A BUILDING or EDIFICE is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory . Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures .
Buildings serve several societal needs – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the outside (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful).
Ever since the first cave paintings , buildings have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has also become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings.
* 1 Definitions * 2 History
* 3 Types
* 3.1 Residential * 3.2 Multi-storey * 3.3 Complex
* 4 Creation
* 4.1 Ownership and funding
* 5.1 Physical plant * 5.2 Conveying systems
A building and skybridge in
The word building is both a noun and a verb also an adverb: the structure itself and the act of making it. As a noun, a building is 'a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place'; "there was a three-storey building on the corner"; "it was an imposing edifice". In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building. However, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations and does not necessarily have walls. Structure is more likely to be used for a fence. Sturgis\' Dictionary included that " differs from architecture in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; and it differs from construction in the idea of excluding scientific or highly skilful treatment." As a verb, building is the act of construction.
Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level. Depending on how they are classified, spires and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not generally included. The definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but generally three storeys or less is considered low-rise.
See also: History of architecture
A report by
Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500 000 years ago
is doubtful since Fujimura was later found to have faked many of his
findings. Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in
Main article: List of human habitation forms
Single-family residential buildings are most often called houses or homes . Residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex , apartment building to differentiate them from 'individual' houses. A condominium is an apartment that the occupant owns rather than rents. Houses may also be built in pairs (semi-detached ), in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side; apartments may be built round courtyards or as rectangular blocks surrounded by a piece of ground of varying sizes. Houses which were built as a single dwelling may later be divided into apartments or bedsitters ; they may also be converted to another use e.g. an office or a shop.
Residential buildings have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include holiday cottage (vacation home) or timeshare ; size such as a cottage or great house ; value such as a shack or mansion ; manner of construction such as a log home or mobile home ; proximity to the ground such as earth sheltered house, stilt house , or tree house . Also if the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home , orphanage or prison ; or in group housing like barracks or dormitories .
Historically many people lived in communal buildings called longhouses , smaller dwellings called pit-houses and houses combined with barns sometimes called housebarns .
Buildings are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as houseboats , yurts , and motorhomes are dwellings but not buildings.
A multi-storey is a building that has multiple floors. Sydney is a city with many multi story buildings: One suburb which has been notorious for poor construction is Lane Cove. Many overseas investors have been sucked in a and bought poorly built buildings.
Sometimes a group of inter-related (and possibly inter-connected) builds are referred to as a complex – for example a housing complex , educational complex, hospital complex, etc.
The practice of designing, constructing, and operating buildings is most usually a collective effort of different groups of professionals and trades . Depending on the size, complexity, and purpose of a particular building project, the project team may include:
* A real estate developer who secures funding for the project;
* One or more financial institutions or other investors that provide
* Local planning and code authorities
* A Surveyor who performs an ALTA/ACSM and construction surveys
throughout the project;
Regardless of their size or intended use, all buildings in the US must comply with zoning ordinances , building codes and other regulations such as fire codes , life safety codes and related standards.
Vehicles—such as trailers , caravans , ships and passenger aircraft —are treated as "buildings" for life safety purposes.
OWNERSHIP AND FUNDING
Buildings may be damaged during the construction of the building or during maintenance. There are several other reasons behind building damage like accidents such as storms, explosions, subsidence caused by mining, water withdrawal or poor foundations and landslides. Buildings also may suffer from fire damage and flooding in special circumstances. They may also become dilapidated through lack of proper maintenance or alteration work improperly carried out.
Commercial modular construction
List of buildings and structures
List of largest buildings in the world
List of tallest buildings in the world
Natural disaster and earthquake
* ^ A B Max J. Egenhofer (2002). Geographic Information Science:
Second International Conference, GIScience 2002, Boulder, CO, USA,
September 25–28, 2002. Proceedings. Springer Science & Business
Media. p. 110. ISBN 978-3-540-44253-0 .