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Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world's fourth-largest religion, with over 520 million followers or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[web 1][5] Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices.[6][7] Practices of Buddhism include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma
Dharma
and the Sangha, study of scriptures, observance of moral precepts, renunciation of craving and attachment, the practice of meditation (including calm and insight), the cultivation of wisdom, loving-kindness and compassion, the Mahayana
Mahayana
practice of bodhicitta and the Vajrayana
Vajrayana
practices of generation stage and completion stage. In Theravada, the ultimate goal is the cessation of kleshas (destructive mental states including ignorance, attachment, and aversion) and the attainment of the sublime state of Nirvana, achieved by practising the Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
(also known as the Middle Way), thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering and rebirth.[8] Theravada
Theravada
has a widespread following in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon
Shingon
and Tiantai
Tiantai
(Tendai), is found throughout East Asia. Rather than Nirvana, Mahayana
Mahayana
instead aspires to Buddhahood
Buddhahood
via the bodhisattva path,[note 1] a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a third branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana
Vajrayana
teachings of eighth century India,[10] is practised in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Mongolia[11] and Kalmykia.[12] Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body.[13]

Contents

1 Life of the Buddha 2 The problem of life: endless rebirth

2.1 Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
– dukkha and its ending 2.2 The cycle of rebirth

2.2.1 Saṃsāra 2.2.2 Rebirth 2.2.3 Karma

2.3 Liberation

3 The path to liberation: Bhavana
Bhavana
(practice, cultivation)

3.1 Refuge in the Three Jewels 3.2 The Buddhist path

3.2.1 Theravada
Theravada
– Noble Eightfold Path 3.2.2 Mahayana
Mahayana
– Bodhisattva-path and the six paramitas

3.3 Śīla
Śīla
– Buddhist ethics

3.3.1 Precepts 3.3.2 Vinaya

3.4 Samadhi
Samadhi
(dhyana) – meditation

3.4.1 Origins 3.4.2 Four rupa-jhāna and four arupa-jhāna 3.4.3 Meditation
Meditation
and insight 3.4.4 The Brahma-vihara 3.4.5 Visualizations: deities, mandalas 3.4.6 Practice: monks, laity

3.5 Prajñā – insight

3.5.1 Origins 3.5.2 Theravada

3.5.2.1 Vipassanā 3.5.2.2 Dependent arising

3.5.3 Mahayana

3.5.3.1 Emptiness 3.5.3.2 Representation-ony c.q. mind-only 3.5.3.3 Buddha-nature

3.6 Devotion

4 Buddhist texts

4.1 Pāli Tipitaka 4.2 Theravada
Theravada
texts 4.3 Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras 4.4 Śālistamba Sutra

5 History

5.1 Historical roots 5.2 Indian Buddhism

5.2.1 Pre-sectarian Buddhism

5.2.1.1 Tracing the oldest teachings 5.2.1.2 Core teachings

5.2.2 Early Buddhist schools 5.2.3 Early Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism 5.2.4 Late Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism 5.2.5 Vajrayana
Vajrayana
(Esoteric Buddhism)

5.3 Spread of Buddhism

6 Schools and traditions

6.1 Timeline 6.2 Theravada
Theravada
school 6.3 Mahayana
Mahayana
traditions

6.3.1 Vajrayana
Vajrayana
traditions 6.3.2 Zen

7 Buddhism
Buddhism
today

7.1 Demographics

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources

11.1 Printed sources 11.2 Online sources

12 External links

Life of the Buddha

"The Great Departure", relic depicting Gautama leaving home, first or second century (Musée Guimet)

Main articles: Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
and Śramaṇa Buddhism
Buddhism
is an Indian religion[14] attributed to the teachings of the Buddha,[15][16] supposedly born Siddhārtha Gautama, and also known as the Tathagata ("thus-gone") and Sakyamuni ("sage of the Sakyas"). The details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, and his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain.[17][note 2] The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini
Lumbini
and grew up in Kapilavasthu,[note 3] a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal- India
India
border, and that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar[note 4] and Uttar Pradesh.[25][17] Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini
Lumbini
gardens.[26] However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that later gave him the title Shakyamuni, and the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead.[27][note 5] Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, and claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a later time into the Buddhist texts.[30][31]

Dhamek Stupa
Dhamek Stupa
in Sarnath, India, where the Buddha
Buddha
gave his first sermon. It was built by Ashoka.

According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth. He set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and ancient philosophies, particularly the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, and "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.[32][33][note 6] Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, and then he turned to the practice of dhyana, meditation, which he had already discovered in his youth. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa
Ficus religiosa
tree now called the Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
in the town of Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, and attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way
Middle Way
(Skt. madhyamā-pratipad)[36] as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering (dukkha) from rebirths in Saṃsāra.[37]

Buddha
Buddha
statue depicting Parinirvana
Parinirvana
(Mahaparinirvana Temple, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India)

As a fully enlightened Buddha
Buddha
(Skt. samyaksaṃbuddha), he attracted followers and founded a Sangha
Sangha
(monastic order).[38] Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma
Dharma
he had discovered, and died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India.[39][20] Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha;[40][41][42] these over time evolved into many traditions of which the more well known and widespread in the modern era are Theravada, Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism.[43][44][note 7] The problem of life: endless rebirth Main article: Glossary of Buddhism Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
– dukkha and its ending Main articles: Dukkha
Dukkha
and Four Noble Truths

The Buddha
Buddha
teaching the Four Noble Truths. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India.

The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha,[47] "incapable of satisfying"[web 2] and painful.[48][49] This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkha and dying again.[note 8] But there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle[55] to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path.[note 9] The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things[48] is dukkha, and unsatisfactory.[50][62][web 3] Dukkha
Dukkha
can be translated as "incapable of satisfying,"[web 2] "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena"; or "painful."[48][49] Dukkha
Dukkha
is most commonly translated as "suffering," which is an incorrect translation, since it refers not to literal suffering, but to the ultimately unsatisfactory nature of temporary states and things, including pleasant but temporary experiences.[67][note 10] We expect happiness from states and things which are impermanent, and therefore cannot attain real happiness. In Buddhism, dukkha is one of the three marks of existence, along with impermanence and anattā (non-self).[69] Buddhism, like other major Indian religions, asserts that everything is impermanent (anicca), but, unlike them, also asserts that there is no permanent self or soul in living beings (anattā).[70][71][72] The ignorance or misperception (avijjā) that anything is permanent or that there is self in any being is considered a wrong understanding, and the primary source of clinging and dukkha.[73][74][75] Dukkha
Dukkha
arises when we crave (Pali: tanha) and cling to these changing phenomena. The clinging and craving produces karma, which ties us to samsara, the round of death and rebirth.[76][web 7][note 11] Craving includes kama-tanha, craving for sense-pleasures; bhava-tanha, craving to continue the cycle of life and death, including rebirth; and vibhava-tanha, craving to not experience the world and painful feelings.[76][77][78] Dukkha
Dukkha
ceases, or can be confined,[79] when craving and clinging cease or are confined. This also means that no more karma is being produced, and rebirth ends.[note 12] Cessation is nirvana, "blowing out," and peace of mind.[81][82][83] By following the Buddhist path to moksha, liberation,[57] one starts to disengage from craving and clinging to impermanent states and things. The term "path" is usually taken to mean the Noble Eightfold Path, but other versions of "the path" can also be found in the Nikayas.[84] The Theravada
Theravada
tradition regards insight into the four truths as liberating in itself.[64] The cycle of rebirth

Traditional Tibetan Buddhist Thangka
Thangka
depicting the Wheel of Life with its six realms

Saṃsāra Main article: Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
(Buddhism) Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.[85][86] It refers to the theory of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental assumption of Buddhism, as with all major Indian religions.[86][87] Samsara
Samsara
in Buddhism
Buddhism
is considered to be dukkha, unsatisfactory and painful,[88] perpetuated by desire and avidya (ignorance), and the resulting karma.[86][89][90] The theory of rebirths, and realms in which these rebirths can occur, is extensively developed in Buddhism, in particular Tibetan Buddhism with its wheel of existence (Bhavacakra) doctrine.[88] Liberation from this cycle of existence, nirvana, has been the foundation and the most important historical justification of Buddhism.[91][92] The later Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
assert that rebirth can occur in six realms of existence, namely three good realms (heavenly, demi-god, human) and three evil realms (animal, hungry ghosts, hellish).[note 13] Samsara ends if a person attains nirvana, the "blowing out" of the desires and the gaining of true insight into impermanence and non-self reality.[94][95][96] Rebirth

Gautama's cremation site, Ramabhar Stupa
Stupa
in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

Main article: Rebirth (Buddhism) Rebirth refers to a process whereby beings go through a succession of lifetimes as one of many possible forms of sentient life, each running from conception to death.[97] In Buddhist thought, this rebirth does not involve any soul, because of its doctrine of anattā (Sanskrit: anātman, no-self doctrine) which rejects the concepts of a permanent self or an unchanging, eternal soul, as it is called in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Christianity.[98] According to Buddhism
Buddhism
there ultimately is no such thing as a self in any being or any essence in any thing.[99] The Buddhist traditions have traditionally disagreed on what it is in a person that is reborn, as well as how quickly the rebirth occurs after each death.[100][101] Some Buddhist traditions assert that "no self" doctrine means that there is no perduring self, but there is avacya (inexpressible) self which migrates from one life to another.[100] The majority of Buddhist traditions, in contrast, assert that vijñāna (a person's consciousness) though evolving, exists as a continuum and is the mechanistic basis of what undergoes rebirth, rebecoming and redeath.[50][100] The rebirth depends on the merit or demerit gained by one's karma, as well as that accrued on one's behalf by a family member.[note 14] Each rebirth takes place within one of five realms according to Theravadins, or six according to other schools – heavenly, demi-gods, humans, animals, hungry ghosts and hellish.[103][104][note 15] In East Asian and Tibetan Buddhism, rebirth is not instantaneous, and there is an intermediate state (Tibetan "bardo") between one life and the next.[114][115] The orthodox Theravada
Theravada
position rejects the wait, and asserts that rebirth of a being is immediate.[114] However there are passages in the Samyutta Nikaya
Samyutta Nikaya
of the Pali
Pali
Canon that seem to lend support to the idea that the Buddha
Buddha
taught about an intermediate stage between one life and the next.[116][117][page needed] Karma Main article: Karma
Karma
in Buddhism In Buddhism, Karma
Karma
(from Sanskrit: "action, work") drives saṃsāra – the endless cycle of suffering and rebirth for each being. Good, skilful deeds (Pali: "kusala") and bad, unskilful deeds (Pāli: "akusala") produce "seeds" in the unconscious receptacle (ālaya) that mature later either in this life or in a subsequent rebirth.[118][119] The existence of Karma
Karma
is a core belief in Buddhism, as with all major Indian religions, it implies neither fatalism nor that everything that happens to a person is caused by Karma.[120][note 16] A central aspect of Buddhist theory of karma is that intent (cetanā) matters and is essential to bring about a consequence or phala "fruit" or vipāka "result".[121][note 17] However, good or bad karma accumulates even if there is no physical action, and just having ill or good thoughts create karmic seeds; thus, actions of body, speech or mind all lead to karmic seeds.[120] In the Buddhist traditions, life aspects affected by the law of karma in past and current births of a being include the form of rebirth, realm of rebirth, social class, character and major circumstances of a lifetime.[120][125][126] It operates like the laws of physics, without external intervention, on every being in all six realms of existence including human beings and gods.[120][127] A notable aspect of the karma theory in Buddhism
Buddhism
is merit transfer.[128][129] A person accumulates merit not only through intentions and ethical living, but also is able to gain merit from others by exchanging goods and services, such as through dāna (charity to monks or nuns).[130] Further, a person can transfer one's own good karma to living family members and ancestors.[129][note 18] Liberation

Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
in Bodh Gaya, India, where Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
attained nirvana under the Bodhi Tree
Bodhi Tree
(left)

Main articles: Moksha
Moksha
and Nirvana
Nirvana
(Buddhism) The cessation of the kleshas and the attainment of Nirvana
Nirvana
(nibbāna), with which the cycle of rebirth ends, has been the primary and the soteriological goal of the Buddhist path for monastic life, since the time of the Buddha.[57][133][134] The term "path" is usually taken to mean the Noble Eightfold Path, but other versions of "the path" can also be found in the Nikayas.[note 19] In some passages in the Pali Canon, a distinction is being made between right knowledge or insight (sammā-ñāṇa), and right liberation or release (sammā-vimutti), as the means to attain cessation and liberation.[135][136] Nirvana
Nirvana
literally means "blowing out, quenching, becoming extinguished".[137][138] In early Buddhist texts, it is the state of restraint and self-control that leads to the "blowing out" and the ending of the cycles of sufferings associated with rebirths and redeaths.[139][140][141] Many later Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
describe nirvana as identical with Anatta
Anatta
with complete "Emptiness, Nothingness".[142][143][144][note 20] In some texts, the state is described with greater detail, such as passing through the gate of emptiness (sunyata) – realizing that there is no soul or self in any living being, then passing through the gate of signlessness (animitta) – realizing that nirvana cannot be perceived, and finally passing through the gate of wishlessness (apranihita) – realizing that nirvana is the state of not even wishing for nirvana.[133][146][note 21] The nirvana state has been described in Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
partly in a manner similar to other Indian religions, as the state of complete liberation, enlightenment, highest happiness, bliss, fearlessness, freedom, permanence, non-dependent origination, unfathomable, and indescribable.[148][149] It has also been described in part differently, as a state of spiritual release marked by "emptiness" and realization of non-Self.[150][151][152][note 22] While Buddhism
Buddhism
considers the liberation from Saṃsāra
Saṃsāra
as the ultimate spiritual goal, in traditional practice, the primary focus of a vast majority of lay Buddhists has been to seek and accumulate merit through good deeds, donations to monks and various Buddhist rituals in order to gain better rebirths rather than nirvana.[155][109][note 23] The path to liberation: Bhavana
Bhavana
(practice, cultivation) While the Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
is best-known in the west, a wide variety of practices and stages have been used and described in the Buddhist traditions. Basic practices include sila (ethics), samadhi (meditation, dhyana) and prajna (wisdom), as described in the Noble Eightfold Path. An important additional practice is a kind and compassionate attitude toward every living being and the world. Devotion is also important in some Buddhist traditions, and in the Tibetan traditions visualizations of deities and mandalas are important. The value of textual study is regarded differently in the various Buddhist traditions. It is central to Theravada
Theravada
and highly important to Tibetan Buddhism, while the Zen
Zen
tradition takes an ambiguous stance. Refuge in the Three Jewels

Relic depicting a footprint of the Buddha
Buddha
with Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
and triratna, 1st century CE, Gandhāra

Main articles: Refuge (Buddhism)
Refuge (Buddhism)
and Three Jewels Traditionally, the first step in most Buddhist schools requires taking Three Refuges, also called the Three Jewels
Three Jewels
(Sanskrit: triratna, Pali: tiratana) as the foundation of one's religious practice.[156] Pali texts employ the Brahmanical motif of the triple refuge, found in the Rigveda
Rigveda
9.97.47, Rigveda
Rigveda
6.46.9 and Chandogya Upanishad 2.22.3–4.[157] Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
sometimes adds a fourth refuge, in the lama. The three refuges are believed by Buddhists to be protective and a form of reverence.[156] The Three Jewels
Three Jewels
are:[158]

The Buddha, the Gotama, the Blessed One, the Awakened with true knowledge The Dharma, the precepts, the practice, the Four Truths, the Eightfold Path The Sangha, order of monks, the community of Buddha's disciples

Reciting the three refuges is considered in Buddhism
Buddhism
not as a place to hide, rather a thought that purifies, uplifts and strengthens.[158] The Buddhist path Theravada
Theravada
– Noble Eightfold Path

The Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
represents the Noble Eightfold Path.

Main articles: Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
and Buddhist Paths to liberation An important guiding principle of Buddhist practice is the Middle Way (madhyamapratipad). It was a part of Buddha's first sermon, where he presented the Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
that was a 'middle way' between the extremes of asceticism and hedonistic sense pleasures.[159][160] In Buddhism, states Harvey, the doctrine of "dependent arising" (conditioned arising, pratītyasamutpāda) to explain rebirth is viewed as the 'middle way' between the doctrines that a being has a "permanent soul" involved in rebirth (eternalism) and "death is final and there is no rebirth" (annihilationism).[161][162] In the Theravada
Theravada
canon, the Pali-suttas, various often irreconcilable sequences can be found. According to Carol Anderson, the Theravada canon lacks "an overriding and comprehensive structure of the path to nibbana."[163] Nevertheless, the Noble Eightfold Path, or "Eightfold Path of the Noble Ones", has become an important description of the Buddhist path. It consists of a set of eight interconnected factors or conditions, that when developed together, lead to the cessation of dukkha.[164] These eight factors are: Right View (or Right Understanding), Right Intention (or Right Thought), Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration. This Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Four Noble Truths, and asserts the path to the cessation of dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness).[165][166] The path teaches that the way of the enlightened ones stopped their craving, clinging and karmic accumulations, and thus ended their endless cycles of rebirth and suffering.[167][168][169] The Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
is grouped into three basic divisions, as follows:[170][171][172]

Division Eightfold factor Sanskrit, Pali Description

Wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñā, Pāli: paññā) 1. Right view samyag dṛṣṭi, sammā ditthi the belief that there is an afterlife and not everything ends with death, that Buddha
Buddha
taught and followed a successful path to nirvana;[170] according to Peter Harvey, the right view is held in Buddhism
Buddhism
as a belief in the Buddhist principles of karma and rebirth, and the importance of the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and the True Realities.[173]

2. Right intention samyag saṃkalpa, sammā saṅkappa giving up home and adopting the life of a religious mendicant in order to follow the path;[170] this concept, states Harvey, aims at peaceful renunciation, into an environment of non-sensuality, non-ill-will (to lovingkindness), away from cruelty (to compassion).[173]

Moral virtues[171] (Sanskrit: śīla, Pāli: sīla) 3. Right speech samyag vāc, sammā vāca no lying, no rude speech, no telling one person what another says about him, speaking that which leads to salvation;[170]

4. Right action samyag karman, sammā kammanta no killing or injuring, no taking what is not given; no sexual acts in monastic pursuit,[170] for lay Buddhists no sensual misconduct such as sexual involvement with someone married, or with an unmarried woman protected by her parents or relatives.[174][175][176]

5. Right livelihood samyag ājīvana, sammā ājīva For monks, beg to feed, only possessing what is essential to sustain life.[177] For lay Buddhists, the canonical texts state right livelihood as abstaining from wrong livelihood, explained as not becoming a source or means of suffering to sentient beings by cheating them, or harming or killing them in any way.[178][179]

Meditation[171] ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pāli: samādhi) 6. Right effort samyag vyāyāma, sammā vāyāma guard against sensual thoughts; this concept, states Harvey, aims at preventing unwholesome states that disrupt meditation.[180]

7. Right mindfulness samyag smṛti, sammā sati never be absent minded, conscious of what one is doing; this, states Harvey, encourages mindfulness about impermanence of the body, feelings and mind, as well as to experience the five skandhas, the five hindrances, the four True Realities and seven factors of awakening.[180]

8. Right concentration samyag samādhi, sammā samādhi Correct meditation or concentration (dhyana), explained as the four jhānas.[170][181]

Mahayana
Mahayana
– Bodhisattva-path and the six paramitas

Dāna
Dāna
or charitable giving to monks is a virtue in Buddhism, leading to merit accumulation and better rebirths.[182]

Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
is based principally upon the path of a Bodhisattva.[183] A Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
refers to one who is on the path to buddhahood.[184] The term Mahāyāna was originally a synonym for Bodhisattvayāna or " Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Vehicle."[185][186][187] In the earliest texts of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, the path of a bodhisattva was to awaken the bodhicitta.[188] Between the 1st and 3rd century CE, this tradition introduced the Ten Bhumi doctrine, which means ten levels or stages of awakening.[188] This development was followed by the acceptance that it is impossible to achieve Buddhahood
Buddhahood
in one (current) lifetime, and the best goal is not nirvana for oneself, but Buddhahood
Buddhahood
after climbing through the ten levels during multiple rebirths.[189] Mahayana
Mahayana
scholars then outlined an elaborate path, for monks and laypeople, and the path includes the vow to help teach Buddhist knowledge to other beings, so as to help them cross samsara and liberate themselves, once one reaches the Buddhahood
Buddhahood
in a future rebirth.[183] One part of this path are the Pāramitā
Pāramitā
(perfections, to cross over), derived from the Jatakas tales of Buddha's numerous rebirths.[190][191] The Mahayana
Mahayana
texts are inconsistent in their discussion of the Paramitas, and some texts include lists of two, others four, six, ten and fifty-two.[192][193][194] The six paramitas have been most studied, and these are:[190][194][195]

Dāna
Dāna
pāramitā: perfection of giving; primarily to monks, nuns and the Buddhist monastic establishment dependent on the alms and gifts of the lay householders, in return for generating religious merit;[196] some texts recommend ritually transferring the merit so accumulated for better rebirth to someone else Śīla
Śīla
pāramitā: perfection of morality; it outlines ethical behaviour for both the laity and the Mahayana
Mahayana
monastic community; this list is similar to Śīla
Śīla
in the Eightfold Path (i.e. Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood)[197] Kṣānti pāramitā: perfection of patience, willingness to endure hardship Vīrya
Vīrya
pāramitā: perfection of vigour; this is similar to Right Effort in the Eightfold Path[197] Dhyāna pāramitā: perfection of meditation; this is similar to Right Concentration in the Eightfold Path Prajñā pāramitā: perfection of insight (wisdom), awakening to the characteristics of existence such as karma, rebirths, impermanence, no-self, dependent origination and emptiness;[194][198] this is complete acceptance of the Buddha
Buddha
teaching, then conviction, followed by ultimate realization that "dharmas are non-arising".[190]

In Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutras that include ten Paramitas, the additional four perfections are "skillful means, vow, power and knowledge".[193] The most discussed Paramita and the highest rated perfection in Mahayana texts is the "Prajna-paramita", or the "perfection of insight".[193] This insight in the Mahayana
Mahayana
tradition, states Shōhei Ichimura, has been the "insight of non-duality or the absence of reality in all things".[199][200] Śīla
Śīla
– Buddhist ethics Main article: Buddhist ethics

Statue of Gautama Buddha, first century CE, Gandhara, present-day Pakistan
Pakistan
(Guimet Museum)

Śīla
Śīla
(Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is the concept of "moral virtues", that is the second group and an integral part of the Noble Eightfold Path.[173] It consists of right speech, right action and right livelihood.[173] Śīla
Śīla
appear as ethical precepts for both lay and ordained Buddhist devotees. It includes the Five Precepts for laypeople, Eight or Ten Precepts for monastic life, as well as rules of Dhamma ( Vinaya
Vinaya
or Patimokkha) adopted by a monastery.[201][202] Precepts The five precepts (panca-sila) are moral behavioural and ritual guidelines for lay devotees in Buddhism, while those following a monastic life have rules of conduct (patimokkha).[203] The five precepts apply to both male and female devotees, and these are:[201][204]

Abstain from killing (Ahimsa); Abstain from stealing; Abstain from sensual (including sexual) misconduct; Abstain from lying; Abstain from intoxicants.

These precepts are not commandments and transgressions do not invite religious sanctions, but their power has been in the Buddhist belief in karmic consequences and their impact in afterlife during rebirth.[205] Killing in Buddhist belief leads to rebirth in the hellish realm, and for a longer time in more severe conditions if the murder victim was a monk.[205] Adultery, similarly, invites a rebirth as prostitute or in hell, depending on whether the partner was unmarried or married.[205] Saving animals from slaughter for meat, is believed to be a way to acquire merit for better rebirth. These moral precepts have been voluntarily self-enforced in lay Buddhist culture through the associated belief in karma and rebirth.[206] The monastic life in Buddhism
Buddhism
has additional precepts as part of patimokkha, and unlike lay people, transgressions by monks do invite sanctions.[207] Full expulsion from sangha follows any instance of killing, engaging in sexual intercourse, theft or false claims about one's knowledge.[207] Temporary expulsion follows a lesser offence.[207] The sanctions vary by the monastic fraternity (nikaya).[208] The precepts for monks in many Buddhist fraternities are eight (asta shila) or ten (das shila). Four of these are same as for the lay devotee: no killing, no stealing, no lying, and no intoxicants.[209] The other four precepts are:[210][209][note 24]

No sexual activity; Abstain from eating at wrong time (e.g. only eat solid food before 12 noon); Abstain from jewellery, perfume, adornment, entertainment; Abstain from sleeping on high beds;[note 25]

Some sangha add two more precepts: abstain from dancing and singing, and abstain from accepting money. In addition to these precepts, Buddhist monasteries have hundreds of rules of dhamma conduct, which are a part of its patimokkha.[211][note 26] Vinaya

Monks performing a ceremony in Hangzhou, China

Vinaya
Vinaya
is the specific code of conduct for a sangha of monks or nuns. It includes the Patimokkha, a set of 227 offences including 75 rules of decorum for monks, along with penalties for transgression, in the Theravadin tradition.[213] The precise content of the Vinaya
Vinaya
Pitaka (scriptures on the Vinaya) differs in different schools and tradition, and different monasteries set their own standards on its implementation. The list of pattimokkha is recited every fortnight in a ritual gathering of all monks.[213] Buddhist text with vinaya rules for monasteries have been traced in all Buddhist traditions, with the oldest surviving being the ancient Chinese translations.[214] Monastic communities in the Buddhist tradition cut normal social ties to family and community, and live as "islands unto themselves".[215] Within a monastic fraternity, a sangha has its own rules.[215] A monk abides by these institutionalized rules, and living life as the vinaya prescribes it is not merely a means, but very nearly the end in itself.[215] Transgressions by a monk on Sangha
Sangha
vinaya rules invites enforcement, which can include temporary or permanent expulsion.[216] Samadhi
Samadhi
(dhyana) – meditation

Bhikkhus in Thailand

Main articles: Buddhist meditation, Samadhi, Samatha, and Rupajhana A wide range of meditation practices has developed in the Buddhist traditions, but "meditation" primarily refers to the practice of dhyana c.q. jhana. It is a practice in which the attention of the mind is first narrowed to the focus on one specific object, such as the breath, a concrete object, or a specific thought, mental image or mantra. After this initial focussing of the mind, the focus is coupled to mindfulness, maintaining a calm mind while being aware of one's surroundings.[217] The practice of dhyana aids in maintaining a calm mind, and avoiding disturbance of this calm mind by mindfulness of disturbing thoughts and feelings.[218][note 27] Origins The earliest evidence of yogis and their meditative tradition, states Karel Werner, is found in the Keśin hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda.[219] While evidence suggests meditation was practised in the centuries preceding the Buddha,[220] the meditative methodologies described in the Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
are some of the earliest among texts that have survived into the modern era.[221][222] These methodologies likely incorporate what existed before the Buddha
Buddha
as well as those first developed within Buddhism.[223][note 28] According to Bronkhorst, the Four Dhyanas was a Buddhist invention.[227] Bronkhorst notes that the Buddhist canon has a mass of contradictory statements, little is known about their relative chronology, and "there can be no doubt that the canon – including the older parts, the Sutra
Sutra
and Vinaya
Vinaya
Pitaka – was composed over a long period of time".[228] Meditative practices were incorporated from other sramanic movements;[229] the Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
describe how Buddha learnt the practice of the formless dhyana from Brahmanical practices, in the Nikayas ascribed to Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta.[230][231] The Buddhist canon also describes and criticizes alternative dhyana practices, which likely mean the pre-existing mainstream meditation practices of Jainism
Jainism
and Hinduism.[232] Buddha
Buddha
added a new focus and interpretation, particularly through the Four Dhyanas methodology,[233] in which mindfulness is maintained.[234][217] Further, the focus of meditation and the underlying theory of liberation guiding the meditation has been different in Buddhism.[220][235][236] For example, states Bronkhorst, the verse 4.4.23 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
with its "become calm, subdued, quiet, patiently enduring, concentrated, one sees soul in oneself" is most probably a meditative state.[237] The Buddhist discussion of meditation is without the concept of soul and the discussion criticizes both the ascetic meditation of Jainism
Jainism
and the "real self, soul" meditation of Hinduism.[238] Four rupa-jhāna and four arupa-jhāna

Buddhist monuments in the Horyu-ji Area

For Nirvana, Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
teach various meditation methodologies, of which rupa-jhana (four meditations in the realm of form) and arupa-jhana (four meditations in the formless realm) have been the most studied.[239] These are described in the Pali
Pali
Canon as trance-like states in the world of desirelessness.[240] The four dhyanas under rupa-jhanas are:[240]

First dhyana: detach from all sensory desires and sinful states that are a source of unwholesome karma. Success here is described in Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
as leading to discursive thinking, deliberation, detachment, sukha (pleasure) and priti (rapture).[239][note 29] Second dhyana: cease deliberation and all discursive thoughts.[240] Success leads to one-pointed thinking, serenity, pleasure and rapture.[239] Third dhyana: lose feeling of rapture. Success leads to equanimity, mindfulness and pleasure, without rapture.[239] Fourth dhyana: cease all effects, lose all happiness and sadness. Success in the fourth meditation stage leads to pure equanimity and mindfulness, without any pleasure or pain.[239][240]

The arupa-jhanas (formless realm meditation) are also four, which are entered by those who have mastered the rupa-jhanas (Arhats).[240][241] The first formless dhyana gets to infinite space without form or colour or shape, the second to infinity of perception base of the infinite space, the third formless dhyana transcends object-subject perception base, while the fourth is where he dwells in nothing-at-all where there are no feelings, no ideas, nor are there non-ideas, unto total cessation.[241] The four rupa-dhyanas in Buddhist practice lead to rebirth in successfully better rupa Brahma heavenly realms, while arupa-dhyanas lead into arupa heavens.[242][243] Richard Gombrich
Richard Gombrich
notes that the sequence of the four rupa-jhanas describes two different cognitive states. The first two describe a narrowing of attention, while in the third and fourth jhana attention is expanded again.[244][note 30][245] Alexander Wynne further explains that the dhyana-scheme is poorly understood.[246] According to Wynne, words expressing the inculcation of awareness, such as sati, sampajāno, and upekkhā, are mistranslated or understood as particular factors of meditative states,[246] whereas they refer to a particular way of perceiving the sense objects.[246][note 31][note 32] Meditation
Meditation
and insight

Statue of the Buddha
Buddha
in meditation position, Haw Phra Kaew, Vientiane, Laos

See also: Meditation
Meditation
and insight and Yoga The Buddhist tradition has incorporated two traditions regarding the use of dhyāna (meditation, Pali
Pali
jhāna).[229] There is a tradition that stresses attaining prajñā (insight, bodhi, kenshō, vipassana) as the means to awakening and liberation. But it has also incorporated the yogic tradition, as reflected in the use of jhana, which is rejected in other sutras as not resulting in the final result of liberation.[139][229][248][note 33] Lambert Schmithausen, a professor of Buddhist Studies, discerns three possible roads to liberation as described in the suttas,[note 34] to which Vetter adds the sole practice of dhyana itself.[251][note 35] According to Vetter and Bronkhorst, the earliest Buddhist path consisted of a set of practices which culminate in the practice of dhyana, leading to a calm of mind which according to Vetter is the liberation which is being sought.[252][253] Later on, "liberating insight" came to be regarded as equally liberating.[254][253] This "liberating insight" came to be exemplified by prajna, or the insight in the "four truths,"[254][253] but also by other elements of the Buddhist teachings.[252][255] The Brahma-vihara

Statue of Buddha
Buddha
in Wat
Wat
Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Phitsanulok, Thailand

Main article: Brahmavihara The four immeasurables or four abodes, also called Brahma-viharas, are virtues or directions for meditation in Buddhist traditions, which helps a person be reborn in the heavenly (Brahma) realm.[256][257][258] These are traditionally believed to be a characteristic of the deity Brahma and the heavenly abode he resides in.[259] The four Brahma-vihara are:

Loving-kindness (Pāli: mettā, Sanskrit: maitrī) is active good will towards all;[257][260] Compassion (Pāli and Sanskrit: karuṇā) results from metta; it is identifying the suffering of others as one's own;[257][260] Empathetic joy (Pāli and Sanskrit: muditā): is the feeling of joy because others are happy, even if one did not contribute to it; it is a form of sympathetic joy;[260] Equanimity (Pāli: upekkhā, Sanskrit: upekṣā): is even-mindedness and serenity, treating everyone impartially.[257][260]

According to Peter Harvey, the Buddhist scriptures acknowledge that the four Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara
meditation practices "did not originate within the Buddhist tradition".[261][note 36] The Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara
(sometimes as Brahmaloka), along with the tradition of meditation and the above four immeasurables are found in pre- Buddha
Buddha
and post- Buddha
Buddha
Vedic and Sramanic literature.[263][264] Aspects of the Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara
practice for rebirths into the heavenly realm have been an important part of Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
tradition.[265][266] According to Gombrich, the Buddhist usage of the brahma-vihāra originally referred to an awakened state of mind, and a concrete attitude toward other beings which was equal to "living with Brahman" here and now. The later tradition took those descriptions too literally, linking them to cosmology and understanding them as "living with Brahman" by rebirth in the Brahma-world.[267] According to Gombrich, "the Buddha
Buddha
taught that kindness – what Christians tend to call love – was a way to salvation."[268] Visualizations: deities, mandalas See also: Generation stage
Generation stage
and Mandala

Mandala
Mandala
are used in Buddhism
Buddhism
for initiation ceremonies and visualization.[269]

Idols of deity and icons have been a part of the historic practice, and in Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
such as the 11th-century Sadanamala, a devotee visualizes and identifies himself or herself with the imagined deity as part of meditation.[270][271] This has been particularly popular in Vajrayana
Vajrayana
meditative traditions, but also found in Mahayana
Mahayana
and Theravada
Theravada
traditions, particularly in temples and with Buddha images.[272] In Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
tradition, mandala are mystical maps for the visualization process with cosmic symbolism.[269] There are numerous deities, each with a mandala, and they are used during initiation ceremonies and meditation.[269] The mandalas are concentric geometric shapes symbolizing layers of the external world, gates and sacred space. The meditation deity is in the centre, sometimes surrounded by protective gods and goddesses.[269] Visualizations with deities and mandalas in Buddhism
Buddhism
is a tradition traceable to ancient times, and likely well established by the time the 5th-century text Visuddhimagga was composed.[269][273] Practice: monks, laity According to Peter Harvey, whenever Buddhism
Buddhism
has been healthy, not only ordained but also more committed lay people have practised formal meditation.[274] Loud devotional chanting however, adds Harvey, has been the most prevalent Buddhist practice and considered a form of meditation that produces "energy, joy, lovingkindness and calm", purifies mind and benefits the chanter.[275] Throughout most of Buddhist history, meditation has been primarily practised in Buddhist monastic tradition, and historical evidence suggests that serious meditation by lay people has been an exception.[276][277][278] In recent history, sustained meditation has been pursued by a minority of monks in Buddhist monasteries.[279] Western interest in meditation has led to a revival where ancient Buddhist ideas and precepts are adapted to Western mores and interpreted liberally, presenting Buddhism
Buddhism
as a meditation-based form of spirituality.[279] Prajñā – insight

Monks debating at Sera Monastery, Tibet

Main articles: Prajñā, Bodhi, Kenshō, Satori, Subitism, and Vipassana Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) is insight or knowledge of the true nature of existence. The Buddhist tradition regards ignorance (avidyā), a fundamental ignorance, misunderstanding or mis-perception of the nature of reality, as one of the basic causes of dukkha and samsara. By overcoming ignorance or misunderstanding one is enlightened and liberated. This overcoming includes awakening to impermanence and the non-self nature of reality,[280][281] and this develops dispassion for the objects of clinging, and liberates a being from dukkha and saṃsāra.[282][283][284] Prajñā is important in all Buddhist traditions, and is the wisdom about the dharmas, functioning of karma and rebirths, realms of samsara, impermanence of everything, no-self in anyone or anything, and dependent origination.[285] Origins The origins of "liberating insight" are unclear. Buddhist texts, states Bronkhorst, do not describe it explicitly, and the content of "liberating insight" is likely not original to Buddhism.[286] According to Vetter and Bronkhorst, this growing importance of "liberating insight" was a response to other religious groups in India, which held that a liberating insight was indispensable for moksha, liberation from rebirth.[287][288][note 37] Bronkhorst suggests that the conception of what exactly constituted "liberating insight" for Buddhists developed over time. Whereas originally it may not have been specified as an insight, later on the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
served as such, to be superseded by pratityasamutpada, and still later, in the Hinayana
Hinayana
schools, by the doctrine of the non-existence of a substantial self or person.[290]

Other descriptions of this "liberating insight" exist in the Buddhist canon: that the five Skandhas are impermanent, disagreeable, and neither the Self nor belonging to oneself"; "the contemplation of the arising and disappearance (udayabbaya) of the five Skandhas"; "the realisation of the Skandhas as empty (rittaka), vain (tucchaka) and without any pith or substance (asaraka). — Lambert Schmithausen[291]

In the Pali
Pali
Canon liberating insight is attained in the fourth dhyana.[292] However, states Vetter, modern scholarship on the Pali Canon has uncovered a "whole series of inconsistencies in the transmission of the Buddha's word", and there are many conflicting versions of what constitutes higher knowledge and samadhi that leads to the liberation from rebirth and suffering.[293] Even within the Four Dhyana methodology of meditation, Vetter notes that "penetrating abstract truths and penetrating them successively does not seem possible in a state of mind which is without contemplation and reflection."[294] According to Vetter, dhyāna itself constituted the original "liberating practice".[251][note 35] Carol Anderson notes that insight is often depicted in the Vinaya
Vinaya
as the opening of the Dhamma eye, which sets one on the Buddhist path to liberation.[295] Theravada

Shwezigon Pagoda
Shwezigon Pagoda
near Bagan, Myanmar

Temple of Tooth, Kandy, Sri Lanka

Vipassanā Main article: Vipassanā In Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism, but also in Tibetan Buddhism, two types of meditation Buddhist practices are being followed, namely samatha (Pāli; Sanskrit: śamatha; "calm") and vipassana (insight).[296][297] Samatha
Samatha
is also called "calming meditation", and was adopted into Buddhism
Buddhism
from pre- Buddha
Buddha
Indian traditions. Vipassanā
Vipassanā
meditation was added by Buddha, and refers to "insight meditation". Vipassana
Vipassana
does not aim at peace and tranquillity, states Damien Keown, but "the generation of penetrating and critical insight (panna)".[298] The focus of Vipassana
Vipassana
meditation is to continuously and thoroughly know impermanence of everything (annica), no-Self in anything (anatta) and the dukkha teachings of Buddhism.[299][300] Contemporary Theravada
Theravada
orthodoxy regards samatha as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation. In contrast, the Vipassana
Vipassana
Movement argues that insight levels can be discerned without the need for developing samatha further due to the risks of going out of the course when strong samatha is developed.[301] Dependent arising Main articles: Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
and Twelve Nidānas Pratityasamutpada, also called "dependent arising, or dependent origination", is the Buddhist theory to explain the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. Buddhism asserts that there is nothing independent, except the state of nirvana.[302] All physical and mental states depend on and arise from other pre-existing states, and in turn from them arise other dependent states while they cease.[303] The 'dependent arisings' have a causal conditioning, and thus Pratityasamutpada is the Buddhist belief that causality is the basis of ontology, not a creator God
God
nor the ontological Vedic concept called universal Self (Brahman) nor any other 'transcendent creative principle'.[304][305] However, the Buddhist thought does not understand causality in terms of Newtonian mechanics, rather it understands it as conditioned arising.[306][307] In Buddhism, dependent arising is referring to conditions created by a plurality of causes that necessarily co-originate a phenomenon within and across lifetimes, such as karma in one life creating conditions that lead to rebirth in one of the realms of existence for another lifetime.[308][309][310] Buddhism
Buddhism
applies the dependent arising theory to explain origination of endless cycles of dukkha and rebirth, through its Twelve Nidānas or "twelve links" doctrine. It states that because Avidyā (ignorance) exists Saṃskāras (karmic formations) exists, because Saṃskāras exists therefore Vijñāna (consciousness) exists, and in a similar manner it links Nāmarūpa (sentient body), Ṣaḍāyatana (six senses), Sparśa (sensory stimulation), Vedanā (feeling), Taṇhā (craving), Upādāna (grasping), Bhava (becoming), Jāti (birth), and Jarāmaraṇa (old age, death, sorrow, pain).[311][312] By breaking the circuitous links of the Twelve Nidanas, Buddhism asserts that liberation from these endless cycles of rebirth and dukkha can be attained.[313] Mahayana

The Great Statue of Amitābha
Amitābha
in Kamakura, Japan

Emptiness Main articles: Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
and Madhyamaka Śūnyatā, or "emptiness", is a central concept in Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
school, and widely attested in the Prajñāpāramitā sutras. It brings together key Buddhist doctrines, particularly anatta and dependent origination, to refute the metaphysics of Sarvastivada and Sautrāntika (extinct non- Mahayana
Mahayana
schools). Not only sentient beings are empty of ātman; all phenomena (dharmas) are without any svabhava (literally "own-nature" or "self-nature"), and thus without any underlying essence, and "empty" of being independent; thus the heterodox theories of svabhava circulating at the time were refuted on the basis of the doctrines of early Buddhism.[314] Representation-ony c.q. mind-only Main articles: Yogachara
Yogachara
and Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra Sarvastivada
Sarvastivada
teachings, which were criticized by Nāgārjuna, were reformulated by scholars such as Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
and Asanga
Asanga
and were adapted into the Yogachara
Yogachara
school. One of the main features of Yogācāra philosophy is the concept of vijñapti-mātra. It is often used interchangeably with the term citta-mātra, but they have different meanings. The standard translation of both terms is "consciousness-only" or "mind-only." Several modern researchers object to this translation, and the accompanying label of "absolute idealism" or "idealistic monism".[315] A better translation for vijñapti-mātra is representation-only,[316] while an alternative translation for citta (mind, thought) mātra (only, exclusively) has not been proposed. While the Mādhyamaka school held that asserting the existence or non-existence of any ultimately real thing was inappropriate, some later exponents of Yogachara
Yogachara
asserted that the mind and only the mind is ultimately real (a doctrine known as cittamatra). Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
and Asanga
Asanga
however did not assert that mind was truly existent, or the basis of all reality.[web 9] These two schools of thought, in opposition or synthesis, form the basis of subsequent Mahayana
Mahayana
metaphysics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition. Buddha-nature Main article: Buddha-nature Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
is a concept found in some 1st-millennium CE Buddhist texts, such as the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras. This concept has been controversial in Buddhism, but has a following in East Asian Buddhism.[317][318] These Sutras suggest, states Paul Williams, that 'all sentient beings contain a Tathagata' as their 'essence, core inner nature, Self'.[319][note 38] The Tathagatagarbha doctrine, at its earliest probably appeared about the later part of the 3rd century CE, and it contradicts the Anatta
Anatta
doctrine (non-Self) in a vast majority of Buddhist texts, leading scholars to posit that the Tathagatagarbha Sutras were written to promote Buddhism
Buddhism
to non-Buddhists.[321][322] However, the Buddhist text Ratnagotravibhāga states that the "Self" implied in Tathagatagarbha doctrine is actually "not-Self".[323][324] Devotion Main article: Buddhist devotion

Bhatti (devotion) at a Buddhist temple, Tibet. Chanting during Bhatti Puja (devotional worship) is often a part of the Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist tradition.

Devotion is an important part of the practice of most Buddhists.[325] Devotional practices include ritual prayer, prostration, offerings, pilgrimage, and chanting.[326] In Pure Land Buddhism, devotion to the Buddha
Buddha
Amitabha is the main practice. In Nichiren
Nichiren
Buddhism, devotion to the Lotus Sutra
Sutra
is the main practice. Bhakti (called Bhatti in Pali) has been a common practice in Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism, where offerings and group prayers are made to deities and particularly images of Buddha.[327] According to Karel Werner and other scholars, devotional worship has been a significant practice in Theravada Buddhism, and deep devotion is part of Buddhist traditions starting from the earliest days.[328][329] Guru
Guru
devotion is a central practice of Tibetan Buddhism.[330][331] The guru is considered essential and to the Buddhist devotee, the guru is the "enlightened teacher and ritual master" in Vajrayana
Vajrayana
spiritual pursuits.[330][332] For someone seeking Buddhahood, the guru is the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, wrote the 12th-century Buddhist scholar Sadhanamala.[332] The veneration of and obedience to teachers is also important in Theravada
Theravada
and Zen
Zen
Buddhism.[333] Buddhist texts

Buddhist monk
Buddhist monk
Geshe
Geshe
Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras
Mahayana sutras
from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.

Main article: Buddhist texts Buddhism, like all Indian religions, was an oral tradition in ancient times.[334] The Buddha's words, the early doctrines and concepts, and the interpretations were transmitted from one generation to the next by the word of mouth in monasteries, and not through written texts. The first Buddhist canonical texts were likely written down in Sri Lanka, about 400 years after the Buddha
Buddha
died.[334] The texts were part of the Tripitakas, and many versions appeared thereafter claiming to be the words of the Buddha. Scholarly Buddhist commentary texts, with named authors, appeared in India, around the 2nd century CE.[334] These texts were written in Pali
Pali
or Sanskrit, sometimes regional languages, as palm-leaf manuscripts, birch bark, painted scrolls, carved into temple walls, and later on paper.[334] Unlike what the Bible is to Christianity
Christianity
and the Quran is to Islam, but like all major ancient Indian religions, there is no consensus among the different Buddhist traditions as to what constitutes the scriptures or a common canon in Buddhism.[334] The general belief among Buddhists is that the canonical corpus is vast.[335][336][337] This corpus includes the ancient Sutras organized into Nikayas, itself the part of three basket of texts called the Tripitakas.[338] Each Buddhist tradition has its own collection of texts, much of which is translation of ancient Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
of India. The Chinese Buddhist canon, for example, includes 2184 texts in 55 volumes, while the Tibetan canon comprises 1108 texts – all claimed to have been spoken by the Buddha
Buddha
– and another 3461 texts composed by Indian scholars revered in the Tibetan tradition.[339] The Buddhist textual history has been vast; over 40,000 manuscripts mostly Buddhist, some non-Buddhist, were discovered in 1900 in the Dunhuang Chinese cave alone.[339] Pāli Tipitaka Main article: Pāli Canon

Pāli Canon

Vinaya
Vinaya
Pitaka

Suttavibhanga Khandhaka Parivara

Sutta Pitaka

Digha Nikaya Majjhima Nikaya Samyutta Nikaya Anguttara Nikaya Khuddaka Nikaya

Abhidhamma
Abhidhamma
Pitaka

Dhammasangani Vibhanga Dhatukatha
Dhatukatha
and Puggalapannatti Kathavatthu Yamaka Patthana

v t e

The Pāli Tipitaka (Sanskrit: Tripiṭaka, three pitakas), which means "three baskets", refers to the Vinaya
Vinaya
Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma
Abhidhamma
Pitaka. These constitute the oldest known canonical works of Buddhism. The Vinaya
Vinaya
Pitaka contains disciplinary rules for the Buddhist monasteries. The Sutta Pitaka
Sutta Pitaka
contains words attributed to the Buddha. The Abhidhamma Pitaka contain expositions and commentaries on the Sutta, and these vary significantly between Buddhist schools. The Pāli Tipitaka is the only surviving early Tipitaka. According to some sources, some early schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
had five or seven pitakas.[340] Much of the material in the Canon is not specifically "Theravadin", but is instead the collection of teachings that this school preserved from the early, non-sectarian body of teachings. According to Peter Harvey, it contains material at odds with later Theravadin orthodoxy. He states: "The Theravadins, then, may have added texts to the Canon for some time, but they do not appear to have tampered with what they already had from an earlier period."[341] Theravada
Theravada
texts In addition to the Pali
Pali
Canon, the important commentary texts of the Theravada
Theravada
tradition include the 5th-century Visuddhimagga
Visuddhimagga
by Buddhaghosa
Buddhaghosa
of the Mahavihara school. It includes sections on shila (virtues), samadhi (concentration), panna (wisdom) as well as Theravada
Theravada
tradition's meditation methodology.[342] Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Main article: Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras

The Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
Koreana in South Korea, an edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon carved and preserved in over 81,000 wood printing blocks

The Mahayana sutras
Mahayana sutras
are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that the Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhist tradition holds are original teachings of the Buddha. Some adherents of Mahayana
Mahayana
accept both the early teachings (including in this the Sarvastivada
Sarvastivada
Abhidharma, which was criticized by Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
and is in fact opposed to early Buddhist thought)[343] and the Mahayana sutras
Mahayana sutras
as authentic teachings of Gautama Buddha, and claim they were designed for different types of persons and different levels of spiritual understanding. The Mahayana sutras
Mahayana sutras
often claim to articulate the Buddha's deeper, more advanced doctrines, reserved for those who follow the bodhisattva path. That path is explained as being built upon the motivation to liberate all living beings from unhappiness. Hence the name Mahāyāna (lit., the Great Vehicle). The Theravada
Theravada
school does not treat the Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutras as authoritative or authentic teachings of the Buddha.[344][345] Generally, scholars conclude that the Mahayana
Mahayana
scriptures were composed from the 1st century CE onwards: "Large numbers of Mahayana sutras were being composed in the period between the beginning of the common era and the fifth century".[346] Śālistamba Sutra Main article: Salistamba Sutra Many ancient Indian texts have not survived into the modern era, creating a challenge in establishing the historic commonalities between Theravada
Theravada
and Mahayana. The texts preserved in the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries, with parallel Chinese translations, have provided a breakthrough. Among these is the Mahayana
Mahayana
text Śālistamba Sutra
Sutra
which no longer exists in a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version, but does in Tibetan and Chinese versions. This Mahayana
Mahayana
text contains numerous sections which are remarkably the same as the Theravada
Theravada
Pali
Pali
Canon and Nikaya Buddhism.[344][347] The Śālistamba Sutra
Sutra
was cited by Mahayana
Mahayana
scholars such as the 8th-century Yasomitra to be authoritative.[348] This suggests that Buddhist literature of different traditions shared a common core of Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
in the early centuries of its history, until Mahayana
Mahayana
literature diverged about and after the 1st century CE.[344] History Main article: History of Buddhism Historical roots

The Buddhist "Carpenter's Cave" at Ellora
Ellora
in Maharashtra, India

Historically, the roots of Buddhism
Buddhism
lie in the religious thought of Iron Age India
India
around the middle of the first millennium BCE.[349] That was a period, states Abraham Eraly, of great intellectual ferment, when the Upanishads were composed marking a change in the historical Vedic religion, as well as the emergence of great Sramanic traditions.[350] According to Richard Gombrich, this was not only a period of intellectual ferment but also socio-cultural change quite distinct from the early Vedic period.[351][note 39] New ideas developed both in the Vedic tradition in the form of the Upanishads, and outside of the Vedic tradition through the Śramaṇa movements.[353][354][355] The term Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
refers to several Indian religious movements parallel to but separate from the historical Vedic religion, including Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and others such as Ājīvika.[356] Several Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movements are known to have existed in India
India
before the 6th century BCE (pre-Buddha, pre-Mahavira), and these influenced both the āstika and nāstika traditions of Indian philosophy.[357] According to Martin Wilshire, the Sramana tradition evolved in India over two phases, namely Paccekabuddha and Savaka phases, the former being the tradition of individual ascetic and the latter of disciples, and that Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
ultimately emerged from these.[358] Brahmanical and non-Brahmanical ascetic groups shared and used several similar ideas,[359] but the Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
traditions also drew upon already established Brahmanical concepts and philosophical roots, states Wiltshire, to formulate their own doctrines.[357][360] Brahmanical motifs can be found in the oldest Buddhist texts, using them to introduce and explain Buddhist ideas.[361] For example, prior to Buddhist developments, the Brahmanical tradition internalized and variously reinterpreted the three Vedic sacrificial fires as concepts such as Truth, Rite, Tranquility or Restraint.[362] Buddhist texts also refer to the three Vedic sacrificial fires, reinterpreting and explaining them as ethical conduct.[363] The Sramanic religions challenged and broke with the Brahmanic tradition on core assumptions such as Atman (soul, self), Brahman, the nature of afterlife, and they rejected the authority of the Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads.[364][365][366] Buddhism
Buddhism
was one among several Indian religions that did so.[366]

Rock-cut Lord Buddha
Buddha
statue at Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle
Anakapalle
in the Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
district of Andhra Pradesh, India

Indian Buddhism Main article: History of Buddhism
History of Buddhism
in India The history of Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
may be divided into five periods:[367] Early Buddhism
Buddhism
(occasionally called pre-sectarian Buddhism), Nikaya Buddhism
Buddhism
or Sectarian Buddhism: The period of the early Buddhist schools, Early Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, later Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism.

Sanchi Stupa

Pre-sectarian Buddhism Main article: Pre-sectarian Buddhism Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Pre-sectarian Buddhism
is the earliest phase of Buddhism, recognized by nearly all scholars. Its main scriptures are the Vinaya
Vinaya
Pitaka and the four principal Nikāyas or Agamas. Tracing the oldest teachings Information of the oldest teachings may be obtained by analysis of the oldest texts. One method to obtain information on the oldest core of Buddhism
Buddhism
is to compare the oldest extant versions of the Theravadin Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
and other texts.[note 40] The reliability of these sources, and the possibility to draw out a core of oldest teachings, is a matter of dispute.[229][page needed][251][370][page needed][248][page needed] According to Vetter, inconsistencies remain, and other methods must be applied to resolve those inconsistencies.[368][note 41] According to Schmithausen, three positions held by scholars of Buddhism
Buddhism
can be distinguished:[373]

"Stress on the fundamental homogeneity and substantial authenticity of at least a considerable part of the Nikayic materials;"[note 42] "Scepticism with regard to the possibility of retrieving the doctrine of earliest Buddhism;"[note 43] "Cautious optimism in this respect."[note 44]

Core teachings

Buddhist Chakras at ASI Museum, Amaravathi

According to Mitchell, certain basic teachings appear in many places throughout the early texts, which has led most scholars to conclude that Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
must have taught something similar to the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, Nirvana, the three marks of existence, the five aggregates, dependent origination, karma and rebirth.[380] Yet critical analysis reveals discrepancies, which point to alternative possibilities.[381][382][383] Bruce Matthews notes that there is no cohesive presentation of karma in the Sutta Pitaka,[384] which may mean that the doctrine was incidental to the main perspective of early Buddhist soteriology.[384] Schmithausen has questioned whether karma already played a role in the theory of rebirth of earliest Buddhism.[385][page needed][386][note 45] According to Vetter, "the Buddha
Buddha
at first sought "the deathless" (amata/amrta), which is concerned with the here and now. Only later did he become acquainted with the doctrine of rebirth."[388] Bronkhorst disagrees, and concludes that the Buddha
Buddha
"introduced a concept of karma that differed considerably from the commonly held views of his time."[389] According to Bronkhorst, not physical and mental activities as such were seen as responsible for rebirth, but intentions and desire.[390] Another core problem in the study of early Buddhism
Buddhism
is the relation between dhyana and insight.[139][229][248] Schmithausen states that the four noble truths as "liberating insight", may be a later addition to texts such as Majjhima Nikaya
Majjhima Nikaya
36.[250][page needed][391][392] According to both Bronkhorst and Anderson, the Four Noble Truths became a substitution for prajna, or "liberating insight", in the suttas[393][394] in those texts where "liberating insight" was preceded by the four jhānas.[395] The four truths may not have been formulated in earliest Buddhism, and did not serve in earliest Buddhism
Buddhism
as a description of "liberating insight".[396] Gotama's teachings may have been personal, "adjusted to the need of each person."[395] The three marks of existence – Dukkha, Annica, Anatta
Anatta
– may reflect Upanishadic or other influences. K.R. Norman supposes that these terms were already in use at the Buddha's time, and were familiar to his hearers.[397] According to Vetter, the description of the Buddhist path may initially have been as simple as the term "the middle way".[139] In time, this short description was elaborated, resulting in the description of the eightfold path.[139] Similarly nibbāna is the common term for the desired goal of this practice, yet many other terms can be found throughout the Nikāyas, which are not specified.[398][note 46] Early Buddhist schools Main articles: Early Buddhist schools, Buddhist councils, and Theravada

Buddha
Buddha
at Xumishan Grottoes, ca. 6th century CE[399]

According to the scriptures, soon after the parinirvāṇa (from Sanskrit: "highest extinguishment") of Gautama Buddha, the first Buddhist council was held. As with any ancient Indian tradition, transmission of teaching was done orally. The primary purpose of the assembly was to collectively recite the teachings to ensure that no errors occurred in oral transmission. Richard Gombrich
Richard Gombrich
states that the monastic assembly recitations of the Buddha's teaching likely began during Buddha's lifetime, similar to the First Council, that helped compose Buddhist scriptures.[400] The Second Buddhist council resulted in the first schism in the Sangha, probably caused by a group of reformists called Sthaviras who split from the conservative majority Mahāsāṃghikas.[401] After unsuccessfully trying to modify the Vinaya, a small group of "elderly members", i.e. sthaviras, broke away from the majority Mahāsāṃghika
Mahāsāṃghika
during the Second Buddhist council, giving rise to the Sthavira sect.[402] The Sthaviras gave rise to several schools, one of which was the Theravada
Theravada
school. Originally, these schisms were caused by disputes over monastic disciplinary codes of various fraternities, but eventually, by about 100 CE if not earlier, schisms were being caused by doctrinal disagreements too.[403] Buddhist monks of different fraternities became distinct schools and stopped doing official Sangha business together, but continued to study each other's doctrines.[403] Following (or leading up to) the schisms, each Saṅgha started to accumulate their own version of Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
( Pali
Pali
Canons, triple basket of texts).[42][404] In their Tripiṭaka, each school included the Suttas of the Buddha, a Vinaya
Vinaya
basket (disciplinary code) and added an Abhidharma
Abhidharma
basket which were texts on detailed scholastic classification, summary and interpretation of the Suttas.[42][405] The doctrine details in the Abhidharmas of various Buddhist schools differ significantly, and these were composed starting about the third century BCE and through the 1st millennium CE.[406][407][408] Eighteen early Buddhist schools are known, each with its own Tripitaka, but only one collection from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
has survived, in a nearly complete state, into the modern era.[409] Early Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism Main article: Mahayana

A Buddhist triad depicting, left to right, a Kushan, the future buddha Maitreya, Gautama Buddha, the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, and a monk. Second–third century. Guimet Museum

Several scholars have suggested that the Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
tradition started in south India
India
(modern Andhra Pradesh), and it is there that Prajnaparamita
Prajnaparamita
sutras, among the earliest Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras,[410][411] developed among the Mahāsāṃghika
Mahāsāṃghika
along the Kṛṣṇa River region about the 1st century BCE.[412][413][414][note 47] There is no evidence that Mahayana
Mahayana
ever referred to a separate formal school or sect of Buddhism, but rather that it existed as a certain set of ideals, and later doctrines, for bodhisattvas.[417] Initially it was known as Bodhisattvayāna (the "Vehicle of the Bodhisattvas").[418] Paul Williams states that the Mahāyāna never had nor ever attempted to have a separate Vinaya
Vinaya
or ordination codes from the early schools of Buddhism.[419] Records written by Chinese monks visiting India
India
indicate that both Mahāyāna and non-Mahāyāna monks could be found in the same monasteries, with the difference that Mahayana
Mahayana
monks worshipped figures of Bodhisattvas, while non-Mahayana monks did not.[420] Much of the early extant evidence for the origins of Mahāyāna comes from early Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahayana teachings were first propagated into China
China
by Lokakṣema, the first translator of Mahayana sutras
Mahayana sutras
into Chinese during the 2nd century CE.[note 48] Some scholars have traditionally considered the earliest Mahāyāna sūtras to include the very first versions of the Prajnaparamita
Prajnaparamita
series, along with texts concerning Akṣobhya, which were probably composed in the 1st century BCE in the south of India.[422][note 49] Late Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism During the period of Late Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, four major types of thought developed: Madhyamaka, Yogachara, Tathagatagarbha, and Buddhist logic as the last and most recent.[424] In India, the two main philosophical schools of the Mahayana
Mahayana
were the Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
and the later Yogachara.[425] According to Dan Lusthaus, Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
and Yogachara
Yogachara
have a great deal in common, and the commonality stems from early Buddhism.[426] There were no great Indian teachers associated with tathagatagarbha thought.[427] Vajrayana
Vajrayana
(Esoteric Buddhism) Main article: Vajrayana Scholarly research concerning Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
is still in its early stages and has a number of problems that make research difficult:[428]

Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
was influenced by Hinduism, and therefore research must include exploring Hinduism
Hinduism
as well. The scriptures of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
have not yet been put in any kind of order. Ritual
Ritual
must be examined as well, not just doctrine.

Spread of Buddhism Main article: Timeline of Buddhism

The spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
at the time of emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
(260–218 BCE)

Buddhism
Buddhism
may have spread only slowly in India
India
until the time of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, who was a public supporter of the religion. The support of Aśoka and his descendants led to the construction of more stūpas (Buddhist religious memorials) and to efforts to spread Buddhism
Buddhism
throughout the enlarged Maurya empire and into neighbouring lands such as Central Asia, beyond the Mauryas' northwest border, and to the island of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
south of India. These two missions, in opposite directions, would ultimately lead, in the first case to the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
into China, and in the second case, to the emergence of Theravāda Buddhism
Buddhism
and its spread from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to the coastal lands of Southeast Asia. This period marks the first known spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
beyond India. According to the edicts of Aśoka, emissaries were sent to various countries west of India
India
to spread Buddhism
Buddhism
(Dharma), particularly in eastern provinces of the neighbouring Seleucid Empire, and even farther to Hellenistic kingdoms of the Mediterranean. It is a matter of disagreement among scholars whether or not these emissaries were accompanied by Buddhist missionaries.[429]

Coin depicting Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Menander, who, according to Buddhist tradition records in the Milinda Panha, converted to the Buddhist faith and became an arhat in the 2nd century BCE (British Museum)

In central and west Asia, Buddhist influence grew, through Greek-speaking Buddhist monarchs and ancient Asian trade routes. An example of this is evidenced in Chinese and Pali
Pali
Buddhist records, such as Milindapanha and the Greco-Buddhist art
Greco-Buddhist art
of Gandhāra. The Milindapanha describes a conversation between a Buddhist monk
Buddhist monk
and the 2nd-century BCE Greek king Menander, after which Menander abdicates and himself goes into monastic life in the pursuit of nirvana.[430][431] Some scholars have questioned the Milindapanha version, expressing doubts whether Menander was Buddhist or just favourably disposed to Buddhist monks.[432] Other examples of the influence of Greco-Buddhism
Greco-Buddhism
can be seen in the history of the school of Dharmaguptaka. This early Buddhist school, active in north-western India, was in all probability founded by a Greek monk by the name Yonaka Dhammarakkhita, native of "Alasanda" (which could be either Alexandria, Egypt or Alexandria
Alexandria
on the Caucasus in modern Afghanistan, two cities of many founded or renamed by Alexander the Great. This school played a critical role in the spreading of Buddhism
Buddhism
to central Asia
Asia
and China
China
and eventually to other parts of the far east. Further, some of the earliest written documents of the Buddhist faith are the Gandharan Buddhist texts, dating from about the 1st century CE, and connected to the Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
school. These texts are written in the Kharosthi script, a script that was predominantly used in the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
and Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdoms of northern India
India
and that played a prominent role in the coinage and inscriptions of their kings.[433][434][435] The Theravada
Theravada
school spread south from India
India
in the 3rd century BCE, to Sri Lanka, and later to southeast Asia
Asia
(Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia
Cambodia
and coastal Vietnam).[436] The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
to China
China
is most commonly thought to have started in the late 2nd or the 1st century CE, though the literary sources are all open to question.[437][note 50] The first documented translation efforts by foreign Buddhist monks in China
China
were in the 2nd century CE, probably as a consequence of the expansion of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
into the Chinese territory of the Tarim Basin.[439] In the 2nd century CE, Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutras spread to China, and then to Korea and Japan, and were translated into Chinese. During the Indian period of Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
(from the 8th century onwards), Buddhism spread from India
India
to Tibet and Mongolia. Johannes Bronkhorst states that the esoteric form was attractive because it allowed both a secluded monastic community as well as the social rites and rituals important to laypersons and to kings for the maintenance of a political state during succession and wars to resist invasion.[440] During the Middle Ages, Buddhism
Buddhism
slowly declined in India,[441] while it vanished from Persia and Central Asia
Asia
as Islam
Islam
became the state religion.[442][443] Schools and traditions Main articles: Schools of Buddhism
Schools of Buddhism
and Buddhahood

Distribution of major Buddhist traditions

Buddhists generally classify themselves as either Theravada
Theravada
or Mahayana.[444] This classification is also used by some scholars[445] and is the one ordinarily used in the English language.[web 10] An alternative scheme used by some scholars[note 51] divides Buddhism into the following three traditions or geographical or cultural areas: Theravada, East Asian Buddhism
East Asian Buddhism
and Tibetan Buddhism.

Young monks in Cambodia

Some scholars[note 52] use other schemes. Buddhists themselves have a variety of other schemes. Hinayana
Hinayana
(literally "lesser or inferior vehicle") is used by Mahayana
Mahayana
followers to name the family of early philosophical schools and traditions from which contemporary Theravada emerged, but as the Hinayana
Hinayana
term is considered derogatory, a variety of other terms are used instead, including Śrāvakayāna, Nikaya Buddhism, early Buddhist schools, sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
and conservative Buddhism.[447][448] Not all traditions of Buddhism
Buddhism
share the same philosophical outlook, or treat the same concepts as central. Each tradition, however, does have its own core concepts, and some comparisons can be drawn between them:[449][450]

Both Theravada
Theravada
and Mahayana
Mahayana
traditions accept the Buddha
Buddha
as the founder, Theravada
Theravada
considers him unique, but Mahayana
Mahayana
considers him one of many Buddhas Both accept the Middle Way, dependent origination, the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
and the three marks of existence Nirvana
Nirvana
is attainable by the monks in Theravada
Theravada
tradition, while Mahayana
Mahayana
considers it broadly attainable; Arhat
Arhat
state is aimed for in the Theravada, while Buddhahood
Buddhahood
is aimed for in the Mahayana Religious practice consists of meditation for monks and prayer for laypersons in Theravada, while Mahayana
Mahayana
includes prayer, chanting and meditation for both Theravada
Theravada
has been a more rationalist, historical form of Buddhism; while Mahayana
Mahayana
has included more rituals, mysticism and worldly flexibility in its scope.[451]

Timeline Main article: Timeline of Buddhism:Common Era This is a rough timeline of the development of the different schools/traditions:

Timeline: Development and propagation of Buddhist traditions (ca. 450 BCE – ca. 1300 CE)

  450 BCE[note 53] 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE[note 54]

 

India

Early Sangha

 

 

 

Early Buddhist schools Mahāyāna Vajrayāna

 

 

 

 

 

Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia

 

 

 

 

Theravāda

 

 

 

 

Tibetan Buddhism

 

Nyingma

 

Kadam

Kagyu

 

Dagpo

Sakya

  Jonang

 

East Asia

 

Early Buddhist schools and Mahāyāna (via the silk road to China, and ocean contact from India
India
to Vietnam)

Tangmi

Nara (Rokushū)

Shingon

Chan

 

Thiền, Seon

  Zen

Tiantai
Tiantai
/ Jìngtǔ

 

Tendai

 

 

Nichiren

 

Jōdo-shū

 

Central  Asia
Asia
& Tarim Basin

 

Greco-Buddhism

 

 

Silk Road Buddhism

 

  450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE

  Legend:   = Theravada   = Mahayana   = Vajrayana   = Various / syncretic

Theravada
Theravada
school

A young bhikkhu in Sri Lanka

Main article: Theravada The Theravada
Theravada
tradition traces its roots to the words of the Buddha preserved in the Pali
Pali
Canon, and considers itself to be the more orthodox form of Buddhism.[453][454] Theravada
Theravada
flourished in south India
India
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in ancient times; from there it spread for the first time into mainland southeast Asia about the 11th century into its elite urban centres.[455] By the 13th century, Theravada
Theravada
had spread widely into the rural areas of mainland southeast Asia,[455] displacing Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
and some traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
which had arrived in places such as Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia
Malaysia
around the mid-1st millennium CE. The later traditions were well established in south Thailand
Thailand
and Java by the 7th century, under the sponsorship of the Srivijaya dynasty.[456][457] The political separation between Khmer and Sukhothai led the Sukhothai king to welcome Sri Lankan emissaries, helping them establish the first Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist sangha in the 13th century, in contrast to the Mahayana
Mahayana
tradition of Khmer earlier.[458] Sinhalese Buddhist reformers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries portrayed the Pali
Pali
Canon as the original version of scripture.[459] They also emphasized Theravada
Theravada
being rational and scientific.[459] Theravāda is primarily practised today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia
Cambodia
as well as small portions of China, Vietnam, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Bangladesh. It has a growing presence in the west. Mahayana
Mahayana
traditions Main article: Mahayana

The ideas of the 2nd century scholar Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
helped shape the Mahayana
Mahayana
traditions.

Mahayana
Mahayana
schools consider the Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutras as authoritative scriptures and accurate rendering of Buddha's words.[344] These traditions have been the more liberal form of Buddhism
Buddhism
allowing different and new interpretations that emerged over time.[460] Mahayana
Mahayana
flourished in India
India
from the time of Ashoka,[344] through to the dynasty of the Guptas (4th to 6th-century). Mahāyāna monastic foundations and centres of learning were established by the Buddhist kings, and the Hindu kings of the Gupta dynasty as evidenced by records left by three Chinese visitors to India.[461][462] The Gupta dynasty, for example, helped establish the famed Nālandā University in Bihar.[461][463] These monasteries and foundations helped Buddhist scholarship, as well as studies into non-Buddhist traditions and secular subjects such as medicine, host visitors and spread Buddhism into East and Central Asia.[461][464] Native Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
is practised today in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, parts of Russia and most of Vietnam
Vietnam
(also commonly referred to as "Eastern Buddhism"). The Buddhism
Buddhism
practised in Tibet, the Himalayan regions, and Mongolia
Mongolia
is also Mahayana
Mahayana
in origin, but is discussed below under the heading of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
(also commonly referred to as "Northern Buddhism"). There are a variety of strands in Eastern Buddhism, of which "the Pure Land school of Mahayana
Mahayana
is the most widely practised today.".[465] In most of this area however, they are fused into a single unified form of Buddhism. In Japan
Japan
in particular, they form separate denominations with the five major ones being: Nichiren, peculiar to Japan; Pure Land; Shingon, a form of Vajrayana; Tendai, and Zen. In Korea, nearly all Buddhists belong to the Chogye school, which is officially Son (Zen), but with substantial elements from other traditions.[466] Vajrayana
Vajrayana
traditions Main article: Vajrayana

7th-century Potala Palace
Potala Palace
in Lhasa valley symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and is a UNESCO world heritage site.[467]

The goal and philosophy of the Vajrayāna remains Mahāyānist, but its methods are seen by its followers as far more powerful, so as to lead to Buddhahood
Buddhahood
in just one lifetime.[468] The practice of using mantras was adopted from Hinduism, where they were first used in the Vedas.[469] Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
is largely concerned with ritual and meditative practices.[470] Various classes of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
literature developed as a result of royal courts sponsoring both Buddhism
Buddhism
and Saivism.[471] The Mañjusrimulakalpa, which later came to classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Saiva, Garuda and Vaisnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught originally by Manjushri.[472] The Guhyasiddhi of Padmavajra, a work associated with the Guhyasamaja tradition, prescribes acting as a Saiva guru and initiating members into Saiva Siddhanta scriptures and mandalas.[473] The Samvara tantra texts adopted the pitha list from the Saiva text Tantrasadbhava, introducing a copying error where a deity was mistaken for a place.[474] Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
preserves the Vajrayana
Vajrayana
teachings of eighth-century India.[10] Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
is largely concerned with ritual and meditative practices.[470] A central feature of Buddhist Tantra
Tantra
is deity yoga which includes visualization and identification with an enlightened yidam or meditation deity and its associated mandala. Another element of Tantra
Tantra
is the need for ritual initiation or empowerment (abhiṣeka) by a Guru
Guru
or Lama.[475] Some Tantras like the Guhyasamāja Tantra
Guhyasamāja Tantra
features new forms of antinomian ritual practice such as the use taboo substances like alcohol, sexual yoga, and charnel ground practices which evoke wrathful deities.[476][477] Zen Main article: Zen

Ginkaku-ji, a Zen
Zen
temple in Kyoto, Japan

Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
(禅), pronounced Chán in Chinese, seon in Korean or zen in Japanese (derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term dhyāna, meaning "meditation") is a form of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
found in China, Korea and Japan. It lays special emphasis on meditation, and direct discovery of the Buddha-nature.[460][note 55] Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
is divided into two main schools: Rinzai
Rinzai
(臨済宗) and Sōtō
Sōtō
(曹洞宗), the former greatly favouring the use in meditation on the koan (公案, a meditative riddle or puzzle) as a device for spiritual break-through, and the latter (while certainly employing koans) focusing more on shikantaza or "just sitting".[note 56] Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
is primarily found in Japan, with some presence in South Korea and Vietnam. The scholars of Japanese Soto Zen
Zen
tradition in recent times have critiqued the mainstream Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism
for dhatu-vada, that is assuming things have substantiality, a view they assert to be non-Buddhist and "out of tune with the teachings of non-Self and conditioned arising", states Peter Harvey.[480] Buddhism
Buddhism
today Main article: Buddhism
Buddhism
by country

Buryat Buddhist monk
Buddhist monk
in Siberia

There is growing worldwide interest in Buddhism.[481][482] Buddhism
Buddhism
has spread across the world, and Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
are increasingly translated into local languages. While in the West Buddhism
Buddhism
is often seen as exotic and progressive, in the East it is regarded as familiar and traditional. In countries such as Cambodia and Bhutan, it is recognized as the state religion and receives government support. In certain regions such as Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan, Buddhist monuments have been targets of violence and destruction.[483][484]

Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1896 (top) and after destruction in 2001 by the Taliban
Taliban
Islamists[485]

Modern influences increasingly lead to new forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
that are diverse and that significantly depart from traditional beliefs and practices.[486] A number of modern movements or tendencies in Buddhism emerged during the second half of the 20th century, including the Navayana
Navayana
school and Dalit Buddhist movement
Dalit Buddhist movement
launched by B.R. Ambedkar.[487][488] The Navayana
Navayana
(literally, "new vehicle") rejects the foundational doctrines and practices accepted by traditional Theravada
Theravada
and Mahayana
Mahayana
traditions, by discarding ideas such as monk lifestyle after renunciation, karma, rebirth, samsara, meditation, nirvana, Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and others.[489][490][491] Ambedkar's Navayana
Navayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
considers these as superstitions and re-interprets the original Buddha
Buddha
as someone who taught about class struggle and social equality.[492][493] Modern Buddhist movements include Won Buddhism
Won Buddhism
in Korea, the Dhammakaya movement
Dhammakaya movement
in Thailand
Thailand
and several Japanese organizations, such as Shinnyo-en, Risshō Kōsei-kai or Soka Gakkai. Demographics Buddhism
Buddhism
is practised by an estimated 488 million,[web 1] 495 million,[494] or 535 million[495] people as of the 2010s, representing 7% to 8% of the world's total population.

Percentage of Buddhists by country, according to the Pew Research Center, as of 2010

China
China
is the country with the largest population of Buddhists, approximately 244 million or 18.2% of its total population.[web 1][note 57] They are mostly followers of Chinese schools of Mahayana, making this the largest body of Buddhist traditions. Mahayana, also practised in broader East Asia, is followed by over half of world Buddhists.[web 1] According to a demographic analysis reported by Peter Harvey (2013):[495] Mahayana
Mahayana
has 360 million adherents; Theravada
Theravada
has 150 million adherents; and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
has 18.2 million adherents. According to Johnson and Grim (2013), Buddhism
Buddhism
has grown from a total of 138 million adherents in 1910, of which 137 million were in Asia, to 495 million in 2010, of which 487 million are in Asia.[494] Over 98% of all Buddhists live in the Asia-Pacific and South Asia region.[497] North America had about 3.9 million Buddhists, Europe 1.3 million, while South America, Africa and the Middle East had an estimated combined total of about 1 million Buddhists in 2010.[497] Buddhism
Buddhism
is the dominant religion in Bhutan,[498] Burma,[498] Cambodia,[498] Tibet,[498] Laos,[498] Mongolia,[498] Sri Lanka[498] and Thailand.[498][499] Large Buddhist populations live in China (18.2%),[498] Japan
Japan
(36.2%),[498] Taiwan
Taiwan
(35%),[498] Macau (17%),[498] North Korea (13.8%),[498] Nepal (10.7%),[498] Vietnam
Vietnam
(10%),[498] Singapore
Singapore
(33%),[498] Hong Kong (15%)[498] and South Korea (22.9%).[498] After China
China
where nearly half of the worldwide Buddhists live, the 10 countries with the largest Buddhist population densities are:[497]

Buddhism
Buddhism
by percentage as of 2010[497]

Country Estimated Buddhist population Buddhists as % of total population

 Cambodia 13,701,660 96.90%

 Thailand 64,419,840 93.20%

 Burma 38,415,960 80.10%

 Bhutan 563,000 74.70%

 Sri Lanka 14,455,980 69.30%

 Laos 4,092,000 66.00%

 Mongolia 1,520,760 55.10%

 Japan 45,807,480 or 84,653,000 36.20% or 67%[500]

 Singapore 1,725,510 33.90%

 Taiwan 4,945,600 or 8,000,000 21.10% or 35%[501]

 China 185,000,000+ 15.87%

See also

Book: Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
portal

Outline of Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
by country Buddhism
Buddhism
and science Chinese folk religion Easily confused Buddhist representations Iconography of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
in Laos
Laos
and Thailand Index of Buddhism-related articles Indian religions List of books related to Buddhism List of Buddhist temples Nonviolence Criticism of Buddhism Vaishnavism Akriyavada

Notes

^ According to Peter Harvey, early Buddhist schools already had this concept, and they identified three types of practitioners:[9]

Sammasambuddha, a perfect and completely awakened Buddha
Buddha
such as Gotama, who also teaches; [ Buddhahood
Buddhahood
in Mahayana
Mahayana
tradition] Paccekabuddha, a solitary awakened one who learns by his own effort and teaches in a minimal way; these include sages who lived prior to Gotama; Sāvakabuddha, an awakened disciple or Arahat who learns from a perfect Buddha
Buddha
such as Gotama.

^ Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
such as the Jataka tales
Jataka tales
of the Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist tradition, and early biographies such as the Buddhacarita, the Lokottaravādin Mahāvastu, the Sarvāstivādin Lalitavistara Sūtra, give different accounts about the life of the Buddha; many include stories of his many rebirths, and some add significant embellishments.[18][19] Keown and Prebish state, "In the past, modern scholars have generally accepted 486 or 483 BCE for this [Buddha's death], but the consensus is now that they rest on evidence which is too flimsy.[20] Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most accept that he lived, taught and founded a monastic order, but do not consistently accept all of the details contained in his biographies."[21][22][23][24] ^ The exact identity of this ancient place is unclear. Please see Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
article for various sites identified. ^ Bihar
Bihar
is derived from Vihara, which means monastery.[25] ^ Other details about Buddha'a background are contested in modern scholarship. For example, Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
assert that Buddha
Buddha
described himself as a kshatriya (warrior class), but states Gombrich, little is known about his father and there is no proof that his father even knew the term kshatriya.[28] Mahavira, whose teachings helped establish another major ancient religion Jainism, is also claimed to be ksatriya by his early followers. Further, early texts of both Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
suggest they emerged in a period of urbanization in ancient India, one with city nobles and prospering urban centres, states, agricultural surplus, trade and introduction of money.[29] ^ Doubts about the historicity of these claims in early Buddhist texts have emerged in modern scholarship because later Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
do not mention that Buddha
Buddha
learnt these concepts from more ancient teachers.[32][34] According to Alexander Wynne, the evidence suggests that Buddha
Buddha
studied under various teachers and they "almost certainly" taught him, but the details of his education are unclear.[32][35] ^ The Theravada
Theravada
tradition traces its origins as the oldest tradition holding the Pali
Pali
Canon as the only authority, Mahayana
Mahayana
tradition revers the Canon but also the derivative literature that developed in the 1st millennium CE and its roots are traceable to the 1st century BCE, while Vajrayana
Vajrayana
tradition is closer to the Mahayana, includes Tantra, is the younger of the three and traceable to the 1st millennium CE.[45][46] ^ On samsara, rebirth and redeath: * Paul Williams: "All rebirth is due to karma and is impermanent. Short of attaining enlightenment, in each rebirth one is born and dies, to be reborn elsewhere in accordance with the completely impersonal causal nature of one's own karma. The endless cycle of birth, rebirth, and redeath, is samsara."[50] * Buswell and Lopez on "rebirth": "An English term that does not have an exact correlate in Buddhist languages, rendered instead by a range of technical terms, such as the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
PUNARJANMAN (lit. "birth again") and PUNABHAVAN (lit. "re-becoming"), and, less commonly, the related PUNARMRTYU (lit. "redeath")."[51]

See also Perry Schmidt-Leukel (2006) pages 32–34,[52] John J. Makransky (1997) p.27.[53] for the use of the term "redeath." The term Agatigati or Agati gati (plus a few other terms) is generally translated as 'rebirth, redeath'; see any Pali-English dictionary; e.g. pages 94–95 of Rhys Davids & William Stede, where they list five Sutta examples with rebirth and re-death sense.[54] ^ Graham Harvey: "Siddhartha Gautama found an end to rebirth in this world of suffering. His teachings, known as the dharma in Buddhism, can be summarized in the Four Noble truths."[56] Geoffrey Samuel (2008): "The Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
[...] describe the knowledge needed to set out on the path to liberation from rebirth."[57] See also [58][59][60][50][61][62][56][63][web 3][web 4]

The Theravada
Theravada
tradition holds that insight into these four truths is liberating in itself.[64] This is reflected in the Pali
Pali
canon.[65] According to Donald Lopez, "The Buddha
Buddha
stated in his first sermon that when he gained absolute and intuitive knowledge of the four truths, he achieved complete enlightenment and freedom from future rebirth."[web 3]

The Maha-parinibbana Sutta
Maha-parinibbana Sutta
also refers to this liberation.[web 5] Carol Anderson: "The second passage where the four truths appear in the Vinaya-pitaka is also found in the Mahaparinibbana-sutta (D II 90–91). Here, the Buddha
Buddha
explains that it is by not understanding the four truths that rebirth continues."[66]

On the meaning of moksha as liberation from rebirth, see Patrick Olivelle in the Encyclopædia Britannica.[web 6] ^ As opposite to sukha, "pleasure," it is better translated as "pain."[68] ^ This explanation is more common in commentaries on the Four Noble Truths within the Theravada
Theravada
tradition: e.g. Ajahn Sucitta (2010); Ajahn Sumedho (ebook); Rahula (1974); etc. ^ Ending rebirth: * Graham Harvey: "The Third Noble Truth is nirvana. The Buddha
Buddha
tells us that an end to suffering is possible, and it is nirvana. Nirvana
Nirvana
is a "blowing out," just as a candle flame is extinguished in the wind, from our lives in samsara. It connotes an end to rebirth"[56] * Spiro: "The Buddhis message then, as I have said, is not simply a psychological message, i.e. that desire is the cause of suffering because unsatisfied desire produces frustration. It does contain such a message to be sure; but more importantly it is an eschatological message. Desire is the cause of suffering because desire is the cause of rebirth; and the extinction of desire leads to deliverance from suffering because it signals release from the Wheel of Rebirth."[58] * John J. Makransky: "The third noble truth, cessation (nirodha) or nirvana, represented the ultimate aim of Buddhist practice in the Abhidharma
Abhidharma
traditions: the state free from the conditions that created samsara. Nirvana
Nirvana
was the ultimate and final state attained when the supramundane yogic path had been completed. It represented salvation from samsara precisely because it was understood to comprise a state of complete freedom from the chain of samsaric causes and conditions, i.e., precisely because it was unconditioned (asamskrta)."[60] * Walpola Rahula: "Let us consider a few definitions and descriptions of Nirvana
Nirvana
as found in the original Pali
Pali
texts [...] 'It is the complete cessation of that very thirst (tanha), giving it up, renouncing it, emancipation from it, detachment from it.' [...] 'The abandoning and destruction of craving for these Five Aggregates of Attachment: that is the cessation of dukkha. [...] 'The Cessation of Continuity and becoming (Bhavanirodha) is Nibbana.'"[80] ^ Earlier Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
refer to five realms rather than six realms; when described as five realms, the god realm and demi-god realm constitute a single realm.[93] ^ This merit gaining may be on the behalf of one's family members.[100][101][102] ^ The realms in which a being is reborn are:[105][106][subnote 1]

Naraka: beings believed in Buddhism
Buddhism
to suffer in one of many Narakas (Hells); Preta: sometimes sharing some space with humans, but invisible; an important variety is the hungry ghost;[107] Tiryag (animals): existence as an animal along with humans; this realm is traditionally thought in Buddhism
Buddhism
to be similar to a hellish realm because animals are believed to be driven by impulse; they prey on each other and suffer.[108] Manusya (human beings): one of the realms of rebirth in which attaining Nirvana
Nirvana
is possible; A rebirth in this realm is therefore considered as fortunate and an opportunity to end the endless Samsara and associated Dukkha.[109][110] Asuras: variously translated as lowly deities, demi-gods, demons, titans, or anti-gods; recognized in Theravada
Theravada
tradition as part of the heavenly realm;[111] Devas including Brahmās: variously translated as gods, deities, angels, or heavenly beings. The vast majority of Buddhist lay people have historically pursued Buddhist rituals and practices motivated by rebirth into the Deva realm.[109][112][113]

^ Diseases and suffering induced by the disruptive actions of other people are examples of non-karma suffering.[120] ^ The emphasis on intent in Buddhism
Buddhism
marks its difference from the karma theory of Jainism
Jainism
where karma accumulates with or without intent.[122][123] The emphasis on intent is also found in Hinduism, and Buddhism
Buddhism
may have influenced karma theories of Hinduism.[124] ^ This Buddhist idea may have roots in the quid-pro-quo exchange beliefs of the Hindu Vedic rituals.[131] The "karma merit transfer" concept has been controversial, not accepted in later Jainism
Jainism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
traditions, unlike Buddhism
Buddhism
where it was adopted in ancient times and remains a common practice.[128] According to Bruce Reichenbach, the "merit transfer" idea was generally absent in early Buddhism
Buddhism
and may have emerged with the rise of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism; he adds that while major Hindu schools such as Yoga, Advaita Vedanta and others do not believe in merit transfer, some bhakti Hindu traditions later adopted the idea just like Buddhism.[132] ^ Another variant, which may be condensed to the eightfold or tenfold path, starts with a Tathagatha entering this world. A layman hears his teachings, decides to leave the life of a householder, starts living according to the moral precepts, guards his sense-doors, practises mindfulness and the four jhanas, gains the three knowledges, understands the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
and destroys the taints, and perceives that he's liberated.[84] ^ The early Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
texts link their discussion of "emptiness" (shunyata) to Anatta
Anatta
and Nirvana. They do so, states Mun-Keat Choong, in three ways: first, in the common sense of a monk's meditative state of emptiness; second, with the main sense of Anatta or 'everything in the world is empty of self'; third, with the ultimate sense of Nirvana
Nirvana
or realization of emptiness and thus an end to rebirth cycles of suffering.[145] ^ Some scholars such as Cousins and Sangharakshita translate apranaihita as "aimlessness or directionless-ness".[147] ^ These descriptions of nirvana in Buddhist texts, states Peter Harvey, are contested by scholars because nirvana in Buddhism
Buddhism
is ultimately described as a state of "stopped consciousness (blown out), but one that is not non-existent", and "it seems impossible to imagine what awareness devoid of any object would be like".[153][154] ^ Scholars[112][113] note that better rebirth, not nirvana, has been the primary focus of a vast majority of lay Buddhists. This they attempt through merit accumulation and good kamma. ^ All eight precepts are sometimes observed by lay people on poya – full moon, new moon and half moon days on a lunar calendar believed to be holier.[209] ^ This, states Richard Gombrich, means sleep on a mat on the ground. ^ The hundreds of rules vary by the sangha; 11th-century Chinese monastic texts include rules such as only reciting Buddha's Holy Words alone, not near commonplace people; not eating prohibited foods such as meat, fish, cheese, onions, garlic, animal fat; abstain from anything that can lead to sensual thoughts; think of all sentient beings as a newborn baby to develop feelings of compassion, etc.[212] ^ Williams refers to Frauwallner (1973) p.155 ^ Many ancient Upanishads of Hinduism
Hinduism
describe yoga and meditation as a means to liberation.[224][225][226] ^ The state is described in a number of additional characteristics in different Buddhist texts. For example, success in the First Dhyana leads to a gem-like outer light emanating from the body, according to Samahitabhumi by Asanga; the nature of emanating light from one's body changes as the meditation successfully progresses from the first to the fourth Dhyana.[239] ^ Gombrich: "I know this is controversial, but it seems to me that the third and fourth jhanas are thus quite unlike the second."[244] ^ Wynne: "Thus the expression sato sampajāno in the third jhāna must denote a state of awareness different from the meditative absorption of the second jhāna (cetaso ekodibhāva). It suggests that the subject is doing something different from remaining in a meditative state, i.e., that he has come out of his absorption and is now once again aware of objects. The same is true of the word upek(k)hā: it does not denote an abstract 'equanimity', [but] it means to be aware of something and indifferent to it [...] The third and fourth jhāna-s, as it seems to me, describe the process of directing states of meditative absorption towards the mindful awareness of objects."[247] ^ According to Gombrich, "the later tradition has falsified the jhana by classifying them as the quintessence of the concentrated, calming kind of meditation, ignoring the other – and indeed higher – element."[244] ^ The problem was famously voiced in 1936 by Louis de La Vallee Poussin, in his text Musila et Narada: Le Chemin de Nirvana.[249] See Louis de La Vallée Poussin, Musial and Narad. Translated from the French by Gelongma Migme Chödrön and Gelong Lodrö Sangpo. ^ Schmithausen:[250]

The four Rupa Jhanas themselves constituted the core liberating practice of early buddhism, c.q. the Buddha;[251] Mastering the four Rupa Jhanas, where-after "liberating insight" is attained; Mastering the four Rupa Jhanas and the four Arupa Jhanas, where-after "liberating insight" is attained.

^ a b On Vetter and dhyana, see, for example, Vetter 1988:

page xxvii: "Originally this ["the fourth stage [...] that state of pure equanimity and awareness"] may have been the only ground of an experience of release." page xxviii: "Incidentally, this state of pure equanimity and awareness may also have been the origin of the method of discriminating insight." page xxviii–xxix: "In order to solve [...] a very practical way." page xxxiii: "an older stage of the same path to salvation ends in the right samadhi,"

^ The Buddha
Buddha
never claimed that the "four immeasurables" were his unique ideas, in a manner similar to "cessation, quieting, nirvana".[262] The Buddhist scripture Digha Nikaya
Digha Nikaya
II.251 asserts the Buddha
Buddha
to be calling the Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara
as "that practice", and he then contrasts it with "my practice".[262] ^ Tillmann Vetter: "Very likely the cause was the growing influence of a non-Buddhist spiritual environment·which claimed that one can be released only by some truth or higher knowledge. In addition the alternative (and perhaps sometimes competing) method of discriminating insight (fully established after the introduction of the four noble truths) seemed to conform so well to this claim."[289]

According to Bronkhorst, this happened under influence of the "mainstream of meditation," that is, Vedic-Brahmanical oriented groups, which believed that the cessation of action could not be liberating, since action can never be fully stopped. Their solution was to postulate a fundamental difference between the inner soul or self and the body. The inner self is unchangeable, and unaffected by actions. By insight into this difference, one was liberated. To equal this emphasis on insight, Buddhists presented insight into their most essential teaching as equally liberating. What exactly was regarded as the central insight "varied along with what was considered most central to the teaching of the Buddha."[288] ^ Wayman and Wayman have disagreed with this view, and they state that the Tathagatagarbha is neither self nor sentient being, nor soul, nor personality.[320] ^ While some scholars suggest that Buddhism
Buddhism
may have developed as a social reform to the Vedic religion, other scholars such as Gombrich suggest that Buddha
Buddha
"should not be seen as a social reformer", because his concern was "to reform individuals, help them to leave society forever, not to reform the world... he never preached against social inequality".[352] The philosophical roots of Buddhism
Buddhism
and related ideologies in ancient India, states Gombrich, was the spiritual salvation of man.[352] ^ The surviving portions of the scriptures of Sarvastivada, Mulasarvastivada, Mahīśāsaka, Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
and other schools,[368][369] and the Chinese Agamas and other surviving portions of other early canons.[citation needed] ^ Exemplary studies are the study on descriptions of "liberating insight" by Lambert Schmithausen,[250] the overview of early Buddhism by Tilmann Vetter,[139] the philological work on the four truths by K.R. Norman,[371] the textual studies by Richard Gombrich,[248] and the research on early meditation methods by Johannes Bronkhorst.[372] ^ Well-known proponents of the first position are A. K. Warder[subnote 2] and Richard Gombrich.[375][subnote 3] ^ A proponent of the second position is Ronald Davidson.[subnote 4] ^ Well-known proponents of the third position are J.W. de Jong,[377][subnote 5] Johannes Bronkhorst[subnote 6] and Donald Lopez.[subnote 7] ^ According to Schmithausen, "the karma doctrine may have been incidental to early Buddhist soteriology."[387] ^ Vetter: "I am especially thinking here of MN 26 (I p.163,32; 165,15;166,35) kimkusalagavesi anuttaram santivarapadam pariyesamano (searching for that which is beneficial, seeking the unsurpassable, best place of peace) and again MN 26 (passim), anuttaramyagakkhemam nibbiinam pariyesati (he seeks the unsurpassable safe place, the nirvana). Anuppatta-sadattho (one who has reached the right goal) is also a vague positive expression in the Arhatformula in MN 35 (I p, 235), see chapter 2, footnote 3, Furthermore, satthi (welfare) is important in e.g. SN 2.12 or 2.17 or Sn 269; and sukha and rati (happiness), in contrast to other places, as used in Sn 439 and 956. The oldest term was perhaps amata (immortal, immortality) [...] but one could say here that it is a negative term."[398] ^ Anthony Barber and Sree Padma note that "historians of Buddhist thought have been aware for quite some time that such pivotally important Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhist thinkers as Nagarjuna, Dignāga, Chandrakirti, Aryadeva, and Bhāviveka, among many others, formulated their theories while living in Buddhist communities in Āndhra."[415] They note that the ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Kṛṣṇa Valley, including Amaravati, Nāgārjunakoṇḍā and Jaggayyapeṭa "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."[416] ^ "The most important evidence – in fact the only evidence – for situating the emergence of the Mahayana
Mahayana
around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all, but came from China. Already by the last quarter of the 2nd century CE, there was a small, seemingly idiosyncratic collection of substantial Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras translated into what Erik Zürcher calls 'broken Chinese' by an Indoscythian, whose Indian name has been reconstructed as Lokaksema."[421] ^ "The south (of India) was then vigorously creative in producing Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutras" Warder[423] ^ See Hill (2009), p. 30, for the Chinese text from the Hou Hanshu, and p. 31 for a translation of it.[438] ^ (Harvey 1990),(Gombrich,1984); Gethin (1998), pp. 1–2, identifies "three broad traditions" as: (1) "The Theravāda tradition of Sri Lanka and South-East Asia, also sometimes referred to as 'southern' Buddhism"; (2) "The East Asian tradition of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, also sometimes referred to as 'eastern' Buddhism"; and, (3) "The Tibetan tradition, also sometimes referred to as 'northern' Buddhism."; Robinson & Johnson (1982) divide their book into two parts: Part One is entitled "The Buddhism
Buddhism
of South Asia" (which pertains to Early Buddhism
Buddhism
in India); and, Part Two is entitled "The Development of Buddhism
Buddhism
Outside of India" with chapters on "The Buddhism
Buddhism
of Southeast Asia", " Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Tibetan Culture Area", "East Asian Buddhism" and " Buddhism
Buddhism
Comes West"; Penguin Handbook of Living Religions, 1984, page 279; Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism, ebook, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2005, printed ed, Harper, 2006 ^ See e.g. the multi-dimensional classification in Encyclopedia of Religion[446] ^ Cousins, L.S. (1996); Buswell (2003), Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish (2004), p. 107. See also, Gombrich (1988/2002), p. 32: “…[T]he best we can say is that [the Buddha] was probably Enlightened between 550 and 450, more likely later rather than earlier." ^ Williams (2000, pp. 6-7) writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism
Buddhism
in mainland India
India
itself had all but ceased to exist by the thirteenth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." [452] (Originally 1958), "Chronology," p. xxix: "c. 1000-1200: Buddhism
Buddhism
disappears as [an] organized religious force in India." See also, Robinson & Johnson (1970/1982), pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey (1990/2007), pp. 139-40. ^ According to Charles S. Prebish:[478] "Although a variety of Zen 'schools' developed in Japan, they all emphasize Zen
Zen
as a teaching that does not depend on sacred texts, that provides the potential for direct realization, that the realization attained is none other than the Buddha
Buddha
nature possessed by each sentient being ...". ^ Prebish comments (op. cit., p. 244): "It presumes that sitting in meditation itself (i.e. zazen) is an expression of Buddha
Buddha
nature." The method is to detach the mind from conceptual modes of thinking and perceive Reality directly. Speaking of Zen
Zen
in general, Buddhist scholar Stephen Hodge writes: "... practitioners of Zen
Zen
believe that Enlightenment, the awakening of the Buddha-mind or Buddha-nature, is our natural state, but has been covered over by layers of negative emotions and distorted thoughts. According to this view, Enlightenment is not something that we must acquire a bit at a time, but a state that can occur instantly when we cut through the dense veil of mental and emotional obscurations."[479] ^ This is a contested number. Official numbers from the Chinese government are lower, while other surveys are higher. According to Katharina Wenzel-Teuber, in non-government surveys, "49 percent of self-claimed non-believers [in China] held some religious beliefs, such as believing in soul reincarnation, heaven, hell, or supernatural forces. Thus the 'pure atheists' make up only about 15 percent of the sample [surveyed]."[496]

Subnotes

^ The realms of rebirths in Buddhism
Buddhism
are further subdivided into 31 planes of existence.[web 8] Rebirths in some of the higher heavens, known as the Śuddhāvāsa Worlds or Pure Abodes, can be attained only by skilled Buddhist practitioners known as anāgāmis (non-returners). Rebirths in the Ārūpyadhātu (formless realms) can be attained by only those who can meditate on the arūpajhānas, the highest object of meditation. ^ According to A.K. Warder, in his 1970 publication "Indian Buddhism", from the oldest extant texts a common kernel can be drawn out.[369] According to Warder, c.q. his publisher: "This kernel of doctrine is presumably common Buddhism
Buddhism
of the period before the great schisms of the fourth and third centuries BC. It may be substantially the Buddhism
Buddhism
of the Buddha
Buddha
himself, although this cannot be proved: at any rate it is a Buddhism
Buddhism
presupposed by the schools as existing about a hundred years after the parinirvana of the Buddha, and there is no evidence to suggest that it was formulated by anyone else than the Buddha
Buddha
and his immediate followers."[374] ^ Richard Gombrich: "I have the greatest difficulty in accepting that the main edifice is not the work of a single genius. By "the main edifice" I mean the collections of the main body of sermons, the four Nikāyas, and of the main body of monastic rules."[248] ^ Ronald Davidson: "While most scholars agree that there was a rough body of sacred literature (disputed)(sic) that a relatively early community (disputed)(sic) maintained and transmitted, we have little confidence that much, if any, of surviving Buddhist scripture is actually the word of the historic Buddha."[376] ^ J.W. De Jong: "It would be hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism
Buddhism
[...] the basic ideas of Buddhism
Buddhism
found in the canonical writings could very well have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas."[377] ^ Bronkhorst: "This position is to be preferred to (ii) for purely methodological reasons: only those who seek nay find, even if no success is guaranteed."[378] ^ Lopez: "The original teachings of the historical Buddha
Buddha
are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to recover or reconstruct."[379]

References

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Moksha
(Indian religions) ^ The Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
– By Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Bodhi ^ Mahathera, Ven. Suvanno. "The 31 Planes of Existence" (PDF). www.buddhanet.net. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2013.  ^ Lusthaus, Dan. "What is and isn't Yogacara". Archived from the original on 31 March 2010.  ^ "Tibetan Buddhism". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2004. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 2007-07-07. 

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Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

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Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
( Vipassana
Vipassana
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Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

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Philosophy

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Culture

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Poetry Prayer
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beads Prayer
Prayer
wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

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Miscellaneous

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Guanyin

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talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

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Dependencies and other territories

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in North America

Sovereign states

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

Dependencies and other territories

Anguilla Aruba Bermuda Bonaire British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Curaçao Greenland Guadeloupe Martinique Montserrat Puerto Rico Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saba Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands United States Virgin Islands

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
in South America

Sovereign states

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

Dependencies and other territories

Falkland Islands French Guiana South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

v t e

Gautama Buddha

Buddhism Core teachings

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Middle Way sayings

Disciples

ten principal disciples

Four sights Family Places

Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree, Mahabodhi Temple pilgrimage sites

Miracles Birthday Prophesied Physical characteristics Death Relics

Cetiya tooth footprint

Buddha
Buddha
statues Iconography Films Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
in world religions

Hinduism

Commons Wikiquote

v t e

Religion

Major religious groups
Major religious groups
and religious denominations

Abrahamic

Judaism

Orthodox

Haredi Hasidic Modern

Conservative Reform Karaite Reconstructionist Renewal Humanistic Haymanot

Christianity

Catholicism

Eastern Catholic Churches

Eastern Christianity

Church of the East

Assyrian Church of the East

Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy

Ethiopian Orthodoxy

Independent Catholicism

Old Catholicism

Protestantism

Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptists Calvinism

Presbyterianism Congregationalism Continental Reformed

Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism Evangelicalism

Nontrinitarianism

Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Jesuism

Nondenominational

Islam

Sunni

Hanafi Maliki Hanbali Shafi'i

Shia

Twelver Isma'ilism Zaidiyyah

Ahmadi Ibadi Non-denominational Quranism Zahirism Salafism

Wahhabism Ahl al-Hadith

Mahdavia European Islam Nation of Islam

Others

Bábism

Azáli Bábism Bahá'í Faith

Druze Mandaeism Rastafari Samaritanism

Dharmic

Hinduism

Vaishnavism Shaktism Shaivism Ayyavazhi Smartism Balinese

Buddhism

Mahayana

Chan

Zen Thiền Seon

Pure Land Nichiren Madhyamaka Tiantai

Theravada Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Newar Bon

Navayana

Others

Dravidian Jainism

Digambara Śvētāmbara

Sikhism Gurung shamanism Bon
Bon
Lamaism Kirant Mundhum

Persian

Manichaeism Yazdânism

Yazidism Ishikism Ali-Illahism Yarsanism

Zoroastrianism

European

Armenian Baltic

Dievturība Druwi Romuva

Caucasian Celtic

Druidry

Germanic Hellenism Italo-Roman Romanian Slavic

Uralic

Finnish Hungarian Uralic

Mari Mordvin Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

Burkhanism Chuvash Manchu Mongolian Siberian Tengrism

East Asian

Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Cheondoism Confucianism Dongbaism Faism Hmongism Jeungsanism Luoism Meishanism Mileism Muism Neo-Confucianism Ryukyuan religion Shenism Shigongism Shinto Taoism Tenrikyo Wuism Yiguandao

Southeast Asian

Burmese Satsana Phi Malaysian Indonesian

Marapu Kaharingan Kebatinan

Philippine Vietnamese

Caodaism Đạo Mẫu Hoahaoism

African

Traditional

Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu

Diasporic

Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti

Other groups

Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian

Recent

Discordianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Pastafarianism Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca

Historical religions

Prehistoric

Paleolithic

Near East

Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic

Canaanite Yahwism

Indo-European

Asia

Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism

Mithraism Zurvanism

Gnosticism

Manichaeism

Europe

Celtic Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Greek

Gnosticism Neoplatonism

Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic

Topics

Aspects

Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism

monk nun

Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Prophesy Religious experience Ritual

liturgy sacrifice

Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship

Theism

Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism

Religious studies

Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women

Religion
Religion
and society

Agriculture Business Clergy

monasticism ordination

Conversion

evangelism missionary proselytism

Education Fanaticism Freedom

pluralism syncretism toleration universalism

Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence

persecution terrorism war

Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

Index Outline Timeline Abrahamic prophets Deification Deities Founders Mass gatherings New religious movements Organizations Religions and spiritual traditions Scholars

Category Portal

Authority control

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