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Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
(also referred to as Modern Buddhism,[1] modernist Buddhism[2] and Neo-Buddhism[3]) are new movements based on modern era reinterpretations of Buddhism.[4][5][6] David McMahan states that modernism in Buddhism
Buddhism
is similar to those found in other religions. The sources of influences have variously been an engagement of Buddhist communities and teachers with the new cultures and methodologies such as "western monotheism; rationalism and scientific naturalism; and Romantic expressivism".[7] The influence of monotheism has been the internalization of Buddhist gods to make it acceptable in modern West,[8] while scientific naturalism and romanticism has influenced the emphasis on current life, empirical defense, reason, psychological and health benefits.[9] The Neo- Buddhism
Buddhism
movements differ in their doctrines and practices from the historical, mainstream Theravada, Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana Buddhist traditions. A co-creation of Western Orientalists and reform-minded Asian Buddhists, Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
has been a reformulation of Buddhist concepts that has deemphasized traditional Buddhist doctrines, cosmology, rituals, monasticism, clerical hierarchy and icon worship.[10] The term came into vogue during the colonial and post-colonial era studies of Asian religions, and is found in sources such as Louis de la Vallee Poussin's 1910 article.[11] Examples of Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
movements and traditions include Humanistic Buddhism, Secular Buddhism, Engaged Buddhism, Navayana, the Japanese-initiated new lay organizations of Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism
Buddhism
such as Soka Gakkai, the New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
and the missionary activity of Tibetan Buddhist
Tibetan Buddhist
masters in the West (leading the quickly growing Buddhist movement in France), the Vipassana
Vipassana
Movement, the Triratna Buddhist Community, Dharma
Dharma
Drum Mountain, Fo Guang Shan, Won Buddhism, Tzu Chi, and Juniper Foundation.

Contents

1 Overview

1.1 History

2 Japan: Neo-Buddhism

2.1 "New Buddhism" and Japanese Nationalism 2.2 D.T. Suzuki

3 India: Navayana 4 West: Naturalized Buddhism 5 Other New Buddhisms 6 Lopez's concept of "Modern Buddhism" 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Bibliography

9 Further reading

Overview[edit] Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
emerged during the late 19th-century and early 20th-century colonial era, as a co-creation of Western Orientalists and reform-minded Buddhists.[10][12][13] It appropriated elements of Western philosophy, psychological insights as well as themes increasingly felt to be secular and proper. It de-emphasized or denied ritual elements, cosmology, gods, icons, rebirth, karma, monasticism, clerical hierarchy and other Buddhist concepts. Instead, modernistic Buddhism
Buddhism
has emphasized interior exploration, satisfaction in the current life, and themes such as cosmic interdependence.[10] Some advocates of Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
claim their new interpretations to be original teachings of the Buddha, and state that the core doctrines and traditional practices found in Theravada, Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana Buddhism
Buddhism
are extraneous accretions that were interpolated and introduced after Buddha died. According to McMahan, Buddhism
Buddhism
of the form found in the West today has been deeply influenced by this modernism.[10][14][12] Buddhist Modernist traditions are reconstructions and a reformulation with emphasis on rationality, meditation, compatibility with modern science about body and mind.[15][16] In the modernistic presentations, Theravada, Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhist practices are "detraditionalized", in that they are often presented in such a way that occludes their historical construction. Instead, Buddhist Modernists often employ an essentialized description of their tradition, where key tenets are reformulated in universal terms, and the modernistic practices significantly differ from Asian Buddhist communities with centuries-old traditions.[10][17][18] History[edit] The earliest western accounts of Buddhism
Buddhism
were by 19th-century European travelers and Christian missionaries who, states Coleman, portrayed it as another "heathen religion with strange gods and exotic ceremonies", where their concern was not understanding the religion but to debunk it.[19] By mid 19th-century, European scholars gave a new picture but once again in concepts understood in the West. They described Buddhism
Buddhism
as a "life-denying faith" that rejected all the Christian ideas such as "God, man, life, eternity"; it was an exotic Asian religion that taught nirvana, which was explained then as "annihilation of the individual". In 1879, Edwin Arnold's book The Light of Asia presented a more sympathetic account of Buddhism, in the form of the life of the Buddha, emphasizing the parallels between the Buddha and the Christ.[19] The sociopolitical developments in Europe, the rise of scientific theories such as those of Charles Darwin, in late 19th-century and early 20th-century created interest in Buddhism and other eastern religions, but it was studied in the West and those trained in Western education system with the prevalent cultural premises and modernism.[20][21][22] The first comprehensive study of Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
in the Theravada
Theravada
tradition as a distinct phenomenon was published in 1966 by Heinz Bechert.[23] Bechert regarded Buddhist modernism as "modern Buddhist revivalism" in postcolonial societies like Sri Lanka. He identified several characteristics of Buddhist modernism: new interpretations of early Buddhist teachings, demythologisation and reinterpretation of Buddhism
Buddhism
as "scientific religion", social philosophy or "philosophy of optimism", emphasis on equality and democracy, "activism" and social engagement, support of Buddhist nationalism, and the revival of meditation practice.[24] Japan: Neo-Buddhism[edit] The term Neo- Buddhism
Buddhism
and modernism in the context of Japanese Buddhist and Western interactions appear in late 19th-century and early 20th-century publications. For example, Andre Bellesort used the term in 1901,[25] while Louis de la Vallee Poussin used it in a 1910 article.[11] According to James Coleman, the first presenters of a modernistic Buddhism
Buddhism
before a Western audience were Anagarika Dharmapala and Soyen Shaku in 1893 at The World Congress of Religion. Shaku's student D.T. Suzuki
D.T. Suzuki
was a prolific writer, fluent in English and he introduced Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
to Westerners.[26] "New Buddhism" and Japanese Nationalism[edit] Scholars such as Martin Verhoeven and Robert Sharf, as well as Japanese Zen
Zen
monk G. Victor Sogen Hori, have argued that the breed of Japanese Zen
Zen
that was propagated by New Buddhism
Buddhism
ideologues, such as Imakita Kosen and Soyen Shaku, was not typical of Japanese Zen
Zen
during their time, nor is it typical of Japanese Zen
Zen
now. Although greatly altered by the Meiji Restoration, Japanese Zen
Zen
still flourishes as a monastic tradition. The Zen
Zen
Tradition in Japan, aside from the New Buddhism
Buddhism
style of it, required a great deal of time and discipline from monks that laity would have difficulty finding. Zen
Zen
monks were often expected to have spent several years in intensive doctrinal study, memorizing sutras and poring over commentaries, before even entering the monastery to undergo koan practice in sanzen with the roshi.[27] The fact that Suzuki himself was able to do so as a layman was largely a result of New Buddhism. At the onset of the Meiji period, in 1868, when Japan entered into the international community and began to industrialize and modernize at an astounding rate, Buddhism
Buddhism
was briefly persecuted in Japan as "a corrupt, decadent, anti-social, parasitic, and superstitious creed, inimical to Japan's need for scientific and technological advancement."[28][29] The Japanese government dedicated itself to the eradication of the tradition, which was seen as foreign, incapable of fostering the sentiments that would be vital for national, ideological cohesion. In addition to this, industrialization had taken its toll on the Buddhist establishment as well, leading to the breakdown of the parishioner system that had funded monasteries for centuries.[30] In response to this seemingly intractable state of turmoil, a group of modern Buddhist leaders emerged to argue for the Buddhist cause.[30] These leaders stood in agreement with the government persecution of Buddhism, stating that Buddhist institutions were indeed corrupted and in need of revitalization. This Japanese movement was known as shin bukkyo, or "New Buddhism." The leaders themselves were university-educated intellectuals who had been exposed to a vast body of Western intellectual literature. The fact that what was presented to the West as Japanese Zen
Zen
would be so commensurate with the Enlightenment critique of "superstitious," institutional, or ritual-based religion is due to this fact, as such ideals directly informed the creation of this new tradition. This reformulation work has roots in the writings of Eugène Burnouf
Eugène Burnouf
in the 1840s, who expressed his liking for "the Brahmins, the Buddhists, the Zoroastrians" and a dislike for "the Jesuits" to Max Muller.[31][32] Imakita Kosen, who would become D.T. Suzuki's teacher in Zen
Zen
until his death in 1892, was an important figure in this movement. Largely responding to the Reformation critique of elite institutionalism, he opened Engakuji monastery to lay practitioners, which would allow students like Suzuki unprecedented access to Zen
Zen
practice. Advocates of New Buddhism, like Kosen and his successor Soyen Shaku, not only saw this movement as a defense of Buddhism
Buddhism
against government persecution, they also saw it as a way to bring their nation into the modern world as a competitive, cultural force. Kosen himself was even employed by the Japanese government as a "national evangelist" during the 1870s.[33] The cause of Japanese nationalism and the portrayal of Japan as a superior cultural entity on the international scene was at the heart of the Zen
Zen
missionary movement. Zen
Zen
would be touted as the essential Japanese religion, fully embodied by the bushido, or samurai spirit, an expression of the Japanese people in the fullest sense, in spite of the fact that this version of Zen
Zen
was a recent invention in Japan that was largely based on Western philosophical ideals. Soyen Shaku, Suzuki's teacher in Zen
Zen
after Kosen's death in 1892, claimed "Religion is the only force in which the Western people know that they are inferior to the nations of the East ... Let us wed the Great Vehicle [ Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism] to Western thought…at Chicago next year [referring to the 1893 World Parliament of Religions] the fitting time will come.”[34] According to Martin Verhoeven, "The spiritual crisis of the West exposed its Achilles' heel to be vanquished. Though economically and technologically bested by the Western powers, Japan saw a chance to reassert its sense of cultural superiority via religion."[34] D.T. Suzuki[edit] For a number of reasons, several scholars have identified D.T. Suzuki—whose works were popular in the West from the 1930s onward, and particularly in the 1950s and 60s—as a "Buddhist Modernist." Suzuki's depiction of Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
can be classified as Buddhist Modernist in that it employs all of these traits. That he was a university-educated intellectual steeped in knowledge of Western philosophy and literature allowed him to be particularly successful and persuasive in arguing his case to a Western audience. As Suzuki presented it, Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
was a highly practical religion whose emphasis on direct experience made it particularly comparable to forms of mysticism that scholars such as William James
William James
had emphasized as the fountainhead of all religious sentiment.[35] As McMahan explains, "In his discussion of humanity and nature, Suzuki takes Zen
Zen
literature out of its social, ritual, and ethical contexts and reframes it in terms of a language of metaphysics derived from German Romantic idealism, English Romanticism, and American Transcendentalism."[36] Drawing on these traditions, Suzuki presents a version of Zen
Zen
that has been described by hostile critics as detraditionalized and essentialized:

Zen
Zen
is the ultimate fact of all philosophy and religion. Every intellectual effort must culminate in it, or rather must start from it, if it is to bear any practical fruits. Every religious faith must spring from it if it has to prove at all efficiently and livingly workable in our active life. Therefore Zen
Zen
is not necessarily the fountain of Buddhist thought and life alone; it is very much alive also in Christianity, Mohammedanism, in Taoism, and even positivistic Confucianism. What makes all these religions and philosophies vital and inspiring, keeping up their usefulness and efficiency, is due to the presence in them of what I may designate as the Zen
Zen
element.[37]

Scholars such as Robert Sharf have argued that such statements also betray inklings of nationalist sentiment, common to many early Buddhist Modernists, in that they portray Zen, which Suzuki had described as representing the essence of the Japanese people, as superior to all other religions. India: Navayana[edit] A Neo-Buddhist movement
Neo-Buddhist movement
was founded by the Indian Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar in the 1950s.[38][39] Ambedkar held a press conference on October 13, 1956, announcing his rejection of Theravada
Theravada
and Mahayana vehicles, as well as of Hinduism.[40][41] He then adopted Navayana Buddhism, and converted between 500,000 and 600,000 Dalits to his Neo- Buddhism
Buddhism
movement.[40][42] All the elements of religious modernism, state Christopher Queen and Sallie King, may be found in Ambedkar Buddhism
Buddhism
where his The Buddha and His Dhamma abandons the traditional precepts and practices, then adopts science, activism and social reforms as a form of Engaged Buddhism.[43] Ambedkar's formulation of Buddhism
Buddhism
is different from Western modernism, states Skaria, given his synthesis of the ideas of modern Karl Marx
Karl Marx
into the structure of ideas by the ancient Buddha.[44] According to Ambedkar, several of the core beliefs and doctrines of traditional Buddhist traditions such as Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and Anatta as flawed and pessimistic, may have been inserted into the Buddhist scriptures by wrong headed Buddhist monks of a later era. These should not be considered as Buddha's teachings in Ambedkar's view.[45][46] Other foundational concepts of Buddhism
Buddhism
such as Karma
Karma
and Rebirth were considered by Ambedkar as superstitions.[45] Navayana
Navayana
abandons practices and precepts such as the institution of monk after renunciation, ideas such as karma, rebirth in afterlife, samsara, meditation, nirvana and Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
considered to be foundational in the Buddhist traditions.[47] Ambedkar's Neo-Buddhism rejected these ideas and re-interpreted the Buddha's religion in terms of class struggle and social equality.[46][45][48] Ambedkar called his version of Buddhism
Buddhism
Navayana
Navayana
or Neo-Buddhism.[49] His book, The Buddha and His Dhamma is the holy book of Navayana followers.[50] According to Junghare, for the followers of Navyana, Ambedkar has become a deity and he is worshipped in its practice.[51] West: Naturalized Buddhism[edit] Other forms of Neo- Buddhism
Buddhism
are found outside Asia, particularly in European nations.[52] According to Bernard Faure – a professor of Religious Studies with a focus on Buddhism, Neo- Buddhism
Buddhism
in the forms found in the West is a modernist restatement, a form of spiritual response to anxieties of individuals and the modern world that is not grounded in its ancient ideas, but "a sort of impersonal flavorless or odorless spirituality". It is a re-adaptation, a kind of Buddhism
Buddhism
"a la carte", that understands the needs and then is reformulated to fill a void in the West, rather than reflect the ancient canons and secondary literature of Buddhism.[53] Some Western interpreters of Buddhism
Buddhism
have proposed the term "naturalized Buddhism" for few of these movements. It is devoid of rebirth, karma, nirvana, realms of existence, and other concepts of Buddhism, with doctrines such as the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
reformulated and restated in modernistic terms.[5][54][note 1] This "deflated secular Buddhism" stresses compassion, impermanence, causality, selfless persons, no Bodhisattvas, no nirvana, no rebirth, and a naturalists approach to well-being of oneself and others.[56] Meditation and spiritual practices such as Vipassana, or its variants, centered around self-development remain a part of the Western Neo-Buddhist movements. According to James Coleman, the focus of most vipassana students in the west "is mainly on meditation practice and a kind of down-to-earth psychological wisdom."[57][note 2] For many western Buddhists, the rebirth doctrine in the Four Noble Truths teaching is a problematic notion.[58][59][60][web 1][note 3] According to Lamb, "Certain forms of modern western Buddhism
Buddhism
[...] see it as purely mythical and thus a dispensable notion."[60] Westerners find "the ideas of karma and rebirth puzzling", states Damien Keown – a professor of Buddhist Ethics. It may not be necessary to believe in some of the core Buddhist doctrines to be a Buddhist, though most Buddhists in Asia do accept these traditional teachings and seek better rebirth.[61][note 4] The rebirth, karma, realms of existence and cyclic universe doctrines underpin the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
in Buddhism.[61] It is possible to reinterpret the Buddhist doctrines such as the Four Noble Truths, states Keown, since the final goal and the answer to the problem of suffering is nirvana and not rebirth.[61] According to Konik,

Since the fundamental problems underlying early Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
and contemporary western Buddhism
Buddhism
are not the same, the validity of applying the set of solutions developed by the first to the situation of the second becomes a question of great importance. Simply putting an end to rebirth would not necessarily strike the western Buddhist as the ultimate answer, as it certainly was for early Indian Buddhists.[58]

Traditional Buddhist scholars disagree with these modernist Western interpretations. Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Bodhi, for example, states that rebirth is an integral part of the Buddhist teachings as found in the sutras, despite the problems that "modernist interpreters of Buddhism" seem to have with it.[web 1][note 5] Thanissaro Bhikkhu, as another example, rejects the "modern argument" that "one can still obtain all the results of the practice without having to accept the possibility of rebirth." He states, "rebirth has always been a central teaching in the Buddhist tradition."[web 2][note 6][note 7] According to Owen Flanagan, the Dalai Lama
Lama
states that "Buddhists believe in rebirth" and that this belief has been common among his followers. However, the Dalai Lama's belief, adds Flanagan, is more sophisticated than ordinary Buddhists, because it is not same as reincarnation, rebirth in Buddhism
Buddhism
is envisioned as happening without an assumption of an "atman, self, soul", rather through a "consciousness conceived along the anatman lines".[65][note 8] The doctrine of rebirth is considered mandatory in Tibetan Buddhism, and across many Buddhist sects.[67] According to Melford Spiro, the reinterpretations of Buddhism
Buddhism
that discard rebirth undermine the Four Noble Truths, for it does not address the existential question for the Buddhist as to "why live? why not commit suicide, hasten the end of dukkha in current life by ending life". In traditional Buddhism, rebirth continues the dukkha and the path to cessation of dukkha isn't suicide, but the fourth reality of the Four Noble Truths.[56] According to Christopher Gowans, for "most ordinary Buddhists, today as well as in the past, their basic moral orientation is governed by belief in karma and rebirth".[68] Buddhist morality hinges on the hope of well being in this lifetime or in future rebirth, with nirvana (enlightenment) a project for a future lifetime. A denial of karma and rebirth undermines their history, moral orientation and religious foundations.[68] However, adds Gowans, many Western followers and people interested in exploring Buddhism
Buddhism
are skeptical and object to the belief in karma and rebirth foundational to the Four Noble Truths.[68][note 9] The "naturalized Buddhism", according to Gowans, is a radical revision to traditional Buddhist thought and practice, and it attacks the structure behind the hopes, needs and rationalization of the realities of human life to traditional Buddhists in East, Southeast and South Asia.[5] Other New Buddhisms[edit] According to Burkhard Scherer – a professor of Comparative Religion, the novel interpretations are a new, separate Buddhist sectarian lineage and Shambhala International
Shambhala International
"has to be described as New Buddhism
Buddhism
(Coleman) or, better still, Neo-Buddhism".[69] In Central and Eastern Europe, according to Burkhard Scherer, the fast growing Diamond Way Buddhism
Buddhism
started by Hannah and Ole Nydahl
Ole Nydahl
is a Neo-orthoprax Buddhism
Buddhism
movement.. The charismatic leadership of Nydahl and his 600 dharma centers worldwide have made it the largest convert movement in Eastern Europe, but its interpretations of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and tantric meditation techniques have been criticized by both traditional Buddhists and non-Buddhists.[70][71] Others have used "New Buddhism" to describe or publish manifesto of socially Engaged Buddhism. For example, David Brazier
David Brazier
published his "manifesto of the New Buddhism" in 2001, wherein he calls for radical shift of focus from monasticism and traditional Buddhist doctrines to radically novel interpretations that engaged with the secular world. According to Brazier, the traditional Buddhist traditions such as Theravada
Theravada
and Mahayana
Mahayana
have been "instrument of state policy for subduing rather than liberating the population", and have become paths of "individual salvation rather than address the roots of world disease".[72] Lopez's concept of "Modern Buddhism"[edit] Donald S. Lopez Jr. uses the term "Modern Buddhism" to describe the entirety of Buddhist modernist traditions, which he suggests "has developed into a kind of transnational Buddhist sect", "an international Buddhism
Buddhism
that transcends cultural and national boundaries, creating...a cosmopolitan network of intellectuals, writing most often in English". This "sect" is rooted neither in geography nor in traditional schools but is the modern aspect of a variety of Buddhist schools in different locations. Moreover, it has its own cosmopolitan lineage and canonical "scriptures," mainly the works of popular and semischolarly authors—figures from the formative years of modern Buddhism, including Soyen Shaku, Dwight Goddard, D. T. Suzuki, and Alexandra David-Neel, as well as more recent figures like Shunryu Suzuki, Sangharakshita, Alan Watts, Thich Nhat Hanh, Chögyam Trungpa, and the Fourteenth Dalai Lama."[73] Notes[edit]

^ According to Owen Flanagan, the proportion of people in North America that believe in heaven is about the same as the proportion of East and Southeast Asia who believe in rebirth. But, 'rebirth' is considered superstitious by many in the West while 'heaven' is not, adds Flanagan, though a reflective naturalistic approach demands that both 'heaven' and 'rebirth' be equally questioned".[55] According to Donald S. Lopez, Buddhist movements in the West have reconstructed a "Scientific Buddha" and a "modern Buddhism" unknown in Asia, "one that may never have existed there before the late 19th-century".[6] ^ According to Coleman, the goal in Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
"is to uproot the desires and defilements in order to attain nibbana (nirvana in Sanskrit) and win liberation from the otherwise endless round of death and rebirth. But few Western Vipassana
Vipassana
teachers pay much attention to the more metaphysical aspects of such concepts as rebirth and nibbana, and of course very few of their students are celibate monks. Their focus is mainly on meditation practice and a kind of down-to-earth psychological wisdom. "As a result," one respected Vipassana
Vipassana
teacher writes, "many more Americans of European descent refer to themselves as Vipassana
Vipassana
students rather than as students of Theravada Buddhism."[57] ^ See also: * James Ford, The Karma
Karma
and Rebirth Debate Within Contemporary Western Buddhism: Some Links to Follow * Manon Welles, Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
vs. Traditional Buddhism: 6 Key Differences * Alan Peta, Reincarnation
Reincarnation
and Buddhism: Here We Go Again * David Chapman, The Making of Buddhist Modernism ^ Vast majority of Buddhist lay people, states Kevin Trainor, have historically pursued Buddhist rituals and practices motivated with rebirth into Deva realm.[62] Fowler and others concur with Trainor, stating that better rebirth, not nirvana, has been the primary focus of a vast majority of lay Buddhists. This they attempt through merit accumulation and good kamma.[63][64] ^ Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Bodhi: "Newcomers to Buddhism
Buddhism
are usually impressed by the clarity, directness, and earthy practicality of the Dhamma as embodied in such basic teachings as the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the threefold training. These teachings, as clear as day-light, are accessible to any serious seeker looking for a way beyond suffering. When, however, these seekers encounter the doctrine of rebirth, they often balk, convinced it just doesn't make sense. At this point, they suspect that the teaching has swerved off course, tumbling from the grand highway of reason into wistfulness and speculation. Even modernist interpreters of Buddhism
Buddhism
seem to have trouble taking the rebirth teaching seriously. Some dismiss it as just a piece of cultural baggage, "ancient Indian metaphysics," that the Buddha retained in deference to the world view of his age. Others interpret it as a metaphor for the change of mental states, with the realms of rebirth seen as symbols for psychological archetypes. A few critics even question the authenticity of the texts on rebirth, arguing that they must be interpolations. A quick glance at the Pali
Pali
suttas would show that none of these claims has much substance. The teaching of rebirth crops up almost everywhere in the Canon, and is so closely bound to a host of other doctrines that to remove it would virtually reduce the Dhamma to tatters. Moreover, when the suttas speak about rebirth into the five realms — the hells, the animal world, the spirit realm, the human world, and the heavens — they never hint that these terms are meant symbolically. To the contrary, they even say that rebirth occurs "with the breakup of the body, after death," which clearly implies they intend the idea of rebirth to be taken quite literally."[web 1] ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu: "A second modern argument against accepting the canonical accounts of what's known in awakening — and in particular, the knowledge of rebirth achieved in awakening — is that one can still obtain all the results of the practice without having to accept the possibility of rebirth. After all, all the factors leading to suffering are all immediately present to awareness, so there should be no need, when trying to abandon them, to accept any premises about where they may or may not lead in the future. This objection, however, ignores the role of appropriate attention on the path. As we noted above, one of its roles is to examine and abandon the assumptions that underlie one's views on the metaphysics of personal identity. Unless you're willing to step back from your own views — such as those concerning what a person is, and why that makes rebirth impossible — and subject them to this sort of examination, there's something lacking in your path. You'll remain entangled in the questions of inappropriate attention, which will prevent you from actually identifying and abandoning the causes of suffering and achieving the full results of the practice.

In addition, the terms of appropriate attention — the four noble truths — are not concerned simply with events arising and passing away in the present moment. They also focus on the causal connections among those events, connections that occur both in the immediate present and over time. If you limit your focus solely to connections in the present while ignoring those over time, you can't fully comprehend the ways in which craving causes suffering: not only by latching on to the four kinds of nutriment, but also giving rise to the four kinds of nutriment as well.[web 2] ^ Konik further notes:

No doubt, according to the early Indian Buddhist tradition, the Buddha's great discovery, as condensed in his experience of nirvana, involved the remembrance of his many former existences, presupposing as fact the reality of a never-ending process of rebirth as a source of deep anxiety, and an acceptance of the Buddha's overcoming of that fate as ultimate liberation.[58]

^ The Dalai Lama
Lama
himself is regarded to be an incarnation of the thirteen previous Dalai Lamas, who are all manifestations of Avalokitasvara.[66] ^ Gowans groups the objections into three categories. The first objection can be called "consistency objection", which asks if "there is no self (atman, soul), then what is reborn and how does karma work?". The second objection can be called "naturalism objection", which asks "can rebirth be scientifically proven, what evidence is there that rebirth happens". The third objection can be called "morality objection", which asks "why presume that an infant born with an illness, is because of karma in previous life" as seems implied by Majjhima Nikāya section 3.204 for example. Gowans provides a summary of prevaling answers, clarifications and explanations proffered by practicing Buddhists.[68]

^ a b c Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Bodhi, Does Rebirth Make Sense? ^ a b Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Truth of Rebirth. And Why it Matters for Buddhist Practice

References[edit]

^ Lopez (2002), p. 10 ^ Prebish/Baumann, 2002 ^ H. L. Seneviratne (1999). The Work of Kings. University of Chicago Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-0-226-74866-5.  ^ David L. McMahan (2008). The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Oxford University Press. pp. 5–7, 32–33, 43–52. ISBN 978-0-19-988478-0.  ^ a b c Christopher W. Gowans (2014). Buddhist Moral Philosophy: An Introduction. Routledge. pp. 18–23, 91–94. ISBN 978-1-317-65935-8.  ^ a b Donald S. Lopez (2012). The Scientific Buddha: His Short and Happy Life. Yale University Press. pp. 39–43, 57–60, 74–76, 122–124. ISBN 978-0-300-15913-4.  ^ McMahan 2008, pp. 6-10 ^ McMahan 2008, p. 54 ^ McMahan 2008, p. 63-68, 85-99, 114–116, 177, 250-251 ^ a b c d e McMahan, David L., Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0041  ^ a b de la Vallee Poussin, Louis (1910). "VI. Buddhist Notes: Vedanta and Buddhism". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. Cambridge University Press. 42 (01): 129–140. doi:10.1017/s0035869x00081697. , Quote: "A historical study of Neo- Buddhism
Buddhism
would be very interesting, as an episode of the intellectual conquest of the East by the West and vice versa." ^ a b Donald S. Lopez (1995). Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism
Buddhism
Under Colonialism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 15–17, 46–47, 112–119. ISBN 978-0-226-49309-1.  ^ Heinz Bechert; Hellmuth Hecker; Duy Tu Vu (1966). Buddhismus, Staat und Gesellschaft in den Ländern des Theravāda-Buddhismus. Metzner.  ^ Lopez, Jr. 2008. ^ McMahan 2008, pp. 63–68, 85–99, 114–116, 176–177, 250-253. ^ J.J. Clarke (2002). Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. Routledge. pp. 100–104, 212–220. ISBN 978-1-134-78474-5.  ^ Stephen C. Berkwitz (2006). Buddhism
Buddhism
in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. pp. 101–102, 179–183, 245, 268–270. ISBN 978-1-85109-782-1.  ^ Christopher W. Gowans (2014). Buddhist Moral Philosophy: An Introduction. Routledge. pp. 18–23, 78–94. ISBN 978-1-317-65935-8.  ^ a b Coleman 2002, pp. 55-56. ^ Coleman 2002, pp. 56-58, 72-87. ^ David L. McMahan (2008). The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Oxford University Press. pp. 6–24. ISBN 978-0-19-988478-0.  ^ David L. McMahan (2008). The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Oxford University Press. pp. 32–33, 43–52, 62, 84–90. ISBN 978-0-19-988478-0.  ^ Heinz Bechert; Hellmuth Hecker; Duy Tu Vu (1966). Buddhismus, Staat und Gesellschaft in den Ländern des Theravāda-Buddhismus. Metzner. pp. 60–68.  ^ Webb 2005, p. 213. ^ Andre Ballesort (1901). The Living Age. Littell, Son and Company. p. 424.  ^ Coleman 2002, pp. 7-9, 57-60. ^ Satō 1973. ^ Sharf 1993, p. 3 ^ Josephson 2006 ^ a b Sharf 1993, p. 4 ^ Tomoko Masuzawa (2012). The Invention of World Religions: Or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 125–126, 294. ISBN 978-0-226-92262-1.  ^ Donald S. Lopez; Peggy McCracken (2014). In Search of the Christian Buddha: How an Asian Sage Became a Medieval Saint. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 188–191. ISBN 978-0-393-08915-8.  ^ Sharf 1993, p. 7 ^ a b Verhoeven 1998), p. 217 ^ James 1902. ^ McMahan 2008,p. 125 ^ Suzuki 1996, 129. ^ Gary Tartakov (2003). Rowena Robinson, ed. Religious Conversion in India: Modes, Motivations, and Meanings. Oxford University Press. pp. 192–213. ISBN 978-0-19-566329-7.  ^ Christopher Queen (2015). Steven M. Emmanuel, ed. A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 524–525. ISBN 978-1-119-14466-3.  ^ a b Christopher Queen (2015). Steven M. Emmanuel, ed. A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 524–529. ISBN 978-1-119-14466-3.  ^ Skaria, A (2015). "Ambedkar, Marx and the Buddhist Question". Journal of South Asian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 38 (3): 450–452. doi:10.1080/00856401.2015.1049726. , Quote: "Here [ Navayana
Navayana
Buddhism] there is not only a criticism of religion (most of all, Hinduism, but also prior traditions of Buddhism), but also of secularism, and that criticism is articulated moreover as a religion." ^ Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.  ^ Christopher S. Queen; Sallie B. King (1996). Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia. State University of New York Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-0-7914-2843-6.  ^ Skaria, A. (2015). "Ambedkar, Marx and the Buddhist Question". Journal of South Asian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 38 (3): 450–465. doi:10.1080/00856401.2015.1049726.  ^ a b c Damien Keown; Charles S. Prebish (2013). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Routledge. pp. 24–26. ISBN 978-1-136-98588-1.  ^ a b Eleanor Zelliot (2015). Knut A. Jacobsen, ed. Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India. Taylor & Francis. pp. 13, 361–370. ISBN 978-1-317-40357-9.  ^ Damien Keown; Charles S. Prebish (2013). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-136-98588-1. , Quote: "(...)The Buddhism
Buddhism
upon which he settled and about which he wrote in The Buddha and His Dhamma was, in many respects, unlike any form of Buddhism
Buddhism
that had hitherto arisen within the tradition. Gone, for instance, were the doctrines of karma and rebirth, the traditional emphasis on renunciation of the world, the practice of meditation, and the experience of enlightenment. Gone too were any teachings that implied the existence of a trans-empirical realm (...). Most jarring, perhaps, especially among more traditional Buddhists, was the absence of the Four Noble Truths, which Ambedkar regarded as the invention of wrong-headed monks". ^ Anne M. Blackburn (1993), Religion, Kinship and Buddhism: Ambedkar's Vision of a Moral Community, The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 16 (1), 1-22 ^ Christopher S. Queen (2000). Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West. Wisdom Publications. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-86171-159-8.  ^ Christopher Queen (2015). Steven M. Emmanuel, ed. A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 524–531. ISBN 978-1-119-14466-3.  ^ I.Y. Junghare (1988), Dr. Ambedkar: The Hero of the Mahars, Ex-Untouchables of India, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, (1988), pp. 93-121, "(...) the new literature of the Mahars and their making of the Ambedkar deity for their new religion, Neo-Buddhism. (...) Song five is clearly representative of the Mahar community's respect and devotion for Ambedkar. He has become their God and they worship him as the singer sings: "We worship Bhima, too." (...) In the last song, Dr. Ambedkar is raised from a deity to a supreme deity. He is omnipresent, omnipotent, and omniscient." ^ Pace, Enzo (2007). "A peculiar pluralism". Journal of Modern Italian Studies. Taylor and Francis. 12 (1): 86–100. doi:10.1080/13545710601132979.  ^ Bernard Faure (2011). Unmasking Buddhism. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 139–141. ISBN 978-1-4443-5661-8.  ^ Stephen R. Prothero (1996). The White Buddhist: the Asian odyssey of Henry Steel Olcott. Indiana University Press. p. 128. , Quote: "In addition to a restatement of the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and the Five Precepts for lay Buddhists, the fourteen propositions included: an affirmation of religious tolerance and of the evolution of the universe, a rejection of supernaturalism, heaven or hell, and superstition, and an emphasis on education and the use of reason." ^ Owen Flanagan (2011). The Bodhisattva's Brain: Buddhism
Buddhism
Naturalized. MIT Press. pp. 2–3, 68–70, 79–80. ISBN 978-0-262-29723-3.  ^ a b Melford E. Spiro (1982). Buddhism
Buddhism
and Society: A Great Tradition and Its Burmese Vicissitudes. University of California Press. pp. 39–42. ISBN 978-0-520-04672-6.  ^ a b Coleman 2002, p. 110. ^ a b c Konik 2009, p. ix. ^ Hayes 2013, p. 172. ^ a b Lamb 2001, p. 258. ^ a b c Damien Keown (2009). Buddhism. Sterling Publishing. pp. 60–63, 74–85, 185–187. ISBN 978-1-4027-6883-5.  ^ Trainor 2004, p. 62. ^ Merv Fowler (1999). Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-898723-66-0. , Quote: "For a vast majority of Buddhists in Theravadin countries, however, the order of monks is seen by lay Buddhists as a means of gaining the most merit in the hope of accumulating good karma for a better rebirth." ^ Christopher Gowans (2004). Philosophy of the Buddha: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-134-46973-4.  ^ Flanagan 2014, pp. 233-234 with note 1. ^ Chitkara 1998, p. 39. ^ Flanagan 2014, pp. 234-235 with note 5. ^ a b c d Christopher W. Gowans (2014). Buddhist Moral Philosophy: An Introduction. Routledge. pp. 18–23, 76–88. ISBN 978-1-317-65935-8.  ^ Scherer, Burkhard (2012). "Globalizing Tibetan Buddhism: modernism and neo-orthodoxy in contemporary Karma
Karma
bKa' brgyud organizations". Contemporary Buddhism. Taylor & Francis. 13 (1): 125–137. doi:10.1080/14639947.2012.669282.  ^ B Scherer (2014), Conversion, Devotion and (Trans-)Mission: Understanding Ole Nydahl, in Todd Lewis (ed.) Buddhists: Understanding Buddhism
Buddhism
Through the Lives of Practitioners, Blackwell Wiley, London, pp. 96-106 ^ B Scherer (2017). Eugene V. Gallagher, ed. Visioning New and Minority Religions: Projecting the future. Routledge. pp. 156–164. ISBN 978-1-4724-6588-7.  ^ David Brazier
David Brazier
(2002). The New Buddhism. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. xii, 249–250. ISBN 978-0-312-29518-9.  ^ Mcmahan (2008, p.9) citing Lopez (2002)

Bibliography[edit]

Chitkara, M. G. (1998), Buddhism, Reincarnation, and Dalai Lamas of Tibet, APH  Coleman, James William (2002). The New Buddhism: The Western Transformation of an Ancient Tradition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515241-8.  Flanagan, Owen (2014), Science for Monks: Buddhism
Buddhism
and Science: A BIT of The Really Hard Problem, MIT Press  Hayes, Richard P. (2013), "The Internet as Window onto American Buddhism", in Queen, Christopher; Williams, Duncan Ryuken, American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship, Routledge  Keown, Damien (2000). Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction (Kindle ed.). Oxford University Press.  Konik, Adrian (2009), Buddhism
Buddhism
and Transgression: The Appropriation of Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Contemporary West, BRIIL  Lamb, Christopher (2001), "Cosmology, myth and symbolism", in Harvey, Peter, Buddhism, Bloomsbury Publishing  Trainor, Kevin (2004), Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-517398-7  James, Alan; Jacqui, James (1989). Modern Buddhism. Aucana. ISBN 0-9511769-1-9.  James, William (June 1902). The varieties of religious experience : a study in human nature. London: Longmans, Green & Co. p. 534. ISBN 0-585-23263-6.  Josephson, Jason Ānanda (2006). "When Buddhism
Buddhism
Became a "Religion": Religion and Superstition in the Writings of Inoue Enryō". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 33 (1): 143–168.  Lopez, Jr., Donald S. (2008). Buddhism
Buddhism
& science : a guide for the perplexed. Buddhism
Buddhism
and modernity. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-49312-1.  Lopez, Jr., Donald S. (2002). A Modern Buddhist Bible. Beacon Press Books. ISBN 0-8070-1243-2.  Masuzawa, Tomoko (May 2005). The invention of world religions, or, How European universalism was preserved in the language of pluralism (1st ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-226-50988-4.  McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183276.001.0001, ISBN 978-0-19-518327-6  Metraux, Daniel A. (2001). The International Expansion of a Modern Buddhist Movement: The Soka Gakkai
Soka Gakkai
in Southeast Asia and Australia. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-7618-1904-2.  Prebish, Charles S.; Baumann, Martin (2002). Westward Dharma: Buddhism Beyond Asia. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23490-1.  Satō, Giei; Nishimura, Nishin (1973). Unsui: a Diary of Zen
Zen
Monastic Life (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8248-0272-1. Retrieved 28 May 2009.  Sharf, Robert H. (August 1993). "The Zen
Zen
of Japanese Nationalism". History of Religions. The University of Chicago Press. 33 (1): 1–43. doi:10.1086/463354. ISSN 0018-2710. JSTOR 1062782.  Suzuki, D. T. (1996) [1956]. Barrett, William, ed. Zen
Zen
Buddhism : selected writings of D.T. Suzuki. New York: Three Leaves. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-385-48349-0.  Verhoeven, Martin (1998). "Americanizing the Buddha: Paul Carus and the Transformation of Asian Thought". In Prebish, Charles; Tanaka, Kenneth. The faces of Buddhism
Buddhism
in America. University of California Press. p. 370. ISBN 978-0-520-21301-2. 

Further reading[edit]

Sharf, R H (1995). Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
and the rhetoric of meditative experience, Numen 42, 228-283 McMahan, DL (2004). Modernity
Modernity
and the early discourse of scientific Buddhism, Journal of the American Academy of Religion 72 (4), 897-933 Ulanov MS, Badmaev VN (2015). Buddhist World in Global Context. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. 2015. № 5 ( Special
Special
Issue). pp. 15–17. [1] Webb, Russel (2005). Heinz Bechert 26 June 1932-14 June 2005, Buddhist Studies Review 22 (2), 211-216

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
( Vipassana
Vipassana
movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist
Tibetan Buddhist
canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana
Vipassana
movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist
Tibetan Buddhist
architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

Category Portal

v t e

Modernism

Milestones

Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
(1862-63) Olympia (1863) A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
(1886) Mont Sainte-Victoir (1887) The Starry Night
The Starry Night
(1889) Ubu Roi
Ubu Roi
(1896) Verklärte Nacht
Verklärte Nacht
(1899) Le bonheur de vivre
Le bonheur de vivre
(1905-1906) Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
(1907) The Firebird
The Firebird
(1910) Afternoon of a Faun (1912) Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
(1912) The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring
(1913) In Search of Lost Time
In Search of Lost Time
(1913–1927) The Metamorphosis
The Metamorphosis
(1915) Black Square (1915) Fountain (1917) The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
(1920) Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921) Ulysses (1922) The Waste Land
The Waste Land
(1922) The Magic Mountain
The Magic Mountain
(1924) Battleship Potemkin
Battleship Potemkin
(1925) The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises
(1926) The Threepenny Opera
The Threepenny Opera
(1928) The Sound and the Fury
The Sound and the Fury
(1929) Un Chien Andalou
Un Chien Andalou
(1929) Villa Savoye
Villa Savoye
(1931) The Blue Lotus
The Blue Lotus
(1936) Fallingwater
Fallingwater
(1936) Waiting for Godot
Waiting for Godot
(1953)

Literature

Guillaume Apollinaire Djuna Barnes Tadeusz Borowski André Breton Mikhail Bulgakov Anton Chekhov Joseph Conrad Alfred Döblin E. M. Forster William Faulkner Gustave Flaubert Ford Madox Ford André Gide Knut Hamsun Jaroslav Hašek Ernest Hemingway Hermann Hesse James Joyce Franz Kafka Arthur Koestler D. H. Lawrence Wyndham Lewis Thomas Mann Katherine Mansfield Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Guy de Maupassant Robert Musil Katherine Anne Porter Marcel Proust Gertrude Stein Italo Svevo Virginia Woolf

Poetry

Anna Akhmatova Richard Aldington W. H. Auden Charles Baudelaire Luca Caragiale Constantine P. Cavafy Blaise Cendrars Hart Crane H.D. Robert Desnos T. S. Eliot Paul Éluard Odysseas Elytis F. S. Flint Stefan George Max Jacob Federico García Lorca Amy Lowell Robert Lowell Mina Loy Stéphane Mallarmé Marianne Moore Wilfred Owen Octavio Paz Fernando Pessoa Ezra Pound Lionel Richard Rainer Maria Rilke Arthur Rimbaud Giorgos Seferis Wallace Stevens Dylan Thomas Tristan Tzara Paul Valéry William Carlos Williams W. B. Yeats

Visual art

Josef Albers Jean Arp Balthus George Bellows Umberto Boccioni Pierre Bonnard Georges Braque Constantin Brâncuși Alexander Calder Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Marc Chagall Giorgio de Chirico Camille Claudel Joseph Cornell Joseph Csaky Salvador Dalí Edgar Degas Raoul Dufy Willem de Kooning Robert Delaunay Charles Demuth Otto Dix Theo van Doesburg Marcel Duchamp James Ensor Max Ernst Jacob Epstein Paul Gauguin Alberto Giacometti Vincent van Gogh Natalia Goncharova Julio González Juan Gris George Grosz Raoul Hausmann Jacques Hérold Hannah Höch Edward Hopper Frida Kahlo Wassily Kandinsky Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Paul Klee Oskar Kokoschka Pyotr Konchalovsky André Lhote Fernand Léger Franz Marc Albert Marque Jean Marchand René Magritte Kazimir Malevich Édouard Manet Henri Matisse Colin McCahon Jean Metzinger Joan Miró Amedeo Modigliani Piet Mondrian Claude Monet Henry Moore Edvard Munch Emil Nolde Georgia O'Keeffe Méret Oppenheim Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso Camille Pissarro Man Ray Odilon Redon Pierre-Auguste Renoir Auguste Rodin Henri Rousseau Egon Schiele Georges Seurat Paul Signac Alfred Sisley Edward Steichen Alfred Stieglitz Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Édouard Vuillard Grant Wood

Music

George Antheil Milton Babbitt Jean Barraqué Alban Berg Luciano Berio Nadia Boulanger Pierre Boulez John Cage Elliott Carter Aaron Copland Henry Cowell Henri Dutilleux Morton Feldman Henryk Górecki Josef Matthias Hauer Paul Hindemith Arthur Honegger Charles Ives Leoš Janáček György Ligeti Witold Lutosławski Olivier Messiaen Luigi Nono Harry Partch Krzysztof Penderecki Sergei Prokofiev Luigi Russolo Erik Satie Pierre Schaeffer Arnold Schoenberg Dmitri Shostakovich Richard Strauss Igor Stravinsky Edgard Varèse Anton Webern Kurt Weill Iannis Xenakis

Theatre

Edward Albee Maxwell Anderson Jean Anouilh Antonin Artaud Samuel Beckett Bertolt Brecht Anton Chekhov Friedrich Dürrenmatt Jean Genet Maxim Gorky Walter Hasenclever Henrik Ibsen William Inge Eugène Ionesco Alfred Jarry Georg Kaiser Maurice Maeterlinck Vladimir Mayakovsky Arthur Miller Seán O'Casey Eugene O'Neill John Osborne Luigi Pirandello Erwin Piscator George Bernard Shaw August Strindberg John Millington Synge Ernst Toller Frank Wedekind Thornton Wilder Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz

Film

Ingmar Bergman Anton Giulio Bragaglia Luis Buñuel Marcel Carné Charlie Chaplin René Clair Jean Cocteau Maya Deren Alexander Dovzhenko Carl Theodor Dreyer Viking Eggeling Sergei Eisenstein Jean Epstein Robert J. Flaherty Abel Gance Isidore Isou Buster Keaton Lev Kuleshov Fritz Lang Marcel L'Herbier Georges Méliès F. W. Murnau Georg Wilhelm Pabst Vsevolod Pudovkin Jean Renoir Walter Ruttmann Victor Sjöström Josef von Sternberg Dziga Vertov Jean Vigo Robert Wiene

Dance

George Balanchine Merce Cunningham Clotilde von Derp Sergei Diaghilev Isadora Duncan Michel Fokine Loie Fuller Martha Graham Hanya Holm Doris Humphrey Léonide Massine Vaslav Nijinsky Alwin Nikolais Alexander Sakharoff Ted Shawn Anna Sokolow Ruth St. Denis Helen Tamiris Charles Weidman Mary Wigman

Architecture

Alvar Aalto Marcel Breuer Gordon Bunshaft Antoni Gaudí Walter Gropius Hector Guimard Raymond Hood Victor Horta Friedensreich Hundertwasser Philip Johnson Louis Kahn Le Corbusier Adolf Loos Konstantin Melnikov Erich Mendelsohn Pier Luigi Nervi Richard Neutra Oscar Niemeyer Hans Poelzig Antonin Raymond Gerrit Rietveld Eero Saarinen Rudolf Steiner Edward Durell Stone Louis Sullivan Vladimir Tatlin Paul Troost Jørn Utzon Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Frank Lloyd Wright

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