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* Ten Ox-Herding Pictures * Five ranks of Tozan * Three mysterious Gates * Four Ways of Knowing
* v * t * e
BUDDHA-NATURE or BUDDHA PRINCIPLE refers to several related terms, most notably tathāgatagarbha and buddhadhātu. Tathāgatagarbha means "the womb" or "embryo" (garbha) of the "thus-gone" (tathagata), or "containing a tathagata", while buddhadhātu literally means "Buddha-realm" or "Buddha-substrate". The terms refer to the notion that the luminous mind of the Buddhas is inherently present in every sentient being, and will shine forth when it is cleansed of the defilements, c.q. when the nature of mind is recognised for what it is.
* 1 Etymology
* 1.1 Tathāgatagarbha
* 1.1.1 Compound * 1.1.2 Asian translations * 1.1.3 Western translations
* 2 Indian origins
* 2.1 Awakened Mind
* 2.1.1 Luminous mind * 2.1.2 Pure consciousness
* 2.2 Dharma-dhātu - The realm of the Buddha
* 3 Tathāgatagarbha Sutras - the essence or potentiality of
* 4 Connecting the concepts
* 4.1 Tathagatagarbha and Alayavijnana
* 4.2 Tathāgatagarbha and Buddhadhātu
* 5 Popularisation in Chinese
* 6 Korean
* 7 Japanese
* 8 Tibetan
* 8.1 Gelug
* 8.2 Nyingma
* 9 Modern scholarship
* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Sources * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
The term tathāgatagarbha may mean "embryonic tathāgata", "womb of the tathāgata", or "containing a tathagata". Various meanings may all be brought into mind when the term tathagatagarbha is being used.
* tathāgata means "the one thus gone", referring to the Buddha. It is composed of "tathā" and "āgata", "thus come", or "tathā" and "gata", "thus gone". The term refers to a Buddha, who has "thus gone" from samsara into nirvana, and "thus come" from nirvana into samsara to work for the salvation of all sentient beings. * garbha, "womb", "embryo", "center", "essence".
The Chinese translated the term tathāgatagarbha as (traditional Chinese : 如来藏; ; pinyin : rúláizàng, or "Tathāgata's (rúlái) storehouse" (zàng). According to Brown, "storehouse" may indicate both "that which enfolds or contains something", or "that which is itself enfolded, hidden or contained by another." The Tibetan translation is de bzhin gsegs pa'i snyin po, which cannot be translated as "womb" (mngal or lhums), but as "embryonic essence", "kernel" or "heart". The term "heart" was also used by Mongolian translators.
The term tathagatagarbha is translated and interpreted in various ways by western translators and scholars:
* According to Sally King, the term tathāgatagarbha may be understood in two ways:
* "embryonic tathāgata", the incipient Buddha, the cause of the Tathāgata, * "womb of the tathāgata", the fruit of Tathāgata.
According to King, the Chinese rúláizàng was taken in its meaning as "womb" or "fruit".
* Wayman & Wayman also point out that the Chinese regularly takes garbha as "womb", but prefer to use the term "embryo". * According to Brown, following Wayman ; pinyin : fóxìng, Japanese : busshō ) is closely related in meaning to the term tathāgatagarbha, but is not a translation of this term. it refers to that what is essential in the human being.
Matsumoto Shirō also points out that "Buddha-nature" translates the Sanskrit-term buddhadhātu, a "place to put something," a "foundation," a "locus." According to Shirō, it does not mean "original nature" or "essence," nor does it mean the "possibility of the attainment of Buddhahood," "the original nature of the Buddha," or "the essence of the Buddha."
The idea of
According to Wayman, the idea of the tathagatagarbha is grounded on sayings by the Buddha that there is an innately pure luminous mind (prabhasvara citta ), "which is only adventitiously covered over by defilements (agantukaklesa )" This luminous mind is being mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya : "Luminous, monks, is the mind. And it is defiled by incoming defilements."
From the idea of the luminous mind emerged the idea that the awakened
mind is the pure, undefiled mind. In the tathagatagarbha-sutras it is
this pure consciousness that is regarded to be the seed from which
When this intrinsically pure consciousness came to be regarded as an
element capable of growing into
Gregory comments on this origin of the Tathagatagarba-doctrine: "The implication of this doctrine is that enlightenment is the natural and true state of the mind."
DHARMA-DHāTU - THE REALM OF THE BUDDHA
The tenth chapter emphasizes, in accordance with the Bodhisattva-ideal of the Mahayana teachings, that everyone can be liberated. All living beings can become a buddha, not only monks and nuns, but also laypeople, śrāvakas , bodhisattvas , and non-human creatures. It also details that all living beings can be a 'teacher of the Dharma'.
The twelfth chapter of the
Avatamsaka Sutra And Universal Buddhahood
According to Wayman, the Avataṃsaka Sūtra (1st-3rd century CE) was
the next step in the development of the
here it is taught that the Buddha's divine knowledge pervades sentient beings, and that its representation in an individual being is the substratum consciousness.
The Avataṃsaka Sūtra does not contain a "singular discussion of the concept", but the idea of "a universal penetration of sentient beings by the wisdom of the Buddha (buddhajñāna)" was complementary to the concept of the Buddha-womb. The basic idea of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra is the unity of the absolute and the relative:
All in One, One in All. The All melts into a single whole. There are
no divisions in the totality of reality t views the cosmos as holy,
as "one bright pearl," the universal reality of the Buddha. The
All levels of reality are related and interpenetrated. This is depicted in the image of Indra\'s net . This "unity in totality allows every individual entity of the phenomenal world its uniqueness without attributing an inherent nature to anything".
Around 300 CE, the
* The Nirmana-kaya, or Transformation-body, the earthly manifestation of the Buddha * The Sambhogakāya , or Enjoyment-body, a subtle body, by which the Buddha appears to bodhisattvas to teach them * The Dharmakāya, or Dharma-body, the ultimate nature of the Buddha, and to the ultimate nature of reality
They may be described as follows:
The first is the 'Knowledge-body' (Jnana-kaya), the inner nature shared by all Buddhas, their Buddha-ness (buddhata) The second aspect of the Dharma-body is the 'Self-existent-body' (Svabhavika-kaya). This is the ultimate nature of reality, thusness, emptiness: the non-nature which is the very nature of dharmas, their dharma-ness (dharmata). It is the Tathagata-garbha and bodhicitta hidden within beings, and the transformed 'storehouse-consciousness'.
TATHāGATAGARBHA SUTRAS - THE ESSENCE OR POTENTIALITY OF BUDDHAHOOD
Main article: Tathāgatagarbha sūtras
The tathāgatagarbha sūtras originated in India, but their ideas
were more influential in the development of East Asian
The Tathāgatagarbha Sūtra (200-250 CE) is considered (...) "the earliest expression of this (the tathāgatagarbha doctrine) and the term tathāgatagarbha itself seems to have been coined in this very sutra." It states that one is already or primordially awakened.
ŚRīMāLāDEVī SIṃHANāDA SūTRA
The Śrīmālādevī Siṃhanāda Sūtra (3rd century CE ), also named The Lion's Roar of Queen Srimala, centers on the teaching of the tathagatagarbha as "ultimate soteriological principle". Regarding the tathāgatagarbha, it states:
Lord, the Tathagatagarbha is neither self nor sentient being, nor soul, nor personality. The Tathagatagarbha is not the domain of beings who fall into the belief in a real personality, who adhere to wayward views, whose thoughts are distracted by voidness. Lord, this Tathagatagarbha is the embryo of the Illustrious Dharmadhatu, the embryo of the Dharmakaya, the embryo of the supramundane dharma, the embryo of the intrinsically pure dharma.
In the Śrīmālādevī Siṃhanāda Sūtra there are two possible states for the tathāgatagarbha:
ither covered by defilements, when it is called only "embryo of the Tathagata"; or free from defilements, when the "embryo of the Tathagata" is no more the "embryo" (potentiality) but the Tathagata (actuality).
The sutra itself states it this way:
This Dharmakaya of the Tathagata when not free from the store of defilement is referred to as the Tathagatagarbha.
The Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (written 2nd century CE) was very
influential in the Chinese reception of the Buddhist teachings.
According to Shimoda Masahiro, the authors of the Mahāparinirvāṇa
Sūtra were leaders and advocates of stupa worship. The term
buddhadhātu originally referred to relics. In the Mahāparinirvāṇa
Sūtra, it came to be used in place of the concept of
tathāgatagārbha. The authors used the teachings of the
Tathāgatagarbha Sūtra to reshape the worship of the physical relics
of the Buddha into worship of the inner Buddha as a principle of
salvation. Sasaki, in a review of Shimoda, conveys a key premise of
Shimoda's work, namely, that the origins of
According to Sallie B. King, it does not represent a major
innovation, and is rather unsystematic, which made it "a fruitful one
for later students and commentators, who were obliged to create their
own order and bring it to the text". According to King, its most
important innovation is the linking of the term buddhadhatu with
tathagatagarbha. The sutra presents the
Nevertheless the sutra as it stands is quite clear that while we can speak of as Self, actually it is not at all a Self, and those who have such Self-notions cannot perceive the tathagatagarbha and thus become enlightened (see Ruegg 1989a: 21-6).
RATNAGOTRAVIBHāGA OR UTTARATANTRAśāSTRA
The Ratnagotravibhāga, also called Uttaratantraśāstra (5th century CE), is a śāstra (commentary) in which
he various insights and developments of the above texts (all of which served as its sources) were to be comprehensively synthesised into the most authoritatively complete analysis of the tathāgatagārbha theory.
It gives an overview of authoritative tathāgatagarbha sutras, mentioning the Tathāgatagarbha Sūtra, the Śrīmālādevī Siṃhanāda Sūtra, Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, the Aṅgulimālīya Sūtra , the Anunatva-Apurnatva-Nirdesa and the Mahābherīharaka-sūtra. It presents the tathāgatagarbha as "an ultimate, unconditional reality that is simultaneously the inherent, dynamic process towards its complete manifestation". Mundane and enlightened reality are seen as complementary:
Thusness defiled is the Tathagatagarbha, and Thusness undefiled is Enlightenment.
According to the Ratnagotravibhāga, all sentient have "the embryo of the Tathagata" in three senses:
* the Tathāgata's dharmakāya permeates all sentient beings; * the Tathāgata's tathatā is omnipresent (avyatibheda); * the Tathāgata's species (gotra, a synonym for tathagatagarbha) occurs in them.
The Ratnagotravibhāga equates enlightenment with the nirvāṇa-realm and the dharmakāya. It gives a variety of synonyms for garbha, the most frequently used being gotra and dhatu.
CONNECTING THE CONCEPTS
TATHAGATAGARBHA AND ALAYAVIJNANA
According to Kalupahana, the
Abhidhamma - The Seed Of Awakening
One problem is how to integrate the doctrine of anatta with the idea of karma and rebirth . The anatta-doctrine stipulates that there is no underlying self, while the idea of karma and rebirth seems to implicate an underlying essence that's being reborn. A solution to this problem was the proposition of the existence of karmic seeds. The karmic effects of the human deeds lie dormant, as seeds, until they germinate in this or a next life. Not an individual self, but these karmic seeds are the base for the generation of a following life.
This concept of "seeds" was espoused by the Sautrāntika in debate with the Sarvāstivādins over the metaphysical status of phenomena (dharmas). It is a precursor to the ālaya-vijñāna, the store-consciousness of the Yogācāra school which contains all these seeds. Originally ālaya-vijñāna simply meant defiled consciousness: defiled by the workings of the five senses and the mind . It was also seen as the mūla-vijñāna, the base-consciousness or "stream of consciousness" from which awareness and perception spring.
According to Yogacara, awakening is the result of a seed that comes from outside the human psyche, namely by hearing the teaching.
See also: Transformations of consciousness
To account for the notion of
Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra (compiled 350-400 CE ) synthesized the
tathagatagarba-doctrine and the ālāya-vijñāna doctrine. The
The Lankavatara-sutra contains tathagata-garba thought, but also warns against reification of the idea of Buddha-nature, and presents it as an aid to attaining awakening:
Is not this Tathagata-garbha taught by the Blessed One the same as the ego-substance taught by the philosophers? The ego as taught by the philosophers is an eternal creator, unqualified, omnipresent, and imperishable.
The Blessed One replied: it is emptiness, reality-limit, Nirvana, being unborn, unqualified, and devoid of will-effort; the reason why the Tathagatas teach the doctrine pointing to the Tathagata-garba is to make the ignorant cast aside their fear when they listen to the teaching of egolessness and to have them realise the state of non-discrimination and imagelessness
According to Wayman text-decoration: none">Aśvaghoṣa]], no
The Awakening of Faith in the
Mahayana offers a synthesis of Chinese
buddhist thinking. It sees the
In the words of the Awakening of Faith — which summarizes the essentials of Mahayana — self and world, mind and suchness, are integrally one. Everything is a carrier of that a priori enlightenment; all incipient enlightenment is predicated on it. The mystery of existence is, then, not, "How may we overcome alienation?" The challenge is, rather, "Why do we think we are lost in the first place?"
In the Awakening of Faith the 'one mind' has two aspects, namely tathata, suchness, the things as they are, and samsara, the cycle of birth and death. This text was in line with an essay by Emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty (reign 502-549 CE), in which he postulated a pure essence, the enlightened mind, trapped in darkness, which is ignorance. By this ignorance the pure mind is trapped in samsara. This resembles the tathāgatagarba and the idea of the defilement of the luminous mind. In a commentary on this essay Shen Yue stated that insight into this true essence is awakened by stopping the thoughts - a point of view which is also being found in the Platform Sutra of Huineng .
The joining together of these different ideas supported the notion of
the ekayāna , the one vehicle: absolute oneness, all-pervading
Buddha-wisdom and original enlightenment as a holistic whole. This
synthesis was a reflection of the unity which was attained in China
with the united
Chan masters from
Huineng in 7th-century China to
Hakuin Ekaku in
18th-century Japan to
Hsu Yun in 20th-century China, have all taught
that the process of awakening begins with the light of the mind
turning around within the 8th consciousness, so that the
ālayavijñāna, also known as the tathāgatagarbha, is transformed
into the "bright mirror wisdom". The
Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra presents
Now, Mahāmati, what is perfect knowledge? It is realised when one casts aside the discriminating notions of form, name, reality, and character; it is the inner realisation by noble wisdom. This perfect knowledge, Mahāmati, is the essence of the Tathāgata-garbha.
When this active transformation is complete, the other seven consciousnesses are also transformed. The 7th consciousness of delusive discrimination becomes transformed into the "equality wisdom". The 6th consciousness of thinking sense becomes transformed into the "profound observing wisdom", and the 1st to 5th consciousnesses of the five sensory senses become transformed into the "all-performing wisdom".
According to Heng-Ching Shih, the teaching of the universal
the inherent nature that exists in all beings. In Mahāyāna Buddhism, enlightenment is a process of uncovering this inherent nature … The Buddha nature identical with transcendental reality. The unity of the Buddha with everything that exists.
In the Korean Vajrasamādhi Sūtra (685 CE), the tathāgatagarbha is presented as being possessed of two elements, one essential, immutable, changeless and still, the other active and salvational:
This "dharma of the one mind", which is the "original tathagatagarbha", is said to be "calm and motionless" ... The Vajrasamadhi's analysis of tathagatagarbha also recalls a distinction the Awakening of Faith makes between the calm, unchanging essence of the mind and its active, adaptable function The tathagatagarbha is equated with the "original edge of reality" (bhutakoti) that is beyond all distinctions - the equivalent of original enlightenment, or the essence. But tathagatagarbha is also the active functioning of that original enlightenment - 'the inspirational power of that fundamental faculty' .... The tathagatagarbha is thus both the 'original edge of reality' that is beyond cultivation (= essence) as well as the specific types of wisdom and mystical talents that are the byproducts of enlightenment (= function).
The emphasis in
The potential for
In his letter "Opening the Eyes of Wooden and painted Images"
This concept of the enlightenment of plants in turn derives from the doctrine of three thousand realms in a single moment of life, which teaches that all life—insentient and sentient—possesses the Buddha nature.
The founder of the
Therefore, the very impermanency of grass and tree, thicket and forest is the Buddha nature. The very impermanency of men and things, body and mind, is the Buddha nature. Nature and lands, mountains and rivers, are impermanent because they are the Buddha nature. Supreme and complete enlightenment, because it is impermanent, is the Buddha nature.
Everything by its very nature is subject to the process of infinite transformation - this is its Buddha- or Dharma-nature.
What is the substance of this Buddha- or Dharma-nature? In Buddhism it is called ku (shunyata). Now, ku is not mere emptiness. It is that which is living, dynamic, devoid of mass, unfixed, beyond individuality or personality--the matrix of all phenomena.
A famous reference to
Gelug school of Tibetan
According to the
14th Dalai Lama
Once one pronounces the words "emptiness" and "absolute", one has the impression of speaking of the same thing, in fact of the absolute. If emptiness must be explained through the use of just one of these two terms, there will be confusion. I must say this; otherwise you might think that the innate original clear light as absolute truth really exists.
Jeffrey Hopkins conveys the same understanding:
The basis of purification is the Buddha nature, which is viewed in two ways. One is the clear light nature of the mind, a positive phenomenon, and the other is the emptiness of inherent existence of the mind, a negative phenomenon, a mere absence of inherent establishment of the mind.
Dharmadhatu is adorned with dharmakaya, which is endowed with dharmadhatu wisdom. This is a brief but very profound statement, because "dharmadhatu" also refers to sugata-garbha or buddha nature. Buddha nature is all-encompassing ... This buddha nature is present just as the shining sun is present in the sky. It is indivisible from the three vajras of the awakened state, which do not perish or change.
The Nyingma meditation masters, Khenchen Palden Sherab and Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal, emphasise that the essential nature of the mind (the Buddha-nature) is not a blankness, but is characterised by wonderful qualities and a perfection that is already present and complete:
The nature of the mind is not hollow or blank; it is profound and blissful and full of wonderful qualities... meditation practice reveals our true nature as being totally perfect and complete.
The true nature of mind is beyond conception, yet it is present in every object. The true nature is always there, but due to our temporary obscurations we do not recognize it ... The primordial nature is beyond conceptions; it cannot be explained ... cannot be encompassed by words. Although you can say it is clarity and vastness, you cannot see it or touch it; it is beyond expression.
Speaking in the context of Nyingma,
Vajra pride refers to our pride and confidence in the absolute nature of our mind as buddha: primordially, originally pure, awake and full of the qualities of enlightenment.
...the Great Perfection represents the most sophisticated
interpretation of the so-called "Buddha nature" tradition within the
context of Indo-Tibetan thought, and as such, is of extreme importance
for research into classical esoteric philosophic systems such as
The 19th/20th-century Tibetan Buddhist scholar, Shechen Gyaltsap Gyurme Pema Namgyal, sees the Buddha nature as ultimate truth, nirvana, which is constituted of profundity, primordial peace and radiance:
The union of wisdom and emptiness is the essence of Buddha-hood or
what is called
Moreover, the Buddhist tantric scripture entitled Chanting the Names of Mañjuśrī (Mañjuśrī-nāma-saṅgīti), repeatedly exalts, as portrayed by Dolpopa, not the non-Self but the Self, and applies the following terms to this ultimate reality : 'The Buddha-Self, the beginningless Self, the solid Self, the diamond Self'. These terms are applied in a manner which reflects the cataphatic approach to Buddhism, typical of much of Dolpopa's writings.
Dolpopa further expressed the viewpoint that the Buddha-nature transcends the chain of dependent origination. It is not empty of its own ultimately real essence, but only of extraneous, transitory and relative phenomena.
Dr. Cyrus Stearns writes on Dolpopa's attitude to the 'third turning
of the wheel' doctrines (i.e. the
The Third Turning of the
... the ultimate universal ground also has always been with the Buddha-Essence (Tathagatagarbha), and this essence in terms of the universal ground has been taught by the Tathagata. The fools who do not know it, because of their habits, see even the universal ground as (having) various happiness and suffering and actions and emotional defilements. Its nature is pure and immaculate, its qualities are as wishing-jewels; there are neither changes nor cessations. Whoever realizes it attains Liberation ...
THE RIMé MOVEMENT
Main article: Rangtong
The Rimé movement is an ecumenical movement in Tibet which started as an attempt to reconcile the various Tibetan schools in the 19th century. In contrast to the Gelugpa, which adheres to the rang stong, "self-empty", or Prasaṅgika point of view, the Rimé movement supports shen tong (gzhan tong), "other-empty", an essential nature which is "pure radiant non-dual consciousness".
There has been a great deal of heated debate in Tibet between the exponents of Rangtong, (Wylie: Rang-stong) and Shentong, (Wylie: gZhan-stong) philosophies. The historic facts of these two philosophies are well known to the Tibetologists.
Jamgon Kongtrul says about the two systems:
Madhyamika philosophies have no differences in realising as 'Shunyata', all phenomena that we experience on a relative level. They have no differences also, in reaching the meditative state where all extremes (ideas) completely dissolve. Their difference lies in the words they use to describe the Dharmata . Shentong describes the Dharmata, the mind of Buddha, as 'ultimately real'; while Rangtong philosophers fear that if it is described that way, people might understand it as the concept of 'soul' or 'Atma'. The Shentong philosopher believes that there is a more serious possibility of misunderstanding in describing the Enlightened State as 'unreal' and 'void'. Kongtrul finds the Rangtong way of presentation the best to dissolve concepts and the Shentong way the best to describe the experience.
Modern scholarship points to the various possible interpretations of Buddha Nature as either an essential self, as Sunyata , or as the inherent possibility of awakening.
Shenpen Hookham, Oxford Buddhist scholar and Tibetan lama of the
Shentong tradition writes of the
In scriptural terms, there can be no real objection to referring to
Buddha, Buddhajnana ,
Buddhist scholar and chronicler, Merv Fowler, writes that the
The teaching that
According to Heng-Ching Shih, the tathāgatagarbha/
… if one is a Madhyamika then that which enables sentient beings to become buddhas must be the very factor that enables the minds of sentient beings to change into the minds of Buddhas. That which enables things to change is their simple absence of inherent existence, their emptiness. Thus the tathagatagarbha becomes emptiness itself, but specifically emptiness when applied to the mental continuum.
Several contemporary Japanese scholars, headed under the label
Sallie B. King objects to their view, seeing the
Sutton agrees with this critique on the narrowness of interpretation. In discussing the inadequacy of modern scholarship on Buddha-nature, Sutton states,
One is impressed by the fact that these authors, as a rule, tend to opt for a single meaning disregarding all other possible meanings which are embraced in turn by other texts".
He goes on to point out that the term tathāgatagarbha has up to six possible connotations. Of these, he says the three most important are:
* an underlying ontological reality or essential nature
(tathāgata-tathatā-'vyatireka) which is functionally equivalent to a
self (ātman) in an Upanishadic sense,
* the dharma-kāya which penetrates all beings (sarva-sattveṣu
dharma-kāya-parispharaṇa), which is functionally equivalent to
brahman in an Upanishadic sense
* the womb or matrix of
Of these three, Sutton claims that only the third connotation has any soteriological significance, while the other two posit Buddha-nature as an ontological reality and essential nature behind all phenomena.
* ^ Buddha-dhatu, mind, tathagatagarbha, Dharma-dhatu, suchness
* ^ Sanskrit; Jp. Busshō, "Buddha-nature".
* ^ Enlightened one, a/the Buddha
* ^ Kevin Trainor: "a sacred nature that is the basis for becoming
* ^ According to Wayman TEXT-DECORATION: NONE">TATPURUṣA
(तत्पुरुष) compound is a dependent determinative
compound , i.e. a compound XY meaning a type of Y which is related to
X in a way corresponding to one of the grammatical cases of X.
* ^ A BAHUVRIHI COMPOUND (from Sanskrit
बहुव्रीहि, bahuvrīhi, literally meaning "much rice"
but denoting a rich man) is a type of compound that denotes a referent
by specifying a certain characteristic or quality the referent
* ^ In the Maraparinirvana
* ^ Each part of the world reflects the totality of the cosmos:
quote * ^ According to Kalapahuna,
* ^ A B Lusthaus 1998 , p. 84.
* ^ A B Trainor 2004 , p. 207.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O King 1991 , p. 4.
* ^ A B C D E F Brown 1994 , p. 44.
* ^ A B C Zimmerman 2002 , p. 45.
* ^ Brandon, G. S. F., ed. (1972). A Dictionary of Buddhism. (NB:
with an "Introduction" by T. O. Ling.) New York, NY, USA: Charles
Scribner's Sons. SBN 684-12763-6 (trade cloth) p.240
* ^ A B C Wayman 1990 , p. viii-ix.
* ^ Lopez 2001 , p. 263.
* ^ A B Wayman 1990 , p. ix.
* ^ King 1991 , p. 48.
* ^ A B C D E Brown 1994 , p. 45.
* ^ Zimmerman 2002 , p. 40.
* ^ Zimmerman 2002 , p. 41.
* ^ A B C Zimmerman 2002 , p. 44.
* ^ A B Jikido 2000 , p. 73.
* ^ A B King 1991 , p. 5.
* ^ A B Shirō 1997 , p. 169.
* ^ A B C Williams 2000 , p. 161.
* ^ Lusthaus 1998 .
* ^ A B C D E Lai .
* ^ A B C D Wayman 1990 , p. 42.
* ^ A B C D E Gregory 1991 , p. 288-289.
* ^ Harvey 1995 , p. 56.
* ^ Pabhassara Soetra,
Anguttara Nikaya 1.49-52
* ^ Snelling 1987 , p. 125.
* ^ A B Reeves 2008 , pp. 15–16
* ^ Reeves 2008 , p. 5
* ^ Dumoulin 2005 , p. 46-47.
* ^ Dumoulin 2005 , p. 47.
* ^ Snelling 1987 , p. 126.
* ^ A B C Harvey 1995 , p. 114.
* ^ Wayman 1990 .
* ^ A B C Wayman 1990 , p. 43.
* ^ Zimmermann 1999 , p. 143–168.
* ^ Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W.
* Brown, Brian Edward (1994), The Buddha Nature. A Study of the
Tathagatagarbha and Alayavijnana, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
* Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005),
* Liu, Ming-Wood (1982), "The Doctrine of the Buddha-Nature in the
Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra", Journal of the International
Association of Buddhist Studies 5 (2), pp. 63–94, archived from the
original on October 16, 2013
* Lopez, Donald S. (2001), The Story of Buddhism: a concise guide to
its history & teaching, HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., ISBN
* Lusthaus, Dan (1998), Buddhist Philosophy, Chinese. In: Routledge
Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Index, Taylor & Francis
* Powers, J. A. (2000). Concise Encyclopaedia of Buddhism.
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