(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbwenos ˈaiɾes],
Provincia de Buenos Aires; English: "good airs") is the largest and
most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of
Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial
capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since then, in spite of
bearing the same name, the province does not include the national
capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of
metropolitan area surrounding it. The current
capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882.
The province borders Entre Ríos to the northeast; Santa Fe to the
north; Córdoba to the northwest, La
to the west; and Río Negro
to south and west; and the Autonomous City of
is just across the
Rio de la Plata
Rio de la Plata
northeast, near the
to the east. The entire province is
part of the
The province has a population of about 15.6 million people, or 39% of
Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater
Buenos Aires. The area of the province, 307,571 km2
(118,754 sq mi), makes it the largest in
around 11% of the country's total area.
1.1 Contemporary history
6 See also
8 External links
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas (1841 oil portrait by Cayetano Descalzi)
ruled until 1852 with an iron fist and kept the fragile Confederation
under the tutelage of
Buenos Aires Province.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of
Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and
the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years. They
were subjected to Eurasian plagues from which few survived. The
survivors joined other tribes or have been mostly absorbed by
Argentina's European ethnic majority.
Pedro de Mendoza
Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Even
though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon
became hostile. The city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay
re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto
Santa María de los Buenos Aires.
Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms
extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the
economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of
the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of
meat, leather and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires
was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals
into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A
certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the
Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite
frequent malones (aboriginal attacks on border settlements). The end
to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert
(Conquista del Desierto) in which the aboriginals were almost
After the independence from
Spain in 1816, the city and province of
Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War
with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by
Governor Juan Manuel
de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine
Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which
provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of
Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, and over the Port of
Buenos Aires (the prime source of public revenue at the time) fueled
periodic hostilities. The province was declared independent on
September 11, 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires. Concessions gained
in the 1859
Pact of San José de Flores
Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of
Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on
December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not
truly cease until 1880, when the city of
Buenos Aires was formally
federalized and, thus, administratively separated from the province.
Period illustration of the 1882 placement of La Plata's foundation
La Plata was founded in 1882 by
Dardo Rocha for the purpose
of becoming the provincial capital. The equivalent of a billion
(1880s) dollars of British investment and pro-development, education
and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently
spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and
improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly
doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail
lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914;
many developed around the new railway stations.
This era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street
Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices (99% of
Argentine exports were agricultural) and led to a halt in the flow of
investment funds between nations. The new Concordance and Perón
governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs,
Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power
plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, and
(particularly during Perón's 1946-55 tenure) schools, clinics and
massive regional hospitals.
The province's population, after 1930, began to grow
disproportionately quickly in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires.
These suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's
total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs
were developed on (particularly the poorer ones) consisted of wetlands
and were prone to flooding. To address this,
Governor Oscar Alende
initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date,
the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade later, in 1971, the
reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities
encouraged still more, and more orderly, development of the Greater
Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people
(2⁄3 of the provincial population). It did not address worsening
pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made
itself evident since around 1920. This problem has been at its worst
Reconquista River west and north of the city of Buenos
Aires; over 4 million people (one in 10 Argentines) today live on the
Reconquista's basin. Of these, about a million still live with
seriously compromised water quality, despite the province's (sometimes
counterproductive) efforts to remedy the issue.
In April 2013, the northeastern section of
Buenos Aires Province,
particularly its capital, La Plata, experienced several flash floods
that claimed the lives of at least 59 people.
Alejandro Armendáriz, of the Radical Civic Union, was elected
governor in 1983, when
Raúl Alfonsín became president. Alfonsín
lost the 1987 midterm elections, leading to the victory of Antonio
Cafiero. From that year to 2015, all governors have been Peronists.
The high population of the province makes it highly influential in the
Argentine politics. With both ruling for two terms, the rivalry of
Carlos Menem and governor
Eduardo Duhalde dominated the
Argentine politics during the nineties. A similar case took place with
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner and governor Daniel Scioli.
María Eugenia Vidal, from Republican Proposal, won the 2015
elections, and became the first female governor of the province.
Buenos Aires province, at 307,571 square kilometres
(118,754 sq mi), is slightly bigger than Italy. The
landscape is mainly flat, with two low mountain ranges; Sierra de la
Ventana (near Bahía Blanca) and Sierra de
Tandil (Tandil). The
highest point is Cerro Tres Picos (1,239 m (4,065 ft) amsl;
38°8′S 61°58′W / 38.133°S 61.967°W / -38.133;
-61.967) and the longest river is Río Salado (700 km
(435 mi) long).
As part of The Pampas, the weather of the province is strongly
influenced by the ocean, with hot summers and temperate winters.
Humidity is high and precipitation is abundant and distributed over
the year. The Western and Southwestern regions are drier.
Buenos Aires Province is divided into 135
Sierra de la Ventana Mountain Range
Snow on La Perla beach,
Mar del Plata
Mar del Plata (1991)
Al Este Bodega y Viñedos in Médanos, located in the Southern tip of
Buenos Aires province 40 km (25 mi) away from Bahía
See also: Climate of
Argentina and Climatic regions of Argentina
Lake Gómez, in the north
Rural area near Balcarce, in the south
The climate of the province of
Buenos Aires is extremely benign for
human activities: it is temperate, with four marked seasons and
reliable rainfall on most regions. The province can be divided in four
main climatic regions: the southwestern, drier region; the cool
Atlantic region; the northern and eastern humid region, and the Delta
region, with the warmest, wettest climate.
The northern region has warm, humid summers, with days between 28 and
32 °C (82 and 90 °F) and nights between 16 and 20 °C
(61 and 68 °F), pleasant falls, cool, drier winters with highs
between 13 and 18 °C (55 and 64 °F) and nights between 2
and 5 °C (36 and 41 °F), and windy, variable springs. Heat
waves may bring days with temperatures over 38 °C
(100 °F), but these do not usually last very long, as cold
fronts bring thunderstorms and cooler days, with night temperatures
often falling down to 12 °C (54 °F). Winter cold waves may
bring days with highs about 8 °C (46 °F), and lows below
−4 °C (25 °F), with extremes down to −8 °C
(18 °F). Snow is uncommon, but there have been accumulations on
several occasions in the past. Precipitation ranges from 750 to
1,100 mm (30 to 43 in) per year.
The Delta region is slightly warmer, especially at night, due to the
presence of water and the northerly location. Summer nights tend to be
stickier, and winters can be damp and foggy, with most nights between
4 and 8 °C (39 and 46 °F). Frost is still to be expected,
but temperatures will almost never fall below −4 °C
(25 °F), and snow has fallen only twice in the last century.
Precipitation ranges from 1,000 to 1,300 mm (39 to 51 in)
and falls throughout the year. The city of
Buenos Aires is surrounded
by a climate similar to the northern part of the province, but the
city itself resembles more the Delta climate, with less frost.
The southwestern region is the driest region, and it experiences a
more marked differences in temperatures. Summers are often hot,
between 30 and 35 °C (86 and 95 °F), but nights are
usually comfortable (14 to 18 °C (57 to 64 °F)).
Thunderstorms are less frequent, but can be very violent in nature.
Frost can make an appearance as early as March, but usually first
comes in April. Winters are cool and dry, with days between 10 and
16 °C (50 and 61 °F) and nights between −1 and
4 °C (30 and 39 °F). Frost occurs on an almost daily
basis, with temperatures below −6 °C (21 °F) not
uncommon, and down to −12 °C (10 °F) recorded in some
areas. Snowfall may occur every once in a while, but accumulations are
usually small. Total precipitation ranges from 500 to 750 mm (20
to 30 in), with slightly rainier springs and falls.
The Atlantic region sees very moderate weather: the ocean is cold (17
to 20 °C (63 to 68 °F) in the summer) and sea breezes
often bring chilly weather until midsummer. The hottest months average
25 to 27 °C (77 to 81 °F) with nights between 12 and
16 °C (54 and 61 °F), providing a perfect relief for the
inhabitants of the hotter interior. Fall is often rainy, and winters
can be windy and chilly: temperatures average from 10 to 15 °C
(50 to 59 °F), and nights from 1 to 5 °C (34 to
41 °F). There can be long periods of drizzly weather and
constant temperatures of about 7 °C (45 °F). Frost is
common but temperatures will rarely fall below −5 °C
(23 °F), and snow falls sometimes, but accumulations are only to
be expected every few years. Precipitation ranges from 700 to
950 mm (28 to 37 in). The Sierras de la Ventana (up to 1,200
metres (3,900 ft)) experience cooler weather, especially at
The geography of the province is crossed by occasional west Pampero
winds. The southern
Sudestada produces storms and temperature drops,
most notably the Santa Rosa storm, which takes place every year
almost exactly on August 30.
Buenos Aires province is the most populated province of the
country with 15 million inhabitants (38% of the national population),
of which 12 million live in Greater
Buenos Aires and 3 million in the
rest of the province. Around 33.8% of the inhabitants weren't born in
the province, of whom 3,918,552 are immigrants from other provinces
and 758,640 were born abroad.
Most of its inhabitants are descendants from colonial-era settlers and
immigrants from Europe who arrived within the 19th and 20th centuries,
mostly Italians, Spaniards and to a lesser extent Germans, French and
British. A number of suburbs in the province are also home to a large,
predominantly mestizo population that began migrating from the
country's northern provinces in the mid-20th century to take advantage
of growing employment opportunities. These same communities are also
home to considerable numbers of more recent migrants from
Port of Bahía Blanca
The province's economy has long been the largest in Argentina,
estimated in 2014 to have been US$407.6 billion (more than a third of
the national total, which was around US$680.8 billion in 2016
according to Argentina's economical growing.[clarification needed] It
has a per capita income of $24,780 (around $27,300 in 2016). The
province is the nation's chief exporter, generating nearly $107
billion in exports in 2016 (37% of the nation's total).
Agriculture in the province is renowned around the world for its
productivity. The province is Argentina's chief agricultural producer,
and accounted for at least $8 billion in export earnings in 2014.
This sector adds about 5% to the province's highly diversified
economy, however. The province's ranching sector is diversified,
and though cattle historically provided the main animal husbandry
Buenos Aires is also the top producer of sheep, pork, and
chicken meat of the country. Equally important is the dairy industry.
Crop harvests are the most diverse in the nation, and have grown to
record levels in recent decades. The most important crops include
soybean, maize, wheat, sunflower and other oilseeds, like flax. More
recently, premium wines have been produced in the
Buenos Aires wine
region in the south of the province.
Manufacturing accounts for a fourth of the province's output and is
about 40% of the entire nation's. The industry of the province is
diverse: chemical, pharmaceutical, metallurgic, motor vehicles,
machinery, textiles and the food industry are the most notable.
Excluding processed agricultural items, the province was responsible
for over US$70 billion of industrial exports in 2016 and accounted for
a third of all Argentine exports.
The province's services sector is well-diversified and differs little
from national trends. The largest local bank is the public Bank of the
Province of Buenos Aires. The institution, the second-largest in
Argentina, holds nearly a tenth of the nation's bank deposits.
Mar del Plata
Tourists, mainly from Buenos Aires, visit the Atlantic coast. There
are many cities and towns along the coast line that starts some 250
kilometres (160 mi) from
Buenos Aires after the Samborombón Bay.
Among them, the biggest and most important is Mar del Plata, followed
by the La Costa Partido, Pinamar, Villa Gesell, Miramar and Necochea.
The most important summer-related event, the National Sea Festival, is
held annually in the city of Mar del Plata. The city's Central Casino
and Grand Provincial Hotel are among the nation's largest.
Other destinations include the Ventana Sierras, Tandil, Tigre, the
Paraná Delta, Isla Martín García, Olavarria, the
Gómez lagoons, and La Plata.
Agritourism in estancias (plantations) has become increasingly popular
for foreigners visiting the province in recent years. The province's
wine district, centered on Médanos, has also become prominent for
visitors touring the
Argentina Wine Route.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Buenos Aires (province).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Buenos Aires (category)
Buenos Aires Provincial Police
Argentina por provincia o jurisdicción. Densidad de
población. Año 2010". Censo 2010 (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de
Estadística y Censos. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
^ "Información para el desarrollo sostenible:
Argentina y la Agenda
2030" (PDF) (in Spanish). United Nations Development Programme.
p. 155. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2017.
Retrieved 25 August 2017.
^ a b "Población según los censos nacionales de 1895 a 2001 por
provincia ordenadas por la cantidad de población en 2001" (in
Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. Archived from
the original (ms xls) on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
^ "Title unknown" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (pdf)
on September 12, 2008.
^ "Río Reconquista, un basural acuático" (in Spanish). Argentina
Centro de Medios Independientes. 24 July 2012. Archived from the
original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
^ Ramiro Sagasti (October 26, 2015). "Vidal dio la gran sorpresa y le
ganó a Aníbal Fernández en la provincia" [Vidal gave a great
surprise and defeated Aníbal Fernández in the province] (in
Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
^ "Title unknown". monte.gov.ar. Archived from the original on
December 26, 2005.
^ "Title unknown" (ms xls). [dead link]
^ "INDEC" (in Spanish). Archived from the original (ms xls) on July 6,
^ a b "Exportaciones De La Provincia De Buenos Aires" (PDF) (in
Spanish). Archived from the original (pdf) on September 12,
^ a b "Dirección Provincial De Estadistica". Archived from the
original on September 15, 2008.
^ "INDEC: Foreign trade data" (ms xls) (in Spanish). [dead link]
^ "Argentine Banking Association: August 2008" (in Spanish). Archived
from the original (ms xls) on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
Look up Bonaerense in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Short History of the partidos
Secretary of Interior of the Province
Buenos Aires Province Pictures
Main cities of
Buenos Aires Province
Mar del Plata
San Nicolás de los Arroyos
Greater Buenos Aires
Boulogne Sur Mer
Gregorio de Laferrère
José C. Paz
Lomas del Mirador
Lomas de Zamora
Remedios de Escalada
San Francisco Solano
William C. Morris
Belén de Escobar
Nueve de Julio
San Clemente del Tuyú
> 10,000 people
Mar de Ajó
Mar del Tuyú
San Bernardo del Tuyú
Provinces of Argentina
Santiago del Estero
Tierra del Fuego