BRUNO BAUER (German: ; 6 September 1809 – 13 April 1882) was a
German philosopher and historian. As a student of
G. W. F. Hegel ,
Bauer was a radical Rationalist in philosophy, politics and Biblical
criticism. Bauer investigated the sources of the
* 1 Biography * 2 Conflict with David Strauss * 3 Views on Christian origins * 4 Antisemitism * 5 Political ideology * 6 Revival * 7 Argument against the existence of Jesus * 8 Translations * 9 Quotes * 10 Major works * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
Bauer was the son of a painter in a porcelain factory and his wife at Eisenberg in Saxe-Altenburg , and became one of the great scholars of the 19th century.
Bauer studied at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin from Spring 1828 to Spring 1832. He became associated with the so-called Right Hegelians under Philip Marheineke , who engaged Bauer years later to edit the second edition of Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion 1818–1832. This was to become one of Bauer's best-known works—a three-volume, critical edition.
In 1834 he began to teach in Berlin as a licentiate of theology, and in 1839 was transferred to the University of Bonn .
In 1838 he published his Kritische Darstellung der Religion des Alten Testaments (Critical Exhibition of the Religion of the Old Testament) in two volumes. This work showed Bauer was faithful to the Hegelian Rationalist theology that interpreted all miracles in Naturalistic terms.
Consistent with his Hegelian Rationalism, Bauer continued in 1840 with, Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte des Johannes (Critique of the Evangelical History of John). In 1841 Bauer continued his Rationalist theme with, Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der Synoptiker (Critique of the Evangelical History of the Synoptics ).
At no time in his writing was Bauer ever an orthodox Christian. From
his earliest days of academic scholarship under Hegel, Bauer
maintained a firm criticism of
Accused of being a so-called "Right Hegelian" (cf. David Strauss, In
Defense of My 'Life of Jesus' Against the Hegelians, 1838), he was
later accused of being a "Left Hegelian" because of his association,
or rather his early leadership, of the
Young Hegelians . Yet the
labels of 'Left' and 'Right' were only placed on
From 1839 to 1841, Bauer was a teacher, mentor and close friend of
The Prussian Minister of Education, Altenstein , sent Bauer to the University of Bonn , to protect his Rationalist Theology from the critique of the Berlin orthodox, as well as to win over Bonn University to Hegelianism. Bauer, however, created many enemies at pietist -dominated Bonn university, where he openly taught Rationalism in his new position as professor of theology. Bauer attested in letters during this time that he tried to provoke a scandal, to force the government either to give complete freedom of science and teaching to its university professors, or to openly express its anti-enlightenment position by removing him from his post.
The pro-Hegelian minister Altenstein had died and been replaced by the anti-Hegelian Eichhorn. The government officials asked for advice from the theology departments of its universities. Except for the Hegelian Marheineke , most said that a professor of Protestant theology should not be allowed to teach "atheism" to his student priests. As Bauer was unwilling to compromise his Rationalism, the Prussian government in 1842 revoked his teaching license. After the setbacks of the revolutions of 1848 , Bauer left the city. He lived an ascetic and stoic life in the countryside of Rixdorf near Berlin.
Bauer continued to write, including more than nine theological tomes, in twelve lengthy volumes. His lengthy volumes varied between theology, modern history and politics. He published them at his own expense while working at his family's tobacco shop.
Between 1843 and 1845 Bauer published Geschichte der Politik, Kultur und Aufklärung des 18ten Jahrhunderts (History of Politics, Culture and Enlightenment in the 18th Century, in 4 volumes). In 1847 Bauer published Geschichte der französischen Revolution (History of the French Revolution, in 3 volumes).
Between 1850 and 1852 Bauer published Kritik der Evangelien und Geschichte ihres Ursprungs (A Critique of the Gospels and a History of their Origin), as well as Kritik der paulinischen Briefe (Critique of the Pauline Epistles). In these works Bauer led the academic movement to subject the Bible to historical and literary criticism.
In 1877 Bauer published Christus und die Caesaren (Christ and the Caesars), and in 1882 he published Disraelis romantischer und Bismarcks socialistischer Imperialismus (Disraeli's Romantic and Bismarck's Socialist Imperialism).
Bauer's final book on theology, Christ and the Caesars (1877), was his crowning effort to justify Hegel's position that Christian theology owed at least as much to Greco-Roman classical philosophy as it owed to Judaism.
CONFLICT WITH DAVID STRAUSS
Shortly after the death of Hegel , another writer, David Strauss , who had been a reader of Hegel's writings, arrived in Berlin (1831). As a student of Friedrich Schleiermacher he wrote a controversial book which is now famous, entitled, The Life of Jesus Critically Examined, usually referred to as The Life of Jesus (1835). In this book David Strauss announced his own landmark theory of 'demythologization' as an approach to the Gospels, but he also attempted to use Hegel's name and fame in his book as a marketing ploy.
In the year of its publication, Strauss' book raised a storm of controversy. The Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV tightened control of the Prussian University system, favoring his ultra-conservative approach to the Bible. He objected to the writing of David Strauss, and he also mistakenly believed that the Hegelian school in general was its source.
Bruno Bauer, at 26 years of age, was chosen by the Hegelians to refute David Strauss in the Hegelian "Journal für wissenschaftliche Kritik" (Journal of Philosophical Criticism). Bauer ably showed that Strauss misrepresented Hegel, and that Strauss' position differed significantly from Hegel's. Bauer also demonstrated that David Strauss' so-called dialectic was taken from Schleiermacher (who had been antagonistic toward Hegel).
Although Strauss' book had sold well throughout Europe, in 1838
Strauss published a rebuttal to
However, in this final exchange with the Hegelians, he criticised the Hegelian school in a way that has become unforgettable. In that booklet David Strauss invented terms still in use today: a Right Hegelian would uncritically defend all positions of orthodox Christian theology, he said, while a Left Hegelian takes a liberal and progressive approach to Scripture. A "Centrist Hegelian" would take the middle road and try to honor both: whatever was rational in theological thinking as well as free scientific thought.
The Prussian monarch, objecting to these debates, banned many Hegelians from teaching in Universities, including Bruno Bauer. For the rest of his life, Bauer continued to be bitter towards David Strauss.
For example, when Bauer was middle-aged, a youthful Friedrich
Nietzsche came to visit him, seeking advice from a well-known author
VIEWS ON CHRISTIAN ORIGINS
Bauer wrote criticism of the
For Bruno Bauer, the
Gospel of Mark was completed in the reign
In 1906 Albert Schweitzer wrote that Bauer "originally sought to defend the honor of Jesus by rescuing his reputation from the inane parody of a biography that the Christian apologists had forged." However, he eventually came to the belief that it was a complete fiction and "regarded the Gospel of Mark not only as the first narrator, but even as the creator of the gospel history, thus making the latter a fiction and Christianity the invention of a single original evangelist" ( Otto Pfleiderer ).
Although Bauer did investigate the 'Ur-Marcus,' it was his remarks on the current version of the Gospel of Mark that captured popular attention. In particular, some key themes in the Gospel of Mark appeared to be literary. The Messianic Secret theme, in which Jesus continually performed wonders and then continually told the viewers not to tell anybody that he did this, seemed to Bauer to be an example of fiction. If the Messianic Secret is a fiction, Bauer wrote, then the redactor who added that theme was probably the final redactor of our current version of the Gospel of Mark . In 1901, Wilhelm Wrede would make his lasting fame by repeating many of Bauer's ideas in his book, The Messianic Secret.
Also, for some influential theologians in the Tübingen School , several Pauline epistles were regarded as forgeries of the 2nd century. Bauer radicalised that position by suggesting that ALL Pauline epistles were forgeries, written in the West in antagonism to the Paul of The Acts. Bauer observed a preponderance of the Greco-Roman element, over and above the Jewish element, in Christian writings, and he added a wealth of historical background to support his theory; though modern scholars such as E. P. Sanders and John P. Meier have disputed this theory and attempted to demonstrate a mainly Jewish historical background. Other authors, such as Rudolf Bultmann , tended to agree that a Greco-Roman element was dominant.
According to Bruno Bauer, the writer of Mark 's gospel was "an Italian, at home both in Rome and Alexandria"; that of Matthew 's gospel "a Roman, nourished by the spirit of Seneca "; Christianity is essentially " Stoicism triumphant in a Jewish garb."
Bauer's final book, Christ and the Caesars (1877) offers a
penetrating analysis that shows common key-words in the words of
1st-century writers like Seneca the Stoic and
In Christ and the Caesars, Bauer argued that
According to Bruno Bauer,
By contrast, said Bauer,
According to Albert Schweitzer , Bruno Bauer's criticisms of the New Testament provided the most interesting questions about the historical Jesus that he had seen.
Judging by the second-to-last chapter of his Quest, Schweitzer's own
theology was partly based on Bauer's writings. The title of that
chapter is Thoroughgoing Skepticism and Eschatology. In that chapter
Schweitzer clashes head-on with
Wilhelm Wrede , who had recently (in
1905) proposed the theory of a
Messianic Secret . Wrede's theory
claimed that Jesus' continual commands to his followers to "say
nothing to anybody" after each miracle was performed could only be
explained as a literary invention of this Gospel writer. (That is,
Wrede was the thoroughgoing skeptic, and Schweitzer was the
thoroughgoing eschatologist.) Schweitzer began by showing that Wrede
had merely copied this idea from Bruno Bauer. Then Schweizter listed
another forty brilliant criticisms from
This line of criticism has value in emphasizing the importance of studying the influence of environment in the formation of the Christian Scriptures. Bauer was a man of restless creativity, interdisciplinary activity and independent judgment. Many reviewers have charged that Bauer's judgment was ill-balanced, Due to the controversial nature of his work as a social theorist, theologian and historian, Bauer was banned from public teaching by a Prussian monarch. After many years of similar censorship, Bauer came to resign himself to his place as a free-lance critic, rather than as an official teacher.
Douglas Moggach published The Philosophy and Politics of Bruno Bauer in 2003. This is the most comprehensive overview of Bauer's life and works, in English to date. Bauer's biography has obtained more kindly reviews these days, even by opponents. In his own day, his opponents often respected him, since he was not afraid of taking a line on principle.
One point that is often raised in this regard is his line that was displeasing to his liberal friends on the Jewish question (Die Judenfrage, 1843). Bauers later article "Jews abroad" (Das Judentum in der Fremde) in "Staats- und Gesellschaftslexicon" was even more radical and extensive, mixing arguments of racism, religion and "voelkisch" ideology.
The topic of Bauer's personal religious views or lack thereof is a continuing debate in contemporary scholarship about Bruno Bauer. One modern writer, Paul Trejo (2002), has made the case that Bauer remained a radical theologian who criticized specific types of Christianity, and that Bauer maintained a Hegelian interpretation of Christianity throughout his life. According to Trejo, Bauer's book, Christianity Exposed (1843), was very mild, only setting one sect of Christian against another. Further, opined Trejo, Bauer's Trumpet of the Last Judgment against Hegel the Atheist and Antichrist was a comedy – actually a prank – in which Bauer pretended to be a right-wing cleric who was attacking Hegel. When many right-wing readers publicly praised the book, Bauer revealed himself as the actual author and had a good laugh.
The Trumpet, written by Bauer and published anonymously, was of inspiration to Gianfranco Sanguinetti , for his 1975 pamphlet Veritable Report on the Last Chances to Save Capitalism in Italy, a Situationist prank which caused him to leave Italy under the force of political pressure.
Beginning in 1848, critics accused Bauer of promoting a virulent
antisemitism in print within reactionary circles. Bauer's view of
In 1843, Bauer wrote The Jewish Question , which was responded to in a pamphlet written by Karl Marx, entitled, On the Jewish Question . According to Marx, Bauer argued that the Jews were responsible for their own misfortunes in European society since they had "made their nest in the pores and interstices of bourgeois society". Bauer's actual words were, 'Jewish citizens should not expect to be free in Germany as long as German citizens were themselves unfree.'
Jacob Katz contextualizes Bauer's antisemitism with his passionate anti-Christianity, the latter of which caused Bauer to lose his professorship. Although, according to Katz, Bauer was "equally impatient with Christianity and Judaism", Bauer would frequently diverge from a review or opinion piece on a Jewish writer or thinker into a general consideration of "the Jew as a type", grasping at whatever negative characteristics he could find.
The first English-language rendering of Bruno Bauer's career was published in March, 2003 by Douglas Moggach, a professor at the University of Ottawa . His book is entitled, The Philosophy and Politics of Bruno Bauer. Professor Moggach develops a republican interpretation of Bruno Bauer, in which Bauer is portrayed as reaching atheist conclusions because of his political commitments to free self-consciousness and autonomy, and his criticisms of the Restoration union of church and state. Other scholars continue to dispute that portrait.
Bauer's personality was complex. During his career and even after he died he was difficult to classify. The left-wing tried to define him as one of their own. The right-wing tried to define him as one of their own. He was praised by the right-Hegelians, and he was praised by the left-Hegelians.
Bauer had studied directly under the German philosopher Friedrich
Hegel had awarded an academic prize to Bauer when Bauer was
about 20 years old.
Hegel died when
When Hegel unexpectedly died in 1831, possibly of cholera, Bruno Bauer's official connections were drastically reduced. Bauer had very few powerful friends during the academic fallout after Hegel's death.
After the publication of his 'The Trumpet' (1841) he was considered as an important representative of the radicals.
Bauer went underground and began to write Hegelian newspapers here
and there. In this journey he met some socialists, including Karl Marx
, his former student, and Marx' new friends,
Bauer had already turned away from the socialism and communism of
Suppressed and condemned by both the right-wing and the left-wing,
Bauer's scholarship was buried by German academia, and he remained a pariah, until Albert Kalthoff rescued his works from neglect and obscurity. Kalthoff revived Bauer's Christ Myth thesis in his Das Christus-Problem. Grundlinien zu einer Sozialtheologie (The Problem of Christ: Principles of a Social Theology, 1902) and Die Entstehung des Christentums, Neue Beiträge zum Christusproblem (The Rise of Christianity, 1904). Albert Schweitzer a historian of theology, who presented an important critical review of the history of the search for Jesus's life in Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschung (The Quest of the Historical Jesus , 1906), highly praised Bauer's early work.
Reading the prescient
ARGUMENT AGAINST THE EXISTENCE OF JESUS
Bauer became the first author to systematically argue that Jesus did not exist. Beginning in 1841, in his Criticism of the Gospel History of the Synoptics, Bauer argued that the Biblical Jesus was primarily a literary figure. However, he left open the question of whether a historical Jesus existed at all until his 1851 work, Criticism of the Gospels and History of their Origin and then in 1877 proposed his theory for the true origin of Jesus in Christ and the Caesars.
Bauer's 1842 work, Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der Synoptiker und des Johannes (3 vol) argued that the gospels were purely literary, with no historically authentic material. While not yet rejecting the historicity of Jesus, Bauer denied the historicity of a supernatural Christ (viz. Jesus—a natural human). Bauer wrote, "Everything that the historical Christ is, everything that is said of Him, everything that is known of Him, belongs to the world of imagination, that is, of the imagination of the Christian community, and therefore has nothing to do with any man who belongs to the real world." (see David Strauss (1808–1874) who pioneered the search for the "Historical Jesus" by also rejecting the supernatural events of "The Christ", in his 1835 work, Life of Jesus).
In his Criticism of the Pauline Epistles (1850–1852) and in A Critique of the Gospels and a History of their Origin (1850–1851), Bauer argued that Jesus had not existed. Schweitzer notes, "At the end of his study of the Gospels, Bauer is inclined to make the decision of the question whether there ever was a historic Jesus depend on the result of a further investigation which he proposed to make into the Pauline Epistles. It was not until ten years later (1850–1851) that he accomplished this task, (Kritik der Paidinischen Briefe. (Criticism of the Pauline Epistles.) Berlin, 1850-1852.) and applied the result in his new edition of the "Criticism of the Gospel History." (Kritik der Evangelien und Geschichte ihres Ursprungs. (Criticism of the Gospels and History of their Origin.) 2 vols., Berlin, 1850-1851.) The result is negative: there never was any historical Jesus."
In Christ and the Caesars (1877) he suggested that Christianity was a
synthesis of the
Seneca the Younger and of the Jewish
Christ myth theory
* that the
The great bulk of Bauer's writings have still not been translated into English. Only two books by Bauer have been formally translated; a comedic parody, The Trumpet of the Last Judgment Against Hegel the Atheist and Antichrist (1841, trans. Lawrence Stepelevich, 1989), and Christianity Exposed: A Recollection of the 18th Century and a Contribution to the Crisis of the 19th (1843, ed. Paul Trejo, 2002). A third book, Bauer's great, Christ and the Caesars (1877, Charleston House Publishing, 1999) was published informally, perhaps as a software-generated translation under a pseudonym, "Frank E. Schacht."
This section CONTAINS TOO MANY QUOTATIONS FOR AN ENCYCLOPEDIC ENTRY. Please help improve the article by editing it to take facts from excessively quoted material and rewrite them as sourced original prose. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote . (September 2015)
"We save the honor of Jesus when we restore His Person to life from the state of inanity to which the apologists have reduced it, and give it once more a living relation to history, which it certainly possessed." — Bruno Bauer, SYNOPTIKER, 1840 "Therefore, criticism has to direct itself against itself, and against the mysterious Substance in which it has up to now hid itself. In this way criticism must resolve things such that the development of this Substance drives itself forward to the Universality and Certainty of the Idea of its actual existence, the Eternal Self-consciousness." — Bruno Bauer, SYNOPTIKER, 1840 "The pure Christian State is a State in which theological law prevails. This law attains to real power or, to be more exact, absolute power, when through its results which are identical with those of opium, it puts all parts of humanity to sleep. If some occasionally awake they carry out crimes that horrify humanity which has not yet become Christian in the full sense of the word or has already abandoned the Christian framework." — Bruno Bauer, 1841, THE CHRISTIAN STATE AND OUR TIMES "After fulfilling its destructive urge towards everything that is noble and good on earth, it sketches, in its opium intoxication, a picture of the future situation, which differs drastically from the order of this world, since everything changes and is renewed." — Bruno Bauer, 1842, THE GOOD CAUSE OF FREEDOM AND MY OWN CASE "Reason is the true creative power, for it produces itself as Infinite Self-consciousness, and its ongoing creation is...world history. As the only power that exists, Spirit can therefore be determined by nothing other than itself, that is, its essence is Freedom...Freedom is the infinite power of Spirit...Freedom, the only End of Spirit, is also the only End of History, and history is nothing other than Spirit's becoming *conscious* of its Freedom, or the becoming of Real, Free, Infinite Self-consciousness." — Bruno Bauer, 1842, HEGEL'S LEHRE VON DER RELIGION UND KUNST VON DEM STANDPUNKTE DES GLAUBENS AUS BEURTEILT, trans. Moggach, 2001
* De pulchri principiis, Prussian royal prize manuscript, first published as Prinzipien des Schönen. De pulchri principiis. Eine Preisschrift (1829), new ed. Douglas Moggach und Winfried Schultze (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1996). * "Rezension (review): Das Leben Jesu, David Friedrich Strauss," Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Kritik, Dec. 1835; May 1836. * Kritik der Geschichte der Offenbarung. Die Religion des alten Testaments in der geschichtlichen Entwicklung ihrer Prinzipien dargestellt 2 vol. (Berlin, 1838). * Herr Dr. Hengstenberg (Berlin, 1839). * Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte des Johannes (Bremen, 1840) * “Der christliche Staat und unsere Zeit," Hallische Jahrbücher für deutsche Wissenschaft und Kunst, June 1841. * Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der Synoptiker, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1841) * Die Posaune des jüngsten Gerichts über Hegel, den Atheisten und Antichristen (Leipzig, 1841); trans. L. Stepelevich, The Trumpet of the Last Judgement against Hegel the Atheist and Antichrist. An Ultimatum (Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 1989) * (anon.) Hegels Lehre von der Religion und Kunst von dem Standpuncte des Glaubens aus beurteilt (Leipzig, 1842); new ed. Aalen (Scientia Verlag, 1967) * Die gute Sache der Freiheit und meine eigene Angelegenheit (1842) * Die Judenfrage (1843) ("The Jewish Question") * Das Entdeckte Christentum (Zürich, 1843, banned and destroyed, into oblivion until 1927: ed. Barnikol); transl. Esther Ziegler, Christianity Exposed (MellenPress, 2002) * "Die Fähigkeit der heutigen Juden und Christen, frei zu werden," in Georg Herwegh (ed.), Einundzwanzig Bogen aus der Schweiz (Zürich und Winterthur, 1843) * Geschichte der Politik, Kultur und Aufklärung des 18. Jahrhunderts, 4 vol. (1843–45) * "Die Gattung und die Masse”, Allg. Lit.-Ztg. X, September 1844 * Geschichte Deutschlands und der französischen Revolution unter der Herrschaft Napoleons, 2 vols. (1846) * Der Ursprung des Galaterbriefs (Hempel, 1850) * Kritik der paulinischen Briefe ("Critique of Paul's epistles") (Berlin, 1850–1851) * Der Ursprung des ersten Korintherbriefes (Hempel, 1851) * Kritik der Evangelien und Geschichte ihres Ursprungs, 3 vols. (1850–51); 4th vol. Die theologische Erklärung der Evangelien (Berlin, 1852). * Russland und das Germanentum 2 vol. (1853) * Das Judenthum in der Fremde. (Berlin, 1863). * Philo, Renan und das Urchristentum (Berlin, 1874) * Einfluss des englischen Quäkerthums auf die deutsche Cultur und auf das englisch-russische Project einer Weltkirche (Berlin, 1878) * Christus und die Cäsaren. Der Ursprung des Christenthums aus dem römischen Griechenthum (1877, 2d ed. 1879); Transl. Frank E. Schacht, Christ and the Caesars: The Origin of Christianity from Romanized Greek Culture (Charleston House, 1998) * Christus und die Cäsaren...Transl. German to English by Helmut Brunar and Byron Marchant, Christ and the Caesars... available (Bloomington IN: Xlibris Publishing, 2015). * Disraelis romantischer und Bismarcks sozialistischer Imperialismus (1882)
* ^ see Bauer's work "Christus und die Caesaren" (English: Christ and the Caesars) * ^ Durant, Will . Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972 * ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich , Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo, Ecce Homo, page 278 (Random House: Vintage Books Edition, 1989, Walter Kaufmann, ed.) * ^ Schweitzer, Albert, The Quest of the Historical Jesus – 1906 – Adam and Charles Black, on p.159, Schweitzer explicitly states, "Bauer's 'Criticism of the Gospel History' is worth a good dozen Lives of Jesus, because his work, as we are only now coming to recognise, after half a century, is the ablest and most complete collection of the difficulties of the Life of Jesus which is anywhere to be found." * ^ Bauer citation, report of scandal. * ^ Moggach, Douglas, The Philosophy and Politics of Bruno Bauer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003) p. 17 * ^ Katz, Jacob, From Prejudice to Destruction: Anti-Semitism, 1700–1933 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980) p. 214 * ^ Poliakov, Leon, The History of Anti-Semitism, Volume III: From Voltaire to Wagner (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003) p. 420 * ^ Katz, Jacob. From prejudice to destruction: anti-Semitism, 1700–1933. page 169 * ^ Katz, Jacob. From prejudice to destruction: anti-Semitism, 1700–1933. page 214-5 * ^ http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/holy-family/index.htm * ^ A B SCHWEITZER, ALBERT (1910). THE QUEST OF THE HISTORICAL JESUS A CRITICAL STUDY OF ITS PROGRESS FROM REIMARUS TO WREDE. p. 159. had long been regarded by theologians as an extinct force; nay, more, had been forgotten. It was, indeed, nothing less than a misfortune that Strauss and Bauer appeared within so short a time of one another. Bauer passed practically unnoticed, because every one was preoccupied with Strauss. Another unfortunate thing was that Bauer overthrew with his powerful criticism the hypothesis which attributed real historical value to Mark, so that it lay for a long time disregarded, and there ensued a barren period of twenty years in the critical study of the Life of Jesus. Bauer's "Criticism of the Gospel History" is worth a good dozen Lives of Jesus, because his work, as we are only now coming to recognise, after half a century, is the ablest and most complete collection of the difficulties of the Life of Jesus which is anywhere to be found. (Image of p. 159 at Google Books) * ^ Drews, Arthur (1926). Die Leugnung der Geschichtlichkeit Jesu in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Karlsruhe 1926 (in German). G. Braun. pp. 65–68. The Denial of the Historicity of Jesus in Past and Present * ^ Schilling, Klaus. "The Denial of the Historicity of Jesus in Past and Presen". Ego Death and Self-Control Cybernetics. Michael Hoffman. * ^ Price, Robert (2009). "Bruno Bauer, Christ and the Caesars, reviewed by Robert M. Price". Retrieved 19 November 2016. * ^ A B Robert E. Van Voorst Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Eerdmans Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 7-11
* ^ Beilby, James K. and Eddy, Paul Rhodes. "The Quest for the Historical Jesus", in James K. Beilby and Paul Rhodes Eddy (eds.). The Historical Jesus: Five Views. Intervarsity, 2009, p. 16.
* See Strauss, David. "The Life of Jesus Critically Examined, Calvin Blanchard, 1860.
* ^ Bauer, Bruno (1842). Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der
Synoptiker (in German). 3. O. Wigand. p. 308. Die Frage, mit der sich
unsere Zeit so viel beschäftigt hat ob nämlich Dieser, ob Jesus der
historische Christus sey, haben wir damit beantwortet dass wir
zeigten, dass Alles, was der historische Christus ist, was von ihm
gesagt wird, was wir von ihm wissen, der Welt der Vorstellung und zwar
der christlichen Vorstellung angehört, also auch mit einem Menschen,
der der wirklichen Welt angehört Nichts zu thun hat. Die Frage ist
damit beantwortet, dass sie für alle Zukunft gestrichen ist. (Image
of Title page & p. 308 at Google Books)
* ^ Schweitzer, Albert. The Quest of the Historical Jesus.
Fortress, 2001; first published 1913, pp. 124–128, 139–141.
* ^ SCHWEITZER, ALBERT (1910). "Bruno Bauer". THE QUEST OF THE
HISTORICAL JESUS A CRITICAL STUDY OF ITS PROGRESS FROM REIMARUS TO
WREDE. p. 157. Image of p. 157 at Google Books.
* ^ Moggach, Douglas. The Philosophy and Politics of Bruno Bauer.
Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 184. *Also see Engels, Frederick.
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bauer, Bruno". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 538.
* Barnikol, Ernst, 1972, Bruno Bauer, Studien und Materialien
* Brazill, W.J., 1970, The
Young Hegelians (New Haven: Yale
* Eberlein, Hermann-Peter, Bruno Bauer. Vom Marx-Freund zum
Antisemiten (Berlin: Karl Dietz-Verlag, 2009).
* Engels, Friedrich, 1882, "