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Replica of Sanchi gate at Chaitya Bhoomi has Buddhist stupa puja scene

BUDDHIST DEVOTION is an important part of Buddhist practice. It refers to devotion to religious observances or to an object or person, and may be translated with Pali language
Pali language
terms like saddhā, gārava or pūjā. Central to Buddhist devotion
Buddhist devotion
is the practice of buddhānussati , the recollection of the inspiring qualities of the Buddha. Although buddhānussati had been an important aspect of practice since the early period of Buddhism
Buddhism
, its importance was amplified with the arising of Mahāyāna Buddhism . Specifically, with Pure Land Buddhism , many forms of devotion were developed to recollect and connect with the celestial Buddhas, especially Amitābha .

Most Buddhists use ritual in pursuit of their spiritual aspirations. Common devotional practices are receiving a blessing , making merit (doing good deeds), making a resolution , prostrating , making offerings , chanting traditional texts and pilgrimage . Moreover, many types of visualizations, recollections and mantras are used in Buddhist meditation in different traditions to devote oneself to the Buddha or a teacher. The often politically motivated practice of self-immolation is a less common aspect of devotion in some Buddhist communities.

Buddhist devotional practices can be performed at home or in a temple, in which images of Buddhas , Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas
and enlightened disciples are located. Buddhist devotion
Buddhist devotion
is practiced more intensively on the uposatha observation days and on yearly festivals , which are different depending on region and tradition.

CONTENTS

* 1 Definition * 2 History

* 3 Practices

* 3.1 Blessing * 3.2 Merit-making and resolve * 3.3 Prostration * 3.4 Offering * 3.5 Chanting * 3.6 Meditation * 3.7 Pilgrimage * 3.8 Other practices

* 4 Places * 5 Festivals and observance days * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 Citations * 9 References * 10 External links

DEFINITION

The term devotion in the context of Buddhism
Buddhism
is defined by Sri Lankan scholar Indumathie Karunaratna as "the fact or quality of being devoted to religious observances or a solemn dedication to an object or a person". It is covered in Pali language
Pali language
by terms such as pema (affection), saddhā (faith or belief), pasāda (serene confidence), bhatti (faith) and gārava (respect). Pema is often used in the initial attraction a student feels for his spiritual teacher; saddhā is deeper, although still considered an initial step on the spiritual path. Saddhā and gārava might inspire a layperson to ordain as a monk, whereas saddhā and pema may help a devotee to attain a good afterlife destination . Bhatti in early Buddhism
Buddhism
has the meaning of 'faithful adherence to the religion', but in later texts, the term develops the meaning of an advanced form of devotion.

Apart from these terms, the term pūjā is also used for expressions of "honour, worship and devotional attention." Pūjā is derived from the Vedic root pūj-, meaning 'to revere, to honor'. In the Theravada Pali
Pali
Canon , it did not have the meaning of ritual offering yet, although it did include honoring through physical, verbal and mental ways. The term pūjā originated with Dravidian culture, in which it may have been used for a ritual or an element of ritual procedure, and these ritual connotations may have affected Buddhism
Buddhism
at a later period.

Although in traditional texts devotional acts are sometimes not considered part of the path to enlightenment itself, they are considered a form of preparing the right conditions for the development of this path. Devotion and worship are regarded as a form of giving, which is done for both one's own benefit and that of the other.

HISTORY

In early Buddhism, it was a common practice to recollect the qualities of the Buddha, known as buddhānussati . In the period of the arising of Mahāyāna Buddhism, there was a growing sense of loss in Buddhist communities with regard to the passing away of the Buddha, and a growing desire to be able to meet him again. These developments led to the arising of faith-based forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
such as Pure Land Buddhism
Buddhism
, in which the practice of buddhānussati involved celestial Buddhas such as the Amitābha
Amitābha
Buddha . Devotional practices became commonplace, as new techniques were developed to recollect the qualities and magnificence of the celestial Buddhas, such as visualization and chants.

PRACTICES

Although Buddhism
Buddhism
regards inner devotion as more important than outer ritual, devotion is developed through several practices, expressed through physical movement, speech, and mind. Buddhist devotion
Buddhist devotion
is also directed to inanimate objects considered sacred such as the Buddha\'s teaching ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: Dharma; Pali
Pali
: Dhamma), stūpas (hemispherical structures) or Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: sūtra; Pali : sutta). An important idea in Buddhist devotional practice is the idea that good qualities of mind can be developed by association with someone or something linked to high spiritual attainment.

BLESSING

Main article: Adhiṣṭhāna

A Buddhist practitioner may engage in devotional practices to ask for blessings from a Buddha or enlightened being. Monks and nuns are also believed to be able to convey spiritual power by giving a blessing ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: adiṣṭhāna, Pali
Pali
: adiṭṭhāna) through chanting, a blessed object or some other means. The spiritual power of monastics is considered to come from their ordination lineage and virtue. In expressing faith and devotion to a Buddha or other spiritually advanced being, devotees may also ask for repentance, to help free themselves from the retribution of bad karma .

MERIT-MAKING AND RESOLVE

Main articles: Merit (Buddhism) and Praṇidhāna

Merit is an energy that can be accumulated through merit-making practices, often performed with people who are considered to have the spiritual power to give blessings. This energy can also be directed at a goal chosen, through a resolve ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: praṇidhāna, Pali
Pali
: paṇidhāna) often made. Such a resolve may be focused on this-wordly goals such as health, intelligence, protection from harm, but also goals that are more sublime, such as rebirth in heaven, rebirth in a Pure Land , and enlightenment . It is also believed merit can be transferred other living beings to help them.

PROSTRATION

Main article: Prostration (Buddhism)

In Buddhism, prostration is done:

* To images of Gotama Buddha , and in Mahāyāna Buddhism also to other Buddhas and bodhisattvas. Such images originated some centuries after the historical Buddha. Devotion towards bodhisattvas is focused on their compassion, their skill and extraordinary powers. Apart from that, a devotee may bow for a stūpa or a Bodhi tree
Bodhi tree
(a tree of the same type that the Buddha became enlightened under).

* To religious superiors:

* by a monk to a monk ordained earlier; * by a nun to a nun ordained earlier; * by a nun to a monk, regardless of date of ordination; * By a lay person to a monk or nun, or sometimes a religious teacher of some kind;

* Laypeople may also bow to their parents or to their elders.

Prostration is done as an expression of humility and an acknowledgement of the other's spiritual experience. It is usually done three times, to pay respect to the Buddha, the Dharma
Dharma
and the Saṁgha . The prostration is done by holding the hands in front of the chest and bringing them to the lips and the forehead, to indicate paying respect by body, speech and mind, respectively. After that, one either bows with the elbows and head onto the ground, or by fully outstretching one's entire body. Apart from a threefold prostrations, prostrations may also be done continuously as a form of repentance, or as part of the ritual of circumambulating (walking around) a stūpa or other holy place. (See § Other practices , below.) Finally, sometimes a pilgrimage is completely or partly done by prostrating oneself forward.

At a more basic level, respect may be shown by a gesture of clasped hands held against the chest (añjali ) and raising the hands to one's head or chin, depending on the position and level of respect the other person is at.

OFFERING

Main article: Offering (Buddhism)

Another important practice is the giving of offerings (pūjā) out of respect and humility to a Buddha image or other artifact. This is often combined with chanting . Buddhists may offer flowers as a symbol of growth, or incense to remind themselves, in the words of Buddhist Studies scholar Peter Harvey, of the "odor of sanctity" of the Buddha. Candles and lights may also be offered, symbolizing the dispelling of the darkness of ignorance. In Mahāyāna Buddhism, a set of seven offerings is often given, in which the first two offerings represent hospitality, and the other five the senses. Such an offering indicates respect through one's entire being, as represented by the five senses. When an offering is given in a temple, the devotees will normally take off their shoes, wash the object to be offered, approach the image or stūpa holding their hands in añjali and perform the actual offering, after which they prostrate.

CHANTING

Main article: Buddhist chant

Different types of chanting are used in Buddhism. A very basic form that is very important is the recitation of Three Refuges , of which every phrase is repeated three times. The anussatis can also be chanted., as well as a review of the five precepts. Protective chantings ( Pali
Pali
: paritta) are also widespread. Many forms of protective chanting exist in Buddhism, among which the well-known Karaṇīyamettā Sutta . Whereas some of these chants are used to ward of specific dangers, such as that during childbirth, others are considered to be beneficial in a more general sense. They are only believed to effect the life of the practitioner who recites them with a mind of faith. They are considered to bring benefits to mental health and well-being, and are a form of practice of loving-kindness , speed up the fruits of good karma , please the devas and an expression of the truth of the Buddha's teachings. In the scripture Samyuktagāma , the Buddha is portrayed teaching a verse and mantra that monks may chant to protect themselves from a snakebite. The verse is mainly about loving-kindness, compassion, and doing no harm to all beings and is given in the Chinese transcription of the Sanskrit. This episode does not occur in the counterpart Pali
Pali
sutta in the Saṃyutta-Nikāya , and may have been added after the Sarvāstivāda – Vibhajjavāda split.

In Mahāyāna Buddhism mantras and dhāraṇīs are also used, which include the Heart Sutra and the mantra Om mani padme hum. Dharanis are often summaries of teachings that function like mnemonic aids. Besides these, there are also chantings in homage to Amitābha
Amitābha
in Pure Land Buddhism, chantings in homage to the Lotus Sutra
Lotus Sutra
in Nichiren Buddhism
Buddhism
and chantings in homage of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
in East Asian and Tibetan Mahāyāna Buddhism. In Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism, the Lotus Sūtra is honoured through a seven-syllable mantra, the title of the sūtra, which is engraved on a plaque called the gohonzon . This plaque is the central focus of Nichiren
Nichiren
devotion, and chanting the mantra in honour of the sūtra is considered of great benefit to the practitioner. In Tibetan and other form of Mahāyāna Buddhism, the name of Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
is called upon through the Om Maṇi Padme Hum mantra, which is done by using praying wheels , by printing the mantra on prayer flags and carving it on stones and other materials.

Chanting of Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
is the most widespread mental cultivation practise for lay people. It is believed to help overcome hindrances and negative emotions in the mind and cultivate positive ones. Buddhist chants are reflections on the good spiritual qualities of the Three Refuges or an enlightened teacher, and aspirations of spiritual perfection. In early Buddhism, recitation of texts was done mainly for its mnemonic purpose, in a time period when religious texts were not written down. Later on, after writing became widespread, recitation was still continued out of devotion and to commit the teachings to memory out of respect. Some elements of chanting in Buddhism, such as the monotonous style, still indicate its original mnemonic nature.

Although much chanting is done in ancient ritual languages such as Sankrit or Pali
Pali
, chants in vernacular languages also exist. A common Pali
Pali
chant is Namo tassa..., often chanted to introduce a ceremony. In many Buddhist traditions, rosaries are used during the chanting. Apart from being a tool to count the number of recitations chanted, in some traditions such as Pure Land Buddhism, the rosary is also a reminder of the Buddha Amitābha's greatness and one's own limited capacities compared to him.

MEDITATION

See also: Buddhist meditation and Deity yoga

In many Buddhist traditions, faith is attributed an important role in the preparation process for meditation practice. Faith is often mentioned hand-in-hand with moral discipline , which practitioners require to improve their mindfulness and energy. This mindfulness and energy will then help practitioners move forward in meditation practise, culminating in wisdom and understanding.

More specifically, in the Theravāda meditation manual called the Visuddhimagga
Visuddhimagga
, several personality types are distinguished, among which the faith type. Each personality type requires its own approach in meditation practice: for the faith type, several recollections are recommended, such as recollection of the qualities of the Triple Gem (the Buddha, his teaching , and the Sangha
Sangha
), the benefits of moral discipline or giving , or reflection on the good qualities of devas (deities) . Devotion to the Triple Gem was developed into several forms of meditation: buddhānussati, dhammānusati and saṅghānusati, respectively, in which the word anussati means 'recollection of'. In these recollections, practitioners would reflect on the attributes of the Buddha, Dhamma or Sangha
Sangha
following the stock formulas found in many places in the Tipiṭaka , the early Pali scriptures. The recollection was believed to lead the practitioner to joy, inner peace and concentration.

In Mahāyāna Buddhism, faith-based meditations can be found in Pure Land Buddhism, in which five recollections are used to remind oneself of the goodness of Amitābha
Amitābha
Buddha. The first three represent body, speech and mind: practitioners honour Amitābha
Amitābha
Buddha through physical action, e.g. by prostrating; through speech, by chanting in praise of him; and by resolving to be reborn with him in the Pure Land. The fourth recollection is a series of visualizations, similar to the faith-based meditations from the Visuddhimagga
Visuddhimagga
and descriptions in the Pali
Pali
Canon. In these visualizations, practitioners imagine Amitābha
Amitābha
Buddha, the Pure Land, and after that, themselves being reborn there. The fifth "recollection" is the practise of skillful means to help others to achieve rebirth in the Pure Land as well. Apart from these visualizations, the chant in honor of Amitābha Buddha can also be practiced in a meditative way, silently in one's mind or through the rhythm of one's breath. Pure Land meditations were also practiced in Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
. Although there was less focus on Amitābha
Amitābha
Buddha, some Nyingma masters did teach Amitābha visualizations. Furthermore, in Kagyu
Kagyu
tradition a technique was taught which was believed to help cross over to a Pure Land at the time of death, called \'pho ba .

There are also devotional visualization meditations in Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
, as can be found in Tibetan, Korean and Japanese Buddhism
Japanese Buddhism
. These practices differ from the Pure Land visualizations in that the teacher (guru ) is very important in the process, and a form of meditation directed towards the guru is also taught. Apart from the Triple Gem, practitioners often take refuge in their spiritual teacher, who symbolizes the Triple Gem. Furthermore, they often take refuge in a yidam , which Harvey translates from Tibetan as 'tutelary deity'. By focusing on the exemplary aspects of one's teacher, who is also visualized in meditation, one develops faith in practice. Furthermore, the practitioner needs to go through an initiation ritual, in which the guru transmits the knowledge on a particular yidam, and a mantra, visualization practice and sometimes ritual gestures that accompany that deity. Unlike Pure Land visualizations, there are many deities to choose from. The mantra is regarded to express the nature of the yidam, and the gestures are considered to evoke the appropriate states of mind. Furthermore, visualization techniques and mantra syllables are believed to actually evoke the deity recalled and incorporate the deity in one's being. Using these practices, the devotee is believed to be guided by the yidam to transform his faults, for example anger, to a "parallel kind of wisdom" (Harvey). Moreover, devotion towards a teacher is part of a process of enhancing the mind's attention.

Devotion can also be expressed through walking meditation , which is very clearly seen in the Pure Land tradition. Pure Land devotees may practice walking meditation continuously for ninety days on end. During this practice, the Amitābha
Amitābha
Buddha is visualized, and breaks are only taken for bodily functions.

PILGRIMAGE

Main article: Pilgrimage (Buddhism)

Pilgrimage is an important practice in Buddhism, and according to early texts was advocated by the Buddha himself. He suggested to go and pay respect to four places, that is, the place where he was born , the place where he had first attained enlightenment , the place where he had given his first formal teaching , and finally, the place where he had attained to paranibbāna (his physical death). Indeed, to dispel any doubt about the usefulness of such pilgrimage, the Buddha stated that he accepted in advance all gifts presented to the cetiyas , stūpas and places of pilgrimage . Such offerings and pilgrimage were therefore just as fruitful after he passed away, as when he was still alive.

Other places were later added, particularly in other countries, where pilgrimage to the original sites would be daunting. In traditional Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Tibet Bodhi
Bodhi
trees , ancient relics and other holy places are also visited as part of pilgrimages. In Japan, an institutional system arose in the 11th century called Shugendō , in which various parts of Japan's geography came to be regarded as symbols of the Buddhist teaching, certain bodhisattvas or important historical figures in Japanese Buddhism. Numerous pilgrimage routes were developed to honour these sites, as narratives about them were written down and monasteries and shrines were established on them.

Buddhists might go on pilgrimage for several reasons: to gain merit, to remind themselves of the Buddha's life, to suffuse themselves with the spiritual power of the pilgrimage places and its artifacts, as a promise made to a bodhisatta in exchange for favours, to gain protection from devas that protect the pilgrimage places, or to bring harmony to their family. Furthermore, pilgrims might want to dedicate the good karma of the trip to their ill or deceased relatives. But often the pilgrimage is also done to enjoy the nature or cultural settings. Just like pilgrimages in any other religion, the pilgrimage gives devotees the chance to remove themselves from their everyday social-economic position in society, and to become part of another kind of community, characterized by a new ambiguous status.

Sometimes, pilgrims also perform ascetic practices such as having a cold bath as part of the visits, or prostrating along the path. Pilgrimages are sometimes done in certain periods, such as in Sri Lanka on days of observance, and in Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
as part of a twelve-year cycle . Furthermore, in more modern times, Buddhist pilgrimage has often been done as a political statement against certain regimes.

OTHER PRACTICES

Another form of devotional respect is to circumambulate three times around a Buddha image or holy place. Traditionally, it is recommended to do this clockwise, with the right shoulder facing the image or place, if possible, bared.

One practice that has been more controversial than most devotional practices in Buddhism, is the practice of self-immolation . In Buddhist teaching, the human body is regarded as without intrinsic value, but becomes valuable depending on how it is used. The practice of self-immolation is based on this idea, according to which "abandoning the body" in doing good deeds is regarded as a form of heroism. Although the practice seems to go against the Buddhist concept of the Middle Way, Buddhist teaching does emphasize dealing with the natural urges of the body.

The practice became more common in China during the fourth until the tenth century CE, with Japan following suit, in the Kamakura Period . The practice was first described in the twenty-third chapter of the Lotus Sūtra, in which the bodhisattva Bhaiṣajyarāja set his own body on fire to honor the Buddha. Apart from these Indian origins, it may have been preceded by indigenous practices to conjure up rain. Regarded by some as a high developed form of doing good (pāramitā ), devotees burnt parts of their body, such as an arm or a finger, in honor of the sūtra, and hoping to be reborn in a Pure Land. Burning oneself fully as an act of devotion, also known as auto-cremation, was a highly respected practice in China at the time, and was often organized as a public event, attended by emperors and officials.

During the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
, Buddhist monks used self-immolation as a way to express political dissent. When the monk Thich Quang Duc performed self-immolation in 1963, this was widely featured in international press reports. This contributed to the US government eventually withdrawing from supporting President Diem , who suppressed Buddhism.

Self-immolation became more and more subject of criticism from the eight century CE onward, from Confucianists , state officials and also from Buddhist monks themselves. In the 21st century CE, the practice has become uncommon. Nevertheless, up until the 1990s and 2000s, Vietnamese monks were still reported to practice self-immolation, and Chinese and Korean monks still offered their fingers, burning them.

PLACES

Although almost all devotional practices can be done in one's own home, it is custom to meet in the local temple on festivals and days of observance . The place where a Buddhist observes devotional practices can be a simple home shrine, or at the temple. Buddhist temples often contain dormitories for monastics, who meditate and study there, and lead devotional practices at the temple. Theravāda Buddhist temples usually have an image of Gotama Buddha in the main room, perhaps combined with images of his close disciples Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana . In Mahāyāna Buddhist temples, more diversity can be found, including different heavenly Buddhas , Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas
and sometimes a series of arahant disciples (disciples that have achieved personal enlightenment). The Buddhist temple usually contains a room for meetings, meditations or preaching, and may contain a stūpa with relics , or a Bodhi
Bodhi
tree. This type of room in a temple is called the buddhavasa, or the 'Buddha's dwelling place', whereas the dormitories for monastics are called sanghavasa, or the 'Sangha's dwelling place'.

Stūpas and Buddha images may be donated by a single supporter, or by a community of devotees, motivated by merit-making motives. In most Buddhist traditions, Buddha images are regarded as more than just representations, but as actually imbued with a spiritual power connected to the Three Refuges, as reflected in consecration ceremonies and legendary accounts. Similarly, relics are also widely honored, because they are seen as an embodiment of the Buddha, and bring Buddhism
Buddhism
from a distant age and place closer to home. Temples with well-known relics such as the Temple of the Tooth
Temple of the Tooth
in Sri Lanka are worshiped by thousands of people per day.

It is common in Buddhist temples to take off one's shoes or change them. In ancient times, shoes were a status symbol and taking them off was therefore an expression of humility. It might also have been done to keep the temple grounds clean. Another custom is to put the Buddha image on the highest spot in the room.

FESTIVALS AND OBSERVANCE DAYS

See also: Culture of Buddhism

All Buddhist traditions have festivals, during which devotion is practiced. Many of these are Buddhist in origin, others are a response to pre-Buddhist cultural traditions, the agricultural year cycle or certain national deities. In many Theravāda countries, the traditional New Year is celebrated mid-year, during which certain Buddhist customs are observed. This includes ceremonies for reflection on misdeeds and resolving to do good, and release of animals . Other important festivals are Vesak
Vesak
, Asalha Puja
Asalha Puja
, the Pavāraṇa Day and Kaṭhina . In East Asian countries, many of these festivals are also celebrated, but other festivals with pre-Buddhist origins are also held, combined with Buddhist elements. An example of this is the Ghost Festival , on which is recollected that Maudgalyāyana Sthavira dedicated good karma to his deceased mother , out of gratitude to her. This festival was a response to Confucian ideals of filial piety .

Apart from festivals, in Theravāda Buddhism, there are also observance days ( Pali
Pali
: uposatha) following the ancient Indian lunar calendar . Uposatha
Uposatha
days are observed by the more strict devotees, who will go to their local temple to give food , take upon themselves the five or eight precepts , listen to teachings and meditate.

SEE ALSO

* Alms (Buddhism) * Buddhist liturgy

NOTES

* ^ See also Anguttara Nikaya , volume II, page 72 ( Pali
Pali
Text Society (edition pagination) and the Atanatiya Sutta in the Digha Nikaya , number 32, in volume III. * ^ Digha Nikaya , volume II, pages 140f (PTS pagination)

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Thomson Gale
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Pali
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