slovak 0.08%, Slovene 0.02%, Italian 0.02%, and a few Croat, Romani, Serbian, and Turkish. Romanians
Romanians
were still present in all settlements of the region, but their number decreased in the villages in the north. Many of Bukovina's Germans, and a few Romanians, emigrated in 19th and 20th century to North America.[7][8][9] In 1783, by an imperial decree of Joseph II, local Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Bukovina
Bukovina
with its seat in Czernowitz
Czernowitz
was placed under spiritual jurisdiction of Metropolitanate of Karlovci.[10] Some friction appeared in time between the church hierarchy and the Romanians
Romanians
complaining that Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
was favored to Romanian, and that family names were being slavicized. In spite of Romanian-Slav frictions over the influence in the local church hierarchy, there was no Romanian-Ukrainian inter-ethnic tension, and both cultures developed in educational and public life. After the rise of Romanian nationalism in 1848, Habsburg authorities awarded additional rights to Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in an attempt to temper Romanian ambitions of independence.[11] At the end of the 19th century, the development of Ukrainian culture
Ukrainian culture
in Bukovina
Bukovina
surpassed Galicia and the rest of Ukraine
Ukraine
with a network of Ukrainian educational facilities. and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
formed an Archbishopric, later raised to the rank of Metropolitanate In 1873, the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Bishop of Czernowitz, who was since 1783 under the spiritual jurisdiction of Metropolitan of Karlovci, was elevated to the rank of Archbishop when new Metropolitanate of Bukovinian and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was created. New Archbishop of Czernowitz gained supreme jurisdiction over Serbian eparchies of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Kotor, that also were (until then) under spiritual jurisdiction of Karlovci. In the early 20th century, a group of scholars surrounding the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
created a plan (that never came to pass) of United States of Greater Austria. The specific proposal was published in Aurel C. Popovici's book “Die Vereinigten Staaten von Groß-Österreich“ [The United States of Greater Austria], Leipzig, 1906. According to it, most of Bukovina
Bukovina
(including Czernowitz) would form, with Transylvania, a Romanian state, while the north-western portion (Zastavna, Kozman, Waschkoutz, Wiznitz, Gura Putilei, and Seletin districts) would form with the bigger part of Galicia a Ukrainian state, both in a federation with 13 other states under the Austrian crown.[12][13] Kingdom of Romania[edit] Main articles: Kingdom of Romania
Romania
and Greater Romania

Romanian takeover of Bukovina

Part of the Polish–Ukrainian War

Date 11–12 November 1918

Location Bukovina, now part of Romania
Romania
and Ukraine

Result Romanian victory

Territorial changes Bukovina
Bukovina
subsequently united with Romania
Romania
on 28 November

Belligerents

 West Ukrainian People's Republic Romania

Commanders and leaders

Yevhen Petrushevych Ferdinand I

Demographic composition of Bukovina
Bukovina
in 1930, with the 1940 border drawn in the centre.

In World War I, several battles were fought in Bukovina
Bukovina
between the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Russian armies, which resulted in the Russian army being driven out in 1917. With the collapse of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1918, both the local Romanian National Council and the Ukrainian National Council
Ukrainian National Council
based in Galicia claimed the region. A Constituent Assembly on 14/27 October 1918 formed an Executive Committee, to whom the Austrian governor of the province handed power. After an official request by Iancu Flondor, Romanian troops swiftly moved in to take over the territory, against Ukrainian protest.[14] Although local Ukrainians
Ukrainians
attempted to incorporate parts of northern Bukovina
Bukovina
into the short-lived West Ukrainian People's Republic, this attempt was defeated by Polish and Romanian troops. Under the protection of Romanian troops, the Romanian Council summoned a General Congress of Bukovina for 15/28 November 1918, where 74 Romanians, 13 Ruthenians, 7 Germans, and 6 Poles
Poles
were represented (this is the linguistic composition, and Jews
Jews
were not recorded as a separate group).[citation needed] Popular enthusiasm swept the whole region, and a large number of people gathered in the city to wait for the resolution of the Congress.[15][16] The Congress elected the Romanian Bukovinian politician Iancu Flondor as chairman, and voted for the union with the Kingdom of Romania, with the support of the Romanian, German, and Polish representatives; the Ukrainians
Ukrainians
did not support this.[17] The reasons stated were that, until its takeover by the Habsburg in 1775, Bukovina
Bukovina
was the heart of the Principality of Moldavia, where the gropniţele domneşti (voivods' burial sites) are located, and dreptul de liberă hotărâre de sine (right of self-determination).[18] Romanian control of the province was recognized internationally in the Treaty of St. Germain in 1919. During the interwar period, Romanian authorities oversaw a programme of Rumanization
Rumanization
aiming its assimilationist policies at the Ukrainian population of the region. The Romanian language
Romanian language
was introduced into ethnic minority schools in 1923, and, by 1926, all public Ukrainian schools in Bukovina
Bukovina
were closed (private schools still continue to exist).[17] At the same time, Ukrainian enrolment at the Cernăuţi University fell from 239 out of 1671, in 1914, to 155 out of 3,247, in 1933, while simultaneously Romanian enrolment there increased several times to 2,117 out of 3,247.[19] In part this was due to attempts to switch to Romanian as the primary language of university instruction, but chiefly to the fact that the university was one of only five in Romania, and was considered prestigious. In the decade following 1928, as Romania
Romania
tried to improve its relations with the Soviet Union, Ukrainian culture
Ukrainian culture
was given some limited means to redevelop, though these gains were sharply reversed in 1938.[citation needed] According to the 1930 Romanian census, Romanians
Romanians
made up 44.5% of the total population of Bukovina, and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(including Hutsuls) 29.1%.[20] In the northern part of the region, however, Romanians
Romanians
made up only 32.6% of the population, with Ukrainians
Ukrainians
significantly outnumbering Romanians. Second World War[edit] Main article: Romania
Romania
during World War II

Bukovina
Bukovina
as divided in 1940: Soviet to the north, Romanian to the south

Following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, the June 1940 Soviet Ultimatum demanded from Romania
Romania
the northern part of Bukovina, a region bordering Galicia (the latter annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
at 1939 Poland's partition in 1939). The Soviet demand for Bukovina
Bukovina
surprised Nazi Germany, though it did not formally oppose it. In the first Soviet ultimatum addressed to the Romanian government, the partly Ukrainian populated northern Bukovina
Bukovina
was "demanded" as a minor "reparation for the great loss produced to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Bassarabia's population by twenty-two years of Romanian domination of Bassarabia". On 28 June 1940, the Romanian government evacuated Northern Bukovina, and the Red Army
Red Army
moved in, with the new Soviet-Romanian border being traced less than 20 kilometres (12 miles) north of Putna Monastery. In 1940, Chernivtsi Oblast
Chernivtsi Oblast
(⅔ of which is Northern Bukovina) had a population of circa 805,000, out of which 47.5% were Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and 28.3% were Romanians, with Germans, Jews, Poles, Hungarians and Russians
Russians
comprising the rest.[citation needed] The strong Ukrainian presence was the official motivation for inclusion of the region into the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
and not into the newly formed Moldavian SSR. Whether the region would have been included in the Moldavian SSR, if the commission presiding over the division had been led by someone else than the Ukrainian communist leader Nikita Khrushchev, remains a matter of debate among scholars.[citation needed] In fact, some territories with a mostly Romanian population (e.g. Hertza region) were allotted to the Ukrainian SSR.

Administrative map of the Governorate of Bukovina
Bukovina
as of May 1942.

After the instauration of Soviet rule, under NKVD
NKVD
orders, thousands of local families were deported to Siberia
Siberia
during this period,[21] with 12,191 people targeted for deportation in a document dated 2 August 1940 (from all formerly Romanian regions included in the Ukrainian SSR),[21] while a December 1940 document listed 2,057 persons to be deported to Siberia.[22] The largest action took place on 13 June 1941, when about 13,000 people were deported to Siberia
Siberia
and Kazakhstan.[23] The majority of those targeted were ethnic local Romanians, but there were (to a lesser degree) representatives of other ethnicities, as well.[24] Until the repatriation convention[citation needed] of 15 April 1941, NKVD
NKVD
troops killed hundreds of Romanian peasants of Northern Bukovina as they tried to cross the border into Romania
Romania
in order to escape from Soviet authorities. This culminated on 1 April 1941 with the Fântâna Albă massacre. Almost the entire German population of northern Bukovina
Bukovina
was coerced to resettle in 1940–1941 to the parts of Poland
Poland
then occupied by Nazi Germany, during 15 September 1940 – 15 November 1940, after this area was occupied by the Soviet Union. About 45,000 ethnic Germans
Germans
had left Northern Bukovina
Bukovina
by November 1940.[25] In the course of the 1941 attack on the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by the Axis forces, the Romanian Third Army
Romanian Third Army
led by General Petre Dumitrescu (operating in the north), and the Fourth Romanian Army (operating in the south) regained Northern Bukovina, as well as Hertza, and Bassarabia, during June–July 1941. The Axis invasion of northern Bukovina
Bukovina
was catastrophic for its Jewish population, as conquering Nazi soldiers immediately began massacring its Jewish residents. Surviving Jews
Jews
were forced into ghettoes to await deportation to work camps in Transnistria where 57,000 had arrived by 1941. Bukovina's remaining Jews
Jews
were spared from certain death when it was liberated by Soviet forces in February, 1944. In all, about half of Bukovina's entire Jewish population had perished. After the war and the return of the Soviets, most of the Jewish survivors from northern Bukovina
Bukovina
fled to Romania
Romania
(and later settled in Israel).[26] After the war[edit] Main articles: Communist Romania
Romania
and History of Moldova

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Northern Bukovina
Bukovina
within Ukraine

In 1944 the Red Army
Red Army
drove the Axis forces
Axis forces
out and re-established Soviet control over the territory. Romania
Romania
was forced to formally cede the northern part of Bukovina
Bukovina
to the USSR
USSR
by the 1947 Paris peace treaty. The territory became part of the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
as Chernivtsi Oblast (province). After the war the Soviet government deported or killed about 41,000 Romanians.[27] As a result of killings and mass deportations, entire villages, mostly inhabited by Romanians, were abandoned (Albovat, Frunza, I.G.Duca, Buci—completely erased, Prisaca, Tanteni and Vicov—destroyed to a large extent).[28] Men of military age (and sometimes above) were conscripted into the Soviet Army. That did not protect them, however, from being arrested and deported for being "anti-Soviet elements". As a reaction, partisan groups (composed of both Romanians
Romanians
and Ukrainians) began to operate against the Soviets in the woods around Chernivtsi, Crasna and Codrii Cosminului.[29] In Crasna (in the former Storozhynets
Storozhynets
county) villagers attacked Soviet soldiers who were sent to "temporarily resettle" them, since they feared deportation. This resulted in dead and wounded among the villagers, who had no firearms. Spring 1945 saw the formation of transports of Polish repatriates who (voluntarily or by coercion) had decided to leave. Between March 1945 and July 1946, 10,490 inhabitants left northern Bukovina
Bukovina
for Poland, including 8,140 Poles, 2,041 Jews
Jews
and 309 of other nationalities. Overall, between 1930 (last Romanian census) and 1959 (first Soviet census), the population of northern Bukovina
Bukovina
decreased by 31,521 people. According to official data from those two censuses, the Romanian population had decreased by 75,752 people, and the Jewish population by 46,632, while the Ukrainian and Russian populations increased by 135,161 and 4,322 people, respectively. After 1944, the human and economic connections between the northern (Soviet) and southern (Romanian) parts of Bukovina
Bukovina
were severed. While the northern part is the nucleus of the Ukrainian Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
Oblast, the southern part is tightly integrated with the other Romanian historic regions. In Romania, 28 November is a holiday observed as Bukovina
Bukovina
Day.[30] Geography[edit] Bukovina
Bukovina
proper has an area of 10,442 km2 (4,032 sq mi). The territory of Romanian (or Southern) Bukovina
Bukovina
is located in northeastern Romania
Romania
and it is part of the Suceava County
Suceava County
(plus three localities in Botoșani County), whereas Ukrainian (or Northern) Bukovina
Bukovina
is located in western Ukraine
Ukraine
and it is part of the Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
Oblast. Population[edit] Historical population[edit]

Demographic composition of Bukovina
Bukovina
in 1910

Demographic composition of Bukovina
Bukovina
in 1930

According to the 1775 Austrian census, the province had a total population of 86,000 (this included 56 villages which were later returned to Moldova). The census only recorded social status and some ethno-religious groups (Jews, Armenians, Gypsies, German colonists). In 1919, I. Nistor claimed that Romanians
Romanians
constituted an overwhelming majority in 1774, roughly 64,000 (85%) of the 75,000 total population. Meanwhile, about 8,000 (10%) were Ruthenians/ Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and 3,000 (4%) other ethnic groups.[31] On the other hand, an anthroponimical analysis of the Russian census of the population of Moldova in 1774 asserted a population of 68,700 people, out of which 40,920 (59.6%) Romanians, 22,810 (33.2%) Ruthenians
Ruthenians
and Hutsuls, and 7.2% Jewish, Roma and Armenians.[32] Based on the above anthroponimical estimate for 1774 as well as subsequent official censuses, the ethnic composition of Bukovina changed in the years after 1775 when the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
occupied the region. The population of Bukovina
Bukovina
increased steadily, primarily through immigration, which Austrian authorities encouraged in order to develop the economy.[33] H.F. Müller gives the 1840 population used for purposes of military conscription as 339,669.[34] According to Alecu Hurmuzaki, by 1848, 55% of the population was Romanian. At the same time, the Ukrainian population rose to 108,907 and the Jewish population surged from 526 in 1774, to 11,600 in 1848.[31] In 1843 the Ruthenian language
Ruthenian language
was recognized, along with the Romanian language, as 'the language of the people and of the Church in Bukovina'.[35] During the 19th century the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
policies encouraged the influx of many immigrants such as Germans, Poles, Jews, Hungarians, and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(at that time referred to as Ruthenians) from Galicia, as well as Romanians
Romanians
from Transylvania.[35] Official censuses in the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(later Austria-Hungary) did not record ethno-linguistic data until 1850-1851. The 1857 and 1869 censuses omitted ethnic or language-related questions. 'Familiar language spoken' was not recorded again until 1880. The Austrian census of 1850-1851, which for the first time recorded data regarding languages spoken, shows 48.50% Romanians
Romanians
and 38.07% Ukrainians.[36] Subsequent Austrian censuses between 1880 and 1910 reveal a Romanian population stabilizing around 33% and a Ukrainian population around 40%. According to the 1930 Romanian Census, Bukovina
Bukovina
had a population of 853,009.[37] Romanians
Romanians
made up 44.5% of the population, while 27.7% were Ukrainians/ Ruthenians
Ruthenians
(plus 1.5% Hutsuls), 10.8% Jews, 8.9% Germans, 3.6% Poles, and 3.0% others or undeclared.[38] According to estimates and censuses data, the population of Bukovina was:

Year Romanians Ukrainians Others

1774 (e)[31][32] 40,920 - 64,000 59.6% - 85.33% 8,000 - 22,810 10.6% - 33.2% 3,000 - 4,970 4.0% - 7.2%

1846 (c)[39] 140,628 37.89% 180,417 48.61% N/A 13.5%

1848 (e)[31] 209,293 55.4% 108,907 28.8% 59,381 15.8%

1851 (c)[39][40] 184,718 48.5% 144,982 38.1% 51,126 13.4%

1880 (c)[41] 190,005 33.4% 239,960 42.2% 138,758 24.4%

1890 (c)[42] 208,301 32.4% 268,367 41.8% 165,827 25.8%

1900 (c)[43] 229,018 31.4% 297,798 40.8% 203,379 27.8%

1910 (c) 273,254 34.1% 305,101 38.4% 216,574 27.2%

1930 (c)[37][44] 379,691 44.5% 248,567 29.1% 224,751 26.4%

Note: e-estimate; c-census Current population[edit]

Ethnic divisions in modern Bukovina
Bukovina
with Ukrainian Romanian and Russian areas depicted in light yellow, green, and red respectively. The Moldovans, counted separately in the Ukrainian census, are included in this map as Romanians.

The present demographic situation in Bukovina
Bukovina
hardly resembles that of the Austrian Empire. The northern (Ukrainian) and southern (Romanian) parts became significantly dominated by their Ukrainian and Romanian majorities, respectively, with the representation of other ethnic groups being decreased significantly. According to the Ukrainian Census (2001) data,[45] the Ukrainians represent about 75% (689,100) of the population of Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
Oblast, which is the closest, although not an exact, approximation of the territory of the historic Northern Bukovina. The census also identified a fall in the Romanian and Moldovan populations to 12.5% (114,600) and 7.3% (67,200), respectively. Russians
Russians
are the next largest ethnic group with 4.1%, while Poles, Belarusians, and Jews comprise the rest 1.2%. The languages of the population closely reflect the ethnic composition, with over 90% within each of the major ethnic groups declaring their national language as the mother tongue (Ukrainian, Romanian, and Russian, respectively). The fact that Romanians
Romanians
and Moldovans
Moldovans
were presented as separate categories in the census results, has been criticized by the Romanian Community of Ukraine
Ukraine
- Interregional Union, which complains that this old Soviet-era practice, results in the Romanian population being undercounted, as being divided between Romanians
Romanians
and Moldovans. The Romanians
Romanians
mostly inhabit the southern part of Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
region, being the majority in Hertsaivskyi Raion, while they form the majority with Moldovans
Moldovans
in the Ukrainian plurality Hlybotskyi Raion. Moldovans are the majority in Novoselytsia
Novoselytsia
Raion. In the other eight districts, and the city of Chernivtsi, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
are in the majority. The southern, or Romanian Bukovina
Bukovina
has a significant Romanian majority (94.8%), largest minority group being the Romani people
Romani people
(1.9%) and Ukrainians, who make up 0.9% of the population (2011 census). Other minor ethnic groups include Lipovans, Poles
Poles
(in Cacica, Mănăstirea Humorului, Mușenița, Moara, and Păltinoasa), Zipser Germans
Germans
(in Cârlibaba
Cârlibaba
and Iacobeni), and Slovaks. Cities and towns[edit] Southern Bukovina[edit]

Table highlighting all urban settlements in Southern Bukovina

Romanian name German name Ukrainian name Population

Cajvana Keschwana Кажване, Kazhvane 6,812

Câmpulung Moldovenesc Kimpolung Кимпулунґ, Kympulung; historically Довгопілля, Dovhopillya 16,105

Frasin Frassin Фрасин, Frasyn 5,702

Gura Humorului Gura Humorului Ґура-Гумора, Gura-Humora 12,729

Milişăuţi Milleschoutz Милишівці, Mylyshivtsi 4,958

Rădăuţi Raudatz Радівці, Radivtsi 22,145

Siret Sereth Сирет, Syret 7,721

Solca Solka Солька, Sol'ka 2,188

Suceava Sotschen/Sutschawa/Suczawa; historically in Old High German: Sedschopff Сучава, Suchava; historic Сочава, Sochava 116,404

Vatra Dornei Dorna-Watra Ватра Дорни, Vatra Dorny 13,659

Vicovu de Sus Ober Wikow Верхнє Викове, Verkhnye Vykove 13,053

Northern Bukovina[edit]

Table highlighting all urban settlements in Northern Bukovina

Ukrainian nname Romanian name German name Population

Berehomet Berehomete pe Siret Bеrhometh 7,717

Boyany Boian Bojan 4,425

Chornivka Cernăuca Czernowka 2,340

Chernivtsi Cernăuţi Czernowitz 266,366

Hlyboka Adâncata Hliboka 9,474

Kitsman Cozmeni Kotzman 6,287

Krasnoyilsk Crasna-Ilschi Krasna 10,163

Luzhany Lujeni Luschany/Luzan 4,744

Mikhalcha Mihalcea Mihalcze 2,245

Nepolokivtsi Nepolocăuţi/Grigore-Ghica Vodă Nepolokoutz/Nepolokiwzi 2,449

Novoselytsia Suliţa-Târg/Suliţa Nouă/Nouă Suliţi Nowosielitza 7,642

Putyla Putila Putilla Storonetz/Putyla 3,435

Storozhynets Storojineţ Storozynetz 14,197

Vashkivtsi Văşcăuţi Waschkautz/Waschkiwzi 5,415

Voloka Voloca pe Derelui Woloka 3,035

Vyzhnytsia Vijniţa Wiznitz 4,068

Zastavna Zastavna Zastawna 7,898

Gallery[edit] Urban landscapes[edit]

Suceava

Rădăuți

Siret

Vatra Dornei

Gura Humorului

Câmpulung Moldovenesc

Storojineț

Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
(Romanian: Cernăuți)

Rural landscapes[edit]

Pietrosul Bistriței peak, Bistrița Mountains
Bistrița Mountains
(1791 m)

Winter landscape in the Dorna region from southern Bukovina

Forest during wintertime near Ciocănești

Mountainous landscape near Ciocănești, western Suceava
Suceava
county

Part of the forested Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
near Ciocănești

Typical winter landscape in Suceava
Suceava
county

Winter landscape in Molid, Vama

Winter in Iacobeni

Summer morning in Ciocănești

Natural landscape near Gura Humorului

Natural landscape near Gura Humorului

Natural landscape near Dorna-Arini
Dorna-Arini
commune

Autumn in Dorna-Arini

Arable fields around the city of Suceava

Putna Monastery

Humor Monastery

Cârlibaba

Valea Putnei

Ciumârna (Palma) Pass

Panoramic view over Cacica, a Polish village

Panoramic view over Benia, Moldova-Sulița

Panoramic view over Straja

Meadows in Panaci

Hills in Moldovița

Tihuța Pass
Tihuța Pass
– connecting Bukovina
Bukovina
and Transylvania

See also[edit]

Principality of Moldavia Galicia, Central European historical region Bukovina
Bukovina
Germans Székelys
Székelys
of Bukovina

Notes[edit]

^ Klaus Peter Berger, The Creeping Codification of the New Lex Mercatoria, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 ^ Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek (January 2002). Comparative Central European Culture. Purdue University Press. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-1-55753-240-4.  ^ "Bukovyna". Retrieved 20 January 2017.  ^ "Painted monasteries of Southern Bucovina - Brasov Travel Guide". Retrieved 20 January 2017.  ^ Paul Robert Magocsi. A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1996), p. 420 ISBN 0-8020-0830-5 ^ " Bukovina
Bukovina
(region, Europe) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Bukovina
Bukovina
Society of the Americas Home Page". Bukovinasociety.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Bukovina
Bukovina
Germans". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ " Bukovina
Bukovina
Immigration to North America". Bukovinasociety.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ [1] Archived May 9, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Irina Livezeanu, Cultural Politics in Greater Romania, Cornell University, 1995, p. 54-55. ^ [2] Archived October 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Bukovina
Bukovina
Society -". Retrieved 20 January 2017.  ^ Bukovyna, Encyclopedia of Ukraine ^ Constantin Kiriţescu (1989). Istoria războiului pentru întregirea României: 1916 - 1919. Ed. S̨tiint̨ifică s̨i Enciclopedică. ISBN 978-973-29-0048-2.  ^ Ion Bulei, Scurta istorie a românilor, Editura Meronia, Bucuresti, 1996, pp. 104-107 ^ a b Minoritatea ucraineana din Romania
Romania
(1918-1940) Archived 2015-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Congresul general al Bucovinei, intrupand suprema putere a tarii si fiind investiti cu puterea legiuitoare, in numele suveranitatii nationale, hotaram: Unirea neconditionata si pe vecie a Bucovinei in vechile ei hotare pana la Ceremuş, Colacin si Nistru cu Regatul Romaniei". The General Congress of Bukovina, embodying the supreme power of the country [Bukovina], and invested with legislative power, in the name of national sovereignty, we decide: Unconditional and eternal union of Bukovina, in its old boundaries up to Ceremuş [river], Colachin and Dniester
Dniester
[river] with the Kingdom of Romania. ^ A. Zhukovsky, Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
University, Encyclopedia of Ukraine, 2001, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Accessed 11 February 2006. ^ Irina Livezeanu. Cultural Politics in Greater Romania: Regionalism, Nation Building, and Ethnic Struggle, 1918-1930. Cornell University Press. 2000. p. 53. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-06. Retrieved 2006-04-17.  ^ "Calvarul bucovinenilor sub ocupatia sovietica: ZIUA". Retrieved 20 January 2017.  ^ "UNHCR Moldova". Unhcr.md. Archived from the original on 2006-06-28. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ The Genocide of Romanians
Romanians
in Northern Bukovina ^ Leonid Ryaboshapko. Pravove stanovishche natsionalnyh menshyn v Ukraini (1917–2000), P. 259 (in Ukrainian). ^ http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206091.pdf ^ "Observatorul". Observatorul. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Ţara fagilor: Almanah cultural-literar al românilor nord-bucovineni. Cernăuţi-Târgu-Mureş, 1994, p. 160. ^ Dragoş Tochiţă. Români de pe Valea Siretului de Sus, jertfe ale ocupaţiei nordului Bucovinei şi terorii bolşevice. - Suceava, 1999. - P. 35. (in Romanian) ^ Președintele Iohannis a promulgat legea prin care data de 28 noiembrie este declarată Ziua Bucovinei (in Romanian) ^ a b c d Keith Hitchins. The Romanians
Romanians
1774-1866. Oxford: Clarendon Press (1996), pp. 226 ^ a b Ltd., ICB - InterConsult Bulgaria. "CEEOL - Obsolete Link". Retrieved 20 January 2017.  ^ Raimund Friedrich Kaindl. Das Ansiedlungswesen in der Bukowina seit der Besitzergreifung durch Österreich. Innsbruck (1902), pp. 1-71 ^ Müller, H F (1848). Die Bukowina im Königreiche Galizien (in German). Wien: H.F. Müller's Kunsthandlung. p. 9. Retrieved 2014-06-05.  ^ a b Bukovina
Bukovina
Handbook, prepared under the Direction of the Historical Section of the British Foreign Office No.6. Published in London, Feb.1919. ^ 1855 Austrian ethnic-map showing census data in lower right corner ^ a b Irina Livezeanu (2000). Cultural Politics in Greater Romania: Regionalism, Nation Building & Ethnic Struggle, 1918-1930. Cornell University Press. pp. 52–. ISBN 0-8014-8688-2.  ^ 1930 Romanian Census ^ a b Ionas Aurelian Rus (2008), Variables Affecting Nation-building: The Impact of the Ethnic Basis, the Educational System, Industrialization and Sudden Shocks. ProQuest. ISBN 9781109059632. p. 102 ^ 1855 Austrian ethnic-map showing 1851 census data in lower right corner File:Ethnographic map of austrian monarchy czoernig 1855.jpg ^ First Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
census measuring the 'language spoken at home' of the population [3] ^ Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
census of 1890 [4] ^ Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
census of 1900 [5] ^ Jan Owsinski, Piotr Eberhardt. Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 295–. ISBN 978-0-7656-1833-7.  ^ "All-Ukrainian population census". Ukrcensus.gov.ua. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 

References[edit]

Valentina Glajar (1 January 2004). The German Legacy in East Central Europe as Recorded in Recent German-language Literature. Camden House. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-57113-256-7.  edited by O. Derhachov (1996). Українська державність у ХХ столітті. (Ukrainian statehood of the twentieth century) (in Ukrainian). Politychna Dumka. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) [6] (original version, in German - use English and French versions with caution) WorldStatesmen (under Ukraine) Dumitru Covălciuc. Românii nord-bucovineni în exilul totalitarismului sovietic Victor Bârsan "Masacrul inocenţilor", Bucuresti, 1993, pp. 18–19 Ştefan Purici. Represiunile sovietice... pp. 255–258; Vasile Ilica. Fântâna Albă: O mărturie de sânge (istorie, amintiri, mărturii). - Oradea: Editura Imprimeriei de Vest, 1999. Marian Olaru. Consideraţii preliminare despre demografie si geopolitica pe teritoriul Bucovinei. Analele Bucovinei. Tomul VIII. Partea I. Bucuresti: Editura Academiei Române, 2001 Ţara fagilor: Almanah cultural-literar al românilor nord-bucovineni. Cernăuţi-Târgu-Mureş, 1994 Aniţa Nandris-Cudla. Amintiri din viaţă. 20 de ani în Siberia. Humanitas, Bucharest, 2006 (second edition), (in Romanian) ISBN 973-50-1159-X

Further reading[edit]

Jews
Jews
of Bukovina
Bukovina
on the Eve of the War (PDF). Secaucus, NJ: Miriam Weiner Routes to Roots Foundation. 1999. ISBN 978-0-965-65080-9 – via Adapted by Dorcas Gelabert and Stephen Freeman. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bukovina.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bukovina.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bukovina.

Romanian Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: La Bucovina (Mihai Eminescu original poem in Romanian)

" Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
oblast (region) info page". Travel information on Ukrainian(Northern) Bukovina. Archived from the original on 2011-06-20.  Ukrainian Census results (in English)/(in Ukrainian) City of Chernivtsy (in Ukrainian) The Metropolitanate of Moldavia
Moldavia
and Bucovina (Romanian Orthodox Church) (in Romanian) Soviet Ultimatum Notes (University of Bucharest site) at the Wayback Machine (archived November 13, 2007) "detailed article about WWII and aftermath". Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2006-04-17. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

v t e

Historical regions in Romania

Banat
Banat
(1918–)a

Banatf

Dobruja
Dobruja
(1878–)

Northern Dobruja Southern Dobruja
Dobruja
(1913–16; 1919–40)

Moldavia
Moldavia
(1859–)b

Bessarabia
Bessarabia
(1918–40; 1941–44)c Bukovinad Hertza (1859–1940; 1941–44) Western Moldavia Bugeac

Transylvania
Transylvania
(1918–)ae

Crișanaf Maramureșg Transylvaniah

Wallachia
Wallachia
(1859–)b

Muntenia Oltenia

aDe jure since 1920 bDe jure since 1862 cCahul, Bolgrad and Ismail in Romania
Romania
(1859–78) dSouthern Bukovina
Bukovina
in Romania
Romania
(1918–); Northern Bukovina
Bukovina
in Romania (1918–40; 1941–44) eNorthern Transylvania
Transylvania
in Hungary (1940–44) fOnly the eastern part gOnly the southern part h Transylvania
Transylvania
proper

v t e

Historical regions in present-day Ukraine

States and tribes of Classical antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Cimmeria Sarmatia Taurica Scythia Khazaria Onogurs Kazarig Avar Khaganate Old Great Bulgaria

Principalities of Kievan Rus'

Chernigov Halych Novhorod-Seversk Kiev Terebovlia Turov Pereyaslav Volhynia

Post-Mongol era regions

Golden Horde Crimean Khanate Principality of Theodoro Red Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

Polish–Lithuanian regions

Belz Voivodeship Bracław Voivodeship Chernihiv Voivodeship Kiev Voivodeship Podolian Voivodeship Ruthenian Voivodeship Volhynian Voivodeship

Ottoman provinces

Ottoman Ukraine Danube Vilayet Kefe Eyalet Podolia
Podolia
Eyalet Silistra Eyalet

Cossack regions

Cossack Hetmanate Right-bank Ukraine Left-bank Ukraine Sloboda Ukraine Zaporizhian Sich Little Russia

Imperial Russian regions

Southwestern Krai
Southwestern Krai
/ Kiev Military District

Kyiv Volhynia Podillia

Bessarabia
Bessarabia
Governorate Kharkov Governorate Kiev Governorate (1708–64) Little Russia
Little Russia
Governorate (1764–81) Little Russia
Little Russia
Governorate (1796–1802) Poltava Governorate Chernihiv Governorate Kholm Governorate Kharkov Governorate Taurida Governorate Yekaterinoslav Governorate Kherson Governorate

Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
provinces

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Duchy of Bukovina

20th-century regions and states

Ukrainian People's Republic

West Ukrainian People's Republic

Ukrainian State Hertza region Hutsul
Hutsul
Republic Ukrainian SSR Moldavian ASSR Drohobych Oblast Izmail
Izmail
Oblast Crimean Oblast Lviv Voivodeship Ternopil Voivodeship Volyn Voivodeship Stanyslaviv Voivodeship Carpatho-Ukraine Governorate of Subcarpathia Reichskommissariat Ukraine Distrikt Galizien

Geographic regions

Central Ukraine
Ukraine
/ Dnieper Ukraine

Left-bank Ukraine Right-bank Ukraine Polissia Siveria

Eastern Ukraine

Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Zaporizhia

Southern Ukraine

Bessarabia Budzhak Crimea

South-Eastern Ukraine Western Ukraine

Bukovyna Carpathian Ruthenia Halychyna Podillia Volhynia

Ethno-Ukrainian regions abroad

Kholm Lemkivshchyna Mamorshchyna Priashiv Sian River

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 48145424539386830

.