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The Bruneian Empire or Empire of Brunei ( ), also known as Sultanate of Brunei, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei on the northern coast of Borneo island in Southeast Asia. Bruneian rulers converted to Islam around the 15th century, when it grew substantially since the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese, extending throughout coastal areas of Borneo and the Philippines, before it declined in the 17th century.


Historiography


Understanding the history of the Bruneian Empire is quite difficult since it is hardly mentioned in contemporary sources of its time, as well as there being a scarcity of evidence of its nature. No local or indigenous sources exist to provide evidence for any of this. As a result, Chinese texts have been relied on to construct the history of early Brunei. ''Boni'' in Chinese sources most likely refers to Western Borneo, while ''Poli'' 婆利, probably located in Sumatra, is claimed by local authorities to refer to Brunei as well.


History




Pre-empire history

In the 14th century, Brunei seems to be subjected to Java. The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned ''Barune'' as the vassal state of Majapahit, which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor.


Expansion


Following the presence of Portuguese after the fall of Malacca, Portuguese merchants traded regularly with Brunei from 1530 and described the capital of Brunei as surrounded by a stone wall. During the rule of Bolkiah, the fifth Sultan, the empire held control over coastal areas of northwest Borneo (present-day Brunei, Sarawak and Sabah) and reached Seludong (present-day Manila), Sulu Archipelago including parts of the island of Mindanao. In the 16th century, the Brunei empire's influence extended as far as Kapuas River delta in West Kalimantan. The Malay Sultanate of Sambas in West Kalimantan and Sultanate of Sulu in Southern Philippines in particular developed dynastic relations with the royal house of Brunei. Other Malay sultans of Pontianak, Samarinda as far as Banjarmasin, treated the Sultan of Brunei as their leader. The true nature of Brunei's relations to other Malay Sultanates of coastal Borneo and Sulu archipelago is still a subject of study, as to whether it was a vassal state, an alliance, or just a ceremonial relationship. Other regional polities also exercised their influence upon these sultanates. The Sultanate of Banjar (present-day Banjarmasin) for example, was also under the influence of Demak in Java.


Decline


By the end of 17th century, Brunei entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of the European powers, and piracy. The empire lost much of its territory due to the arrival of the western powers such as the Spanish in the Philippines, the Dutch in southern Borneo and the British in Labuan, Sarawak and North Borneo. By 1725, Brunei had many of its supply routes had been taken over by the Sulu Sultanate. In 1888, Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin later appealed to the British to stop further encroachment. In the same year British signed a "Treaty of Protection" and made Brunei a British protectorate until 1984 when it gained independence.


Government


The empire was divided into three traditional land systems known as ''Kerajaan'' (Crown Property), ''Kuripan'' (official property) and ''Tulin'' (hereditary private property).


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Further reading



Historical Atlas: History of Brunei

Expanding Boundaries of Sarawak including territorial gains from the Sultanate of Brunei

British treaties regarding North Borneo including cession agreement from the Sultanate of Brunei
{{authority control Category:Former countries in Borneo Category:Former countries in Bruneian history Category:Former countries in Malaysian history Category:Former countries in Philippine history Category:Former countries in Indonesian history Category:History of Brunei Category:History of Sarawak Category:History of Sabah Category:History of Malaysia Category:History of Indonesia Category:Pre-Muslim kingdoms in Malaysian history Category:Former empires in Asia