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BRUCE FREDERICK JOSEPH SPRINGSTEEN (born September 23, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, known for his work with the E Street Band . Nicknamed "The Boss", he is widely known for his brand of poetic lyrics, Americana
Americana
, working class , sometimes political sentiments centered on his native New Jersey, his distinctive voice, and his lengthy and energetic stage performances—with concerts from the 1970s to the present decade running at up to four hours in length.

Springsteen's recordings have included both commercially accessible rock albums and more somber folk-oriented works. His most successful studio albums, Born to Run
Born to Run
(1975) and Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
(1984) find pleasures in the struggles of daily American life. He has sold more than 120 million records worldwide and more than 64 million records in the United States, making him one of the world\'s best-selling artists of all time . He has earned numerous awards for his work, including 20 Grammy Awards , two Golden Globes
Golden Globes
, and an Academy Award
Academy Award
as well as being inducted into both the Songwriters Hall of Fame
Songwriters Hall of Fame
and the Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame in 1999. In 2009, Springsteen was a Kennedy Center Honors recipient, in 2013 was named MusiCares person of the year, and in 2016 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom .

He married Patti Scialfa in 1991, and the couple have had three children – Evan James, Jessica Rae and Sam Ryan.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 Career

* 2.1 1964–1972: Early years * 2.2 1972–1974: Initial struggle for success * 2.3 1975–1983: Breakthrough * 2.4 1984–1991: Commercial and popular phenomenon * 2.5 1992–1998: Artistic and commercial ups and downs and soundtrack work * 2.6 1999–2007: Return to success * 2.7 2008–2011: Deaths of Danny Federici
Danny Federici
and Clarence Clemons * 2.8 2012–2015: Wrecking Ball, High Hopes, American Beauty and The Ties That Bind box set * 2.9 2016–present: The River Tour 2016/Summer \'17, Chapter and Verse, autobiography, possible solo album and Broadway performances

* 3 Musical style * 4 Lyrical themes * 5 Personal life * 6 Bands * 7 Discography * 8 Concert tours

* 9 Awards and nominations

* 9.1 Academy Award
Academy Award
* 9.2 American Music Awards * 9.3 BRIT Awards * 9.4 Golden Globe Awards * 9.5 Grammy Awards * 9.6 Juno Awards * 9.7 MTV Video Music Awards * 9.8 Other recognition

* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

EARLY LIFE

Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen was born on September 23, 1949, at Monmouth Medical Center
Monmouth Medical Center
in Long Branch, New Jersey
Long Branch, New Jersey
. He was brought home from the hospital to Freehold Borough where he spent his childhood. He lived on South Street and attended Freehold Borough High School . His father, Douglas Frederick Springsteen, was of Dutch and Irish ancestry, and worked as a bus driver, among other vocations, although he was mostly unemployed. Springsteen said his mother, Adele Ann (née Zerilli), a legal secretary and of Italian ancestry, was the main breadwinner. His maternal grandfather was born in Vico Equense , a town near Naples
Naples
. He has two younger sisters, Virginia
Virginia
and Pamela. Pamela had a brief film career, but left acting to pursue still photography full-time; she took photos for his Human Touch
Human Touch
, Lucky Town
Lucky Town
and The Ghost of Tom Joad
The Ghost of Tom Joad
albums.

Springsteen's last name is topographic and of Dutch origin, literally translating to "jumping stone" but more generally meaning a kind of stone used as a stepping stone in unpaved streets or between two houses. The Springsteens are among the early Dutch families who settled in the colony of New Netherland
New Netherland
in the 1600s.

Raised a Roman Catholic , Springsteen attended the St. Rose of Lima Catholic school in Freehold Borough, where he was at odds with the nuns and rejected the strictures imposed upon him, even though some of his later music reflects a Catholic ethos and includes a few rock-influenced, traditional Irish-Catholic hymns. In a 2012 interview, he explained that it was his Catholic upbringing rather than political ideology that most influenced his music. He noted in the interview that his faith had given him a "very active spiritual life", although he joked that this "made it very difficult sexually." He added: "Once a Catholic, always a Catholic."

In the ninth grade, Springsteen transferred to the public Freehold High School , but did not fit in there either. Former teachers have said he was a "loner, who wanted nothing more than to play his guitar." He completed high school, but felt so uncomfortable that he skipped his own graduation ceremony. He briefly attended Ocean County College , but dropped out.

CAREER

1964–1972: EARLY YEARS

"This was different, shifted the lay of the land. Four guys, playing and singing, writing their own material ... Rock 'n' roll came to my house where there seemed to be no way out ... and opened up a whole world of possibilities." —Bruce Springsteen, on the impact of The Beatles
The Beatles

Springsteen grew up hearing fellow New Jersey
New Jersey
singer Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
on the radio. He became interested in being involved in music himself when, in 1956 at the age of seven, he saw Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
on The Ed Sullivan Show . In 1964, Springsteen bought his first guitar for $18. 1964 was also an important year for Springsteen, having seen The Beatles ' appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show
The Ed Sullivan Show
. Thereafter he started playing for audiences with a band called the Rogues at local venues such as the Elks Lodge in Freehold. In 1965, Springsteen's mother took out a loan to buy her 16-year-old son a $60 Kent guitar, an act he subsequently memorialized in his song "The Wish". In the same year, he went to the house of Tex and Marion Vinyard, who sponsored young bands in town. They helped him become the lead guitarist and subsequently one of the lead singers of the Castiles. His first gig with the Castiles was possibly at a trailer park on New Jersey Route 34 . The Castiles recorded two original songs at a public recording studio in Brick Township and played a variety of venues, including Cafe Wha?
Cafe Wha?
in Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
. Marion Vinyard said that she believed the young Springsteen when he promised he would make it big.

Called for conscription in the United States Armed Forces when he was 18, Springsteen failed the physical examination and did not serve in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
. He had suffered a concussion in a motorcycle accident when he was 17, and this together with his "crazy" behavior at induction gave him a classification of 4F , which made him unacceptable for service.

In the late-1960s, Springsteen performed briefly in a power trio known as Earth, playing in clubs in New Jersey, with one major show at the Hotel Diplomat in New York City
New York City
. Earth consisted of John Graham on bass, and Mike Burke on drums. Bob Alfano was later added on organ, but was replaced for two gigs by Frank 'Flash' Craig. Springsteen acquired the nickname "The Boss" during this period; when he played club gigs with a band he took on the task of collecting the band's nightly pay and distributing it amongst his bandmates. The nickname also reportedly sprang from games of Monopoly that Springsteen would play with other Jersey Shore musicians. Springsteen is not fond of this nickname, due to his dislike of bosses, but seems to have since tacitly accepted it. Previously he had the nickname "Doctor". Ordinary life in New Jersey
New Jersey
beach towns such as Asbury Park are the background to Springsteen's early lyrics

From 1969 through early 1971, Springsteen performed with Steel Mill (originally called Child), which included Danny Federici
Danny Federici
, Vini Lopez , Vinnie Roslin and later Steve Van Zandt and Robbin Thompson . During this time he performed regularly at venues on the Jersey Shore , in Richmond, Virginia , Nashville, Tennessee , and a set of gigs in California
California
, quickly gathering a cult following. San Francisco Examiner music critic Philip Elwood gave Springsteen credibility in his glowing assessment of Steel Mill: "I have never been so overwhelmed by totally unknown talent." Elwood went on to praise their "cohesive musicality" and, in particular, singled out Springsteen as "a most impressive composer".

Other acts followed over the next two years, as Springsteen sought to shape a unique and genuine musical and lyrical style: Dr. Zoom & the Sonic Boom (early- to mid-1971), the Sundance Blues
Blues
Band (mid-1971), and the Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
Band (mid-1971 to mid-1972). With the addition of pianist David Sancious , the core of what would later become the E Street Band was formed, with occasional temporary additions such as horn sections, the Zoomettes (a group of female backing vocalists for Dr. Zoom) and Southside Johnny
Southside Johnny
Lyon on harmonica. Musical genres explored included blues, R&B, jazz, church music, early rock 'n' roll, and soul, with major influences being Joe Cocker 's Mad Dogs and Englishmen , Leon Russell
Leon Russell
and Van Morrison
Van Morrison
. His prolific songwriting ability, with "More words in some individual songs than other artists had in whole albums", as his future record label would describe it in early publicity campaigns, brought his skill to the attention of several people who were about to change his life: new managers Mike Appel and Jim Cretecos, who in turn brought him to the attention of Columbia Records
Columbia Records
talent scout John Hammond , who auditioned Springsteen in May 1972.

Even after Springsteen gained international acclaim, his New Jersey roots showed through in his music, and he often praised "the great state of New Jersey" in his live shows. Drawing on his extensive local appeal, he has routinely sold out consecutive nights in major New Jersey, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and New York venues. He has also made many surprise appearances at The Stone Pony and other shore nightclubs over the years.

1972–1974: INITIAL STRUGGLE FOR SUCCESS

Springsteen was signed to Columbia Records
Columbia Records
in 1972 by Clive Davis , after having initially piqued the interest of John Hammond, who had signed Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
to the same label a decade earlier. Despite the expectations of Columbia Records' executives that Springsteen would record an acoustic album, he brought many of his New Jersey-based colleagues into the studio with him, thus forming the E Street Band (although it would not be formally named for several months). His debut album Greetings from Asbury Park, N.J. , released in January 1973, established him as a critical favorite though sales were slow.

Because of Springsteen's lyrical poeticism and folk rock -rooted music exemplified on tracks like " Blinded by the Light " and "For You ", as well as the Columbia and Hammond connections, critics initially compared Springsteen to Bob Dylan. "He sings with a freshness and urgency I haven't heard since I was rocked by ' Like a Rolling Stone '" wrote Crawdaddy magazine editor Peter Knobler in Springsteen's first interview/profile in March 1973. Photographs for that original profile were taken by Ed Gallucci . Crawdaddy discovered Springsteen in the rock press and was his earliest champion. Knobler profiled him in Crawdaddy three times, in 1973, 1975 and 1978. (Springsteen and the E Street Band acknowledged the magazine's support by giving a private performance at the Crawdaddy 10th Anniversary Party in New York City in June 1976.) Music critic Lester Bangs
Lester Bangs
wrote in Creem in 1975 that when Springsteen's first album was released "... many of us dismissed it: he wrote like Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
and Van Morrison
Van Morrison
, sang like Van Morrison and Robbie Robertson , and led a band that sounded like Van Morrison's". The track " Spirit in the Night " especially showed Morrison's influence, while " Lost in the Flood " was the first of many portraits of Vietnam veterans , and "Growin\' Up ", his first take on the recurring theme of adolescence.

In September 1973, Springsteen's second album The Wild, the Innocent & the E Street Shuffle was released, again to critical acclaim but no commercial success. Springsteen's songs became grander in form and scope, with the E Street Band providing a less folksy, more R"> Springsteen and the E Street Band, 1977

A legal battle with former manager Mike Appel kept Springsteen out of the studio for nearly a year, during which time he kept the E Street Band together through extensive touring across the U.S. Despite the optimistic fervor with which he often performed, Springsteen's new songs sounded more somber than much of his previous work. Reaching settlement with Appel in 1977, Springsteen returned to the studio, and the subsequent sessions produced Darkness on the Edge of Town
Darkness on the Edge of Town
(1978). Musically, this album was a turning point in Springsteen's career. Gone were the raw, rapid-fire lyrics, outsized characters, and long, multi-part musical compositions of the first three albums; the songs were leaner and more carefully drawn and began to reflect Springsteen's growing intellectual and political awareness. The cross-country 1978 tour to promote the album would become legendary for the intensity and length of its shows.

By the late 1970s, Springsteen had earned a reputation in the pop world as a songwriter whose material could provide hits for other bands. Manfred Mann\'s Earth Band had achieved a US No. 1 pop hit with a heavily rearranged version of Greetings' "Blinded by the Light" in early 1977. Patti Smith
Patti Smith
reached No. 13 with her take on Springsteen's unreleased " Because the Night " (with revised lyrics by Smith) in 1978, while The Pointer Sisters
The Pointer Sisters
hit No. 2 in 1979 with Springsteen's also unreleased "Fire ". Although not a critical success, long time friend Southside Johnny
Southside Johnny
recorded Springsteen's "The Fever " in early 1976 and " Talk
Talk
to Me " in 1978. The two of them along with Steve Van Zandt collaborated to produce "Trapped Again " in 1978.

In September 1979, Springsteen and the E Street Band joined the Musicians United for Safe Energy anti-nuclear power collective at Madison Square Garden for two nights, playing an abbreviated set while premiering two songs from his upcoming album. The subsequent No Nukes live album, as well as the following summer's No Nukes documentary film, represented the first official recordings and footage of Springsteen's fabled live act, as well as Springsteen's first tentative dip into political involvement.

Springsteen continued to focus on working-class life with the 20-song double album The River in 1980, which included an intentionally paradoxical range of material from good-time party rockers to emotionally intense ballads, and finally yielded his first hit Top Ten single as a performer, " Hungry Heart ". Like the previous two albums, musical styles on The River were derived largely from rock 'n' roll music of the 50s and 60s, but with a more explicit pop-rock sound than earlier albums. This is apparent in the adoption of Eighties pop-rock hallmarks like the reverberating-tenor drums, very basic percussion/guitar and repetitive lyrics apparent in many of the tracks. The title song pointed to Springsteen's intellectual direction, while a couple of the lesser-known tracks presaged his musical direction. The album sold well, becoming his first No. 1 on the Billboard Pop Albums chart, and a long tour in 1980 and 1981 followed, which included Springsteen's first extended tour of Europe and ending with a series of multi-night arena stands in major cities in the U.S.

The River was followed in 1982 by the stark solo acoustic Nebraska . Recording sessions had been held to expand on a demo tape Springsteen had made at his home on a simple, low-tech four-track tape deck. However, during the recording process Springsteen and producer Jon Landau realized the songs worked better as solo acoustic numbers than full band renditions and the original demo tape was released as the album. Although the recordings of the E Street Band were shelved, other songs from these sessions would later be released, including "Born in the U.S.A " and "Glory Days ". According to the Marsh biographies, Springsteen was depressed when he wrote this material, and the result is a brutal depiction of American life. While Nebraska did not sell as well as Springsteen's three previous albums, it garnered widespread critical praise (including being named "Album of the Year" by Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine's critics) and influenced later works by other major artists, including U2 's album The Joshua Tree . Springsteen did not tour in conjunction with Nebraska's release.

1984–1991: COMMERCIAL AND POPULAR PHENOMENON

Springsteen is probably best known for his album Born in the U.S.A. (1984), which sold 15 million copies in the U.S., 30 million worldwide, and became one of the best-selling albums of all time with seven singles hitting the Top 10. The title track was a bitter commentary on the treatment of Vietnam veterans , some of whom were Springsteen's friends. The lyrics in the verses were entirely unambiguous when listened to, but the anthemic music and the title of the song made it hard for many, from politicians to the common person, to get the lyrics—except those in the chorus, which could be read many ways. The song made a huge political impact, as he was advocating for the rights of the common working-class man.

The song was widely misinterpreted as jingoistic , and in connection with the 1984 presidential campaign became the subject of considerable folklore . In 1984, conservative columnist George Will attended a Springsteen concert and then wrote a column praising Springsteen's work ethic. Six days after the column was printed, in a campaign rally in Hammonton, New Jersey
Hammonton, New Jersey
, Reagan said, "America's future rests in a thousand dreams inside your hearts. It rests in the message of hope in the songs of a man so many young Americans admire—New Jersey's own, Bruce Springsteen." Two nights later, at a concert in Pittsburgh, Springsteen told the crowd, "Well, the president was mentioning my name in his speech the other day and I kind of got to wondering what his favorite album of mine must've been, you know? I don't think it was the Nebraska album. I don't think he's been listening to this one." He then began playing "Johnny 99", with its allusions to closing factories and criminals.

Springsteen also turned down several million dollars offered by the Chrysler Corporation
Chrysler Corporation
to use "Born in the U.S.A." in a car commercial. In later years, to eliminate the bombast and make the song's original meaning more explicitly clear, Springsteen performed the song accompanied only by acoustic guitar, thus returning to how the song was originally conceived. The original acoustic version of the song, recorded in 1982 during the Nebraska sessions, appeared on the 1998 archival release Tracks .

"Dancing in the Dark " was the biggest of seven hit singles from Born in the U.S.A., peaking at No. 2 on the Billboard music charts. The video for the song showed a young Courteney Cox
Courteney Cox
dancing on stage with Springsteen, which helped start the actress's career. The song "Cover Me " was written by Springsteen for Donna Summer , but his record company persuaded him to keep it for the new album. A big fan of Summer's work, Springsteen wrote another song for her, "Protection ". Videos for the album were directed by Brian De Palma
Brian De Palma
and John Sayles
John Sayles
. Springsteen played on the " We Are the World
We Are the World
" song and album in 1985. His live single "Trapped" from that album received moderate airplay on US Top 40 stations as well as reaching No. 1 on the Billboard Top Rock Tracks chart.

During the Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
Tour , Springsteen met actress Julianne Phillips , whom he would marry in 1985. He also that year took part in the recording of the USA For Africa charity song "We Are The World"; however he declined to play at Live Aid
Live Aid
. He later stated that he "simply did not realise how big the whole thing was going to be". He has since expressed regret at turning down Bob Geldof
Bob Geldof
's invitation, stating that he could have played a couple of acoustic songs had there been no slot available for a full band performance. Springsteen at Félix Houphouët-Boigny International Airport in Ivory Coast during Amnesty International
Amnesty International
's 1988 Human Rights Now! Tour

The Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
period represented the height of Springsteen's visibility in popular culture and the broadest audience he would ever reach (aided by the release of Arthur Baker 's dance mixes of three of the singles). From June 15 to August 10, 1985, all seven of his albums appeared on the UK Albums Chart
UK Albums Chart
: the first time an artist had charted their entire back catalogue simultaneously.

Live/1975–85 , a five-record box set (also on three cassettes or three CDs), was released near the end of 1986 and became the first box set to debut at No. 1 on the U.S. album charts. It is one of the most commercially successful live albums of all time, ultimately selling 13 million units in the U.S. Live/1975–85 summed up Springsteen's career to that point and displayed some of the elements that made his shows so powerful to his fans: the switching from mournful dirges to party rockers and back; the communal sense of purpose between artist and audience; the long, intense spoken passages before songs, including those describing Springsteen's difficult relationship with his father; and the instrumental prowess of the E Street Band, such as in the long coda to " Racing in the Street ". Despite its popularity, some fans and critics felt the album's song selection could have been better. Springsteen concerts are the subjects of frequent bootleg recording and trading among fans.

During the 1980s, several Springsteen fanzines were launched, including Backstreets magazine, which started in Seattle and continues today as a glossy publication, now in communication with Springsteen's management and official website.

After this commercial peak, Springsteen released the much more sedate and contemplative Tunnel of Love album (1987), a mature reflection on the many faces of love found, lost and squandered, which only selectively used the E Street Band. It presaged the breakup of his marriage to Julianne Phillips and described some of his unhappiness in the relationship. Reflecting the challenges of love in "Brilliant Disguise ", Springsteen sang:

“ So tell me who I see when I look in your eyes/Is that you, baby, or just a brilliant disguise? ”

The subsequent Tunnel of Love Express Tour shook up fans with changes to the stage layout, favorites dropped from the set list, and horn-based arrangements. During the European leg in 1988, Springsteen's relationship with backup singer Patti Scialfa became public. Phillips and Springsteen filed for divorce in 1988. Springsteen performing on the Tunnel of Love Express Tour at the Radrennbahn Weißensee in East Berlin on July 19, 1988

On July 19, 1988, Springsteen held a concert in East Germany that attracted 300,000 spectators. Journalist Erik Kirschbaum has called the concert "the most important rock concert ever, anywhere", in his 2013 book Rocking the Wall. Bruce Springsteen: The Berlin Concert That Changed the World. It had been conceived by the Socialist Unity Party 's youth wing in an attempt to placate the youth of East Germany, who were hungry for more freedom and the popular music of the West. However, it is Kirschbaum's opinion that the success of the concert catalyzed opposition to the regime in the DDR, and helped contribute to the fall of the Berlin Wall the following year.

Later in 1988, Springsteen headlined the worldwide Human Rights Now! tour for Amnesty International. In late 1989 he dissolved the E Street Band, and he and Scialfa relocated to California, marrying in 1991.

1992–1998: ARTISTIC AND COMMERCIAL UPS AND DOWNS AND SOUNDTRACK WORK

In 1992, after risking fan accusations of "going Hollywood" by moving to Los Angeles and working with session musicians , Springsteen released two albums at once. Human Touch
Human Touch
and Lucky Town
Lucky Town
were even more introspective than any of his previous work and displayed a newly revealed confidence. As opposed to his first two albums, which dreamed of happiness, and his next four, which showed him growing to fear it, at points during the Lucky Town
Lucky Town
album, Springsteen actually claims happiness for himself.

An electric band appearance on the acoustic MTV Unplugged television program (later released as In Concert/MTV Plugged ) was poorly received and further cemented fan dissatisfaction. Springsteen seemed to realize this a few years hence when he spoke humorously of his late father during his Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
acceptance speech:

“ I've gotta thank him because—what would I conceivably have written about without him? I mean, you can imagine that if everything had gone great between us, we would have had disaster. I would have written just happy songs—and I tried it in the early '90s and it didn't work; the public didn't like it. ”

A multiple Grammy Award
Grammy Award
winner, Springsteen also won an Academy Award in 1994 for his song "Streets of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
", which appeared on the soundtrack to the film Philadelphia
Philadelphia
. The video for the song shows Springsteen's actual vocal performance, recorded using a hidden microphone, to a prerecorded instrumental track. This technique was developed on the " Brilliant Disguise " video.

In 1995, after temporarily re-organizing the E Street Band for a few new songs recorded for his first Greatest Hits album (a recording session that was chronicled in the documentary Blood Brothers ), he released his second (mostly) solo guitar album, The Ghost of Tom Joad , inspired by John Steinbeck 's The Grapes of Wrath and by Journey to Nowhere: The Saga of the New Underclass, a book by Pulitzer Prize-winning author Dale Maharidge and photographer Michael Williamson . This was generally less well-received than the similar Nebraska, due to the minimal melody , twangy vocals, and political nature of most of the songs, although some praised it for giving voice to immigrants and others who rarely have one in American culture. The lengthy, worldwide, small-venue solo acoustic Ghost of Tom Joad Tour that followed successfully presented many of his older songs in drastically reshaped acoustic form, although Springsteen had to explicitly remind his audiences to be quiet and not to clap during the performances.

In April 1996, Springsteen gave an interview to LGBT
LGBT
magazine The Advocate writer Judy Wieder, in which he spoke of the importance of fighting for gay marriage. "You get your license, you do all the social rituals. It's part of your place in society, and in some way part of society's acceptance of you."

Following the tour, Springsteen moved back to New Jersey
New Jersey
with his family. In 1998, he released the sprawling, four-disc box set of outtakes , Tracks . Later, he would acknowledge that the 1990s were a "lost period" for him: "I didn't do a lot of work. Some people would say I didn't do my best work."

1999–2007: RETURN TO SUCCESS

The scene outside the Giants Stadium
Giants Stadium
parking lot for banner-marked, record-setting, 10-night stand of The Rising Tour during July 2003.

Springsteen was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
in 1999 by Bono
Bono
(the lead singer of U2), a favor he returned in 2005.

In 1999, Springsteen and the E Street Band reunited and began their extensive Reunion Tour , lasting over a year. Highlights included a record sold-out, 15-show run at Continental Airlines Arena in East Rutherford, New Jersey
New Jersey
and a ten-night, sold-out engagement at New York City's Madison Square Garden , which ended the tour. The final two shows were recorded for HBO
HBO
, with corresponding DVD and album releases as Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
the advent of robust Springsteen-oriented online communities had made such practices more common. The Rising Tour concluded with three nights in Shea Stadium
Shea Stadium
, highlighted by renewed controversy over "American Skin" and a guest appearance by Bob Dylan.

During the early 2000s, Springsteen became a visible advocate for the revitalization of Asbury Park, and played an annual series of winter holiday concerts there to benefit various local businesses, organizations, and causes. These shows were explicitly intended for the devoted fans, including numbers such as the E Street Shuffle outtake "Thundercrack", a rollicking group-participation song that would mystify casual Springsteen fans. He also frequently rehearses for tours in Asbury Park; some of his most devoted followers even stand outside the building to hear what fragments they can of the upcoming shows. The song " My City of Ruins " was originally written about Asbury Park, in honor of the attempts to revitalize the city. Looking for an appropriate song for the America: A Tribute to Heroes telethon broadcast, he selected "My City of Ruins", which was immediately recognized as an emotional highlight of the broadcast, with its gospel themes and its heartfelt exhortations to "Rise up!" The song became associated with post-9/11 New York, and he chose it to close The Rising album and as an encore on the subsequent tour.

At the Grammy Awards of 2003 , Springsteen performed The Clash
The Clash
's " London Calling " along with Elvis Costello
Elvis Costello
, Dave Grohl
Dave Grohl
, and E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt and No Doubt
No Doubt
's bassist, Tony Kanal , in tribute to Joe Strummer
Joe Strummer
; Springsteen and the Clash had once been considered multiple-album-dueling rivals at the time of the double The River and the triple Sandinista! .

In 2004, Springsteen and the E Street Band participated in the Vote for Change tour, along with John Mellencamp, John Fogerty , the Dixie Chicks , Pearl Jam
Pearl Jam
, R.E.M. , Bright Eyes , the Dave Matthews Band
Dave Matthews Band
, Jackson Browne
Jackson Browne
, and other musicians. All concerts were to be held in swing states , to benefit the progressive political organization group America
America
Coming Together and to encourage people to register and vote. A finale was held in Washington, D.C., bringing many of the artists together. Several days later, Springsteen held one more such concert in New Jersey, when polls showed that state surprisingly close. While in past years Springsteen had played benefits for causes in which he believed —against nuclear energy , for Vietnam veterans , Amnesty International, and the Christic Institute —he had always refrained from explicitly endorsing candidates for political office (indeed he had rejected the efforts of Walter Mondale to attract an endorsement during the 1984 Reagan "Born in the U.S.A." flap). This new stance led to criticism and praise from the expected partisan sources. Springsteen's "No Surrender" became the main campaign theme song for John Kerry
John Kerry
's unsuccessful presidential campaign ; in the last days of the campaign, he performed acoustic versions of the song and some of his other old songs at Kerry rallies. An acoustic guitar number during the solo Devils & Dust Tour performance at the Festhalle Frankfurt , June 15, 2005.

Devils & Dust was released on April 26, 2005, and was recorded without the E Street Band. It is a low-key, mostly acoustic album, in the same vein as Nebraska and The Ghost of Tom Joad
The Ghost of Tom Joad
although with a little more instrumentation. Some of the material was written almost 10 years earlier during, or shortly after, the Ghost of Tom Joad Tour, with a few having been performed then but not released. The title track concerns an ordinary soldier's feelings and fears during the Iraq War . Starbucks
Starbucks
rejected a co-branding deal for the album, due in part to some sexually explicit content but also because of Springsteen's anti-corporate politics. The album entered the album charts at No. 1 in 10 countries (United States, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Ireland). Springsteen began the solo Devils & Dust Tour at the same time as the album's release, playing both small and large venues. Attendance was disappointing in a few regions, and everywhere (other than in Europe) tickets were easier to get than in the past. Unlike his mid-1990s solo tour, he performed on piano, electric piano , pump organ , autoharp , ukulele , banjo , electric guitar, and stomping board, as well as acoustic guitar and harmonica, adding variety to the solo sound. (Offstage synthesizer, guitar, and percussion were also used for some songs.)

In November 2005, Sirius Satellite Radio
Sirius Satellite Radio
started a 24-hour, seven-day-a-week radio station called E Street Radio
E Street Radio
. This channel played commercial-free Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
music, including rare tracks, interviews, and daily concerts of Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
"> Springsteen and The Sessions Band performing on their tour at the Fila Forum
Fila Forum
, Milan, Italy on May 12, 2006.

In April 2006, Springsteen released We Shall Overcome: The Seeger Sessions , an American roots music project focused around a big folk sound treatment of 15 songs popularized by the radical musical activism of Pete Seeger . It was recorded with a large ensemble of musicians including only Patti Scialfa, Soozie Tyrell, and The Miami Horns from past efforts. In contrast to previous albums, this was recorded in only three one-day sessions, and frequently one can hear Springsteen calling out key changes live as the band explores its way through the tracks. A tour began the same month, with the 18-strong ensemble of musicians dubbed The Seeger Sessions Band (and later shortened to The Sessions Band). Seeger Sessions material was emphasized, as well as a handful of (usually drastically rearranged) Springsteen numbers. The tour proved very popular in Europe, selling out everywhere and receiving some excellent reviews, but newspapers reported that a number of U.S. shows suffered from sparse attendance. By the end of 2006, the Seeger Sessions tour toured Europe twice and toured America
America
for only a short span. Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
with The Sessions Band: Live in Dublin , containing selections from three nights of November 2006 shows at the Point Theatre in Dublin, Ireland, was released the following June.

Springsteen's next album, titled Magic , was released on October 2, 2007. Recorded with the E Street Band, it had 10 new Springsteen songs plus " Long Walk Home ", performed once with the Sessions band, and a hidden track (the first included on a Springsteen studio release), "Terry\'s Song ", a tribute to Springsteen's long-time assistant Terry Magovern, who died on July 30, 2007. Magic debuted at No. 1 in Ireland and the UK. Greatest Hits reentered the Irish charts at No. 57, and Live in Dublin almost cracked the top 20 in Norway again. Sirius Satellite Radio
Sirius Satellite Radio
also restarted E Street Radio
E Street Radio
on September 27, 2007, in anticipation of Magic. Radio conglomerate Clear Channel Communications was alleged to have sent an edict to its classic rock stations to not play any songs from the new album, while continuing to play older Springsteen material. However, Clear Channel Adult Alternative (or "AAA") station KBCO did play tracks from the album, undermining the allegations of a corporate blackout.

The Springsteen and E Street Band Magic Tour began at the Hartford Civic Center with the album's release and continued through North America
America
and Europe.

It was announced on November 21, 2007, that Springsteen's longtime friend and founding E Street Band member, Danny Federici
Danny Federici
, would be taking a leave of absence from the Magic Tour to pursue treatment for melanoma . Charles Giordano filled in as Federici's replacement.

2008–2011: DEATHS OF DANNY FEDERICI AND CLARENCE CLEMONS

Springsteen at a rally for the presidential candidate Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Cleveland
Cleveland
, Ohio, on November 2, 2008

Federici returned to the stage on March 20, 2008, when he appeared for portions of a Springsteen and E Street Band performance at Conseco Fieldhouse in Indianapolis
Indianapolis
. Less than one month later, on April 17, 2008, Federici died at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
in New York City, having suffered for three years from melanoma.

On January 11, 2009, Springsteen won the Golden Globe Award for Best Song for "The Wrestler ", from the Darren Aronofsky film by the same name . After receiving a heartfelt letter from lead actor Mickey Rourke , Springsteen supplied the song for the film for free. Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIII halftime show

Springsteen performed at the halftime show at Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIII on February 1, 2009, agreeing to do it after many previous offers. A few days before the game, Springsteen gave a rare press conference at which he promised a "twelve-minute party." His 12-minute 45-second set, with the E Street Band and the Miami Horns, included abbreviated renditions of " Tenth Avenue Freeze-Out "", "Born to Run", "Working on a Dream", and "Glory Days", the latter complete with football references in place of the original baseball-themed lyrics. The set of appearances and promotional activities led Springsteen to say, "This has probably been the busiest month of my life."

Springsteen supported Barack Obama's 2008 presidential campaign , announcing his endorsement in April 2008 and going on to appear at several Obama rallies as well as performing several solo acoustic performances in support of Obama's campaign throughout 2008, culminating with a November 2 rally at which he debuted the song " Working on a Dream " in a duet with Scialfa. At an Ohio
Ohio
rally, Springsteen discussed the importance of "truth, transparency and integrity in government, the right of every American to have a job, a living wage, to be educated in a decent school, and a life filled with the dignity of work , the promise and the sanctity of home...

Following Obama's electoral victory on November 4, Springsteen's song "The Rising" was the first song played over the loudspeakers after Obama's victory speech in Chicago's Grant Park . Springsteen was the musical opener for the Obama Inaugural Celebration on January 18, 2009, which was attended by over 400,000 people. He performed "The Rising" with an all-female choir. Later he performed Woody Guthrie 's " This Land Is Your Land " with Pete Seeger.

Springsteen's Working on a Dream album, dedicated to the memory of Danny Federici, was released in late January 2009 and the supporting Working on a Dream Tour ran from April 2009 until November 2009. The tour presented few songs from the new album, with set lists dominated instead by classics and selections reflecting the ongoing late-2000s recession . Springsteen also played songs requested by audience members holding up signs, a practice begun during the final stages of the Magic Tour. Drummer Max Weinberg
Max Weinberg
was replaced for some shows by his 18-year-old son Jay Weinberg
Jay Weinberg
, so that the former could serve his role as bandleader on The Tonight Show with Conan O\'Brien . During this tour, Springsteen and the band made their first real foray in the world of music festivals, headlining nights at the Pinkpop Festival
Pinkpop Festival
in the Netherlands, Festival des Vieilles Charrues in France, the Bonnaroo Music Festival
Bonnaroo Music Festival
in the United States and the Glastonbury Festival and Hard Rock Calling
Hard Rock Calling
in the UK. Several shows on the tour presented Born to Run, Darkness on the Edge of Town
Darkness on the Edge of Town
, or Born in the U.S.A. in its entirety. The band performed five final shows at Giants Stadium, opening with a new song highlighting the historic stadium, and Springsteen's Jersey roots, named "Wrecking Ball". A DVD from the Working on a Dream Tour entitled London Calling: Live in Hyde Park was released in 2010. Fireworks go off at the conclusion of the "E! Street! Band!" exhortation during the final shows at Giants Stadium
Giants Stadium
.

Springsteen was among the recipients of the Kennedy Center Honors, an annual award to figures from the world of arts for their contribution to American culture, on December 6, 2009. President Obama gave a speech in which he talked about how Springsteen had incorporated the life of regular Americans in his expansive palette of songs and how his concerts were beyond typical rock-and-roll concerts, how, apart from being high-energy concerts, they were "communions". He ended the remark "while I am the president, he is the Boss". Tributes were paid by several well-known celebrities including Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
(who described Springsteen's "unprecedented combination of lyrical eloquence, musical mastery and sheer unbridled, unadulterated joy"). A musical tribute included John Mellencamp, Ben Harper , Jennifer Nettles , Melissa Etheridge , Eddie Vedder
Eddie Vedder
, and Sting .

The 2000s ended with Springsteen named one of eight Artists of the Decade by Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine and with Springsteen's tours ranking him fourth among artists in total concert grosses for the decade. His 2010 tour included venues in the UK and Ireland.

In September 2010, a documentary about the making of Springsteen's 1978 album Darkness on the Edge of Town
Darkness on the Edge of Town
premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival . The film, The Promise: The Making of Darkness on the Edge of Town, was included in a box set reissue of the album, entitled The Promise: The Darkness on the Edge of Town
Darkness on the Edge of Town
Story, released in November 2010. Also airing on HBO, the documentary explored Springsteen's making of the album and his role in the production and development of the tracks.

Clarence Clemons , the E Street Band's saxophonist and founding member, died on June 18, 2011, of complications from a stroke. "Clarence lived a wonderful life", Springsteen said. "He carried within him a love of people that made them love him. He created a wondrous and extended family. He loved the saxophone, loved our fans and gave everything he had every night he stepped on stage."

2012–2015: WRECKING BALL, HIGH HOPES, AMERICAN BEAUTY AND THE TIES THAT BIND BOX SET

Springsteen performing with drummer Max Weinberg
Max Weinberg
behind him, on the Magic Tour stop at Veterans Memorial Arena , Jacksonville, Florida , August 15, 2008.

Springsteen's 17th studio album, Wrecking Ball , was released on March 6, 2012. The album consists of eleven tracks plus two bonus tracks. Three songs previously only available as live versions—"Wrecking Ball", " Land of Hope and Dreams ", and "American Land"—appear on the album. Wrecking Ball became Springsteen's tenth No. 1 album in the United States, tying him with Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
for third most No. 1 albums of all-time. Only The Beatles
The Beatles
(19) and Jay Z (12) have more No. 1 albums.

Following the release of the album, Springsteen and the E Street Band announced plans for the Wrecking Ball Tour , which began on March 18, 2012. As tickets for the first U.S. dates went on sale, many fans were unable to obtain tickets, much like for the 2009 Working on a Dream Tour , allegedly due to ticket scalpers . Shows sold out within minutes and many tickets appeared, at much higher prices, on resale websites such as StubHub less than an hour after the onsale time. Ticketmaster
Ticketmaster
said web traffic was 2.5 times the highest level of the past year during the online sales and suggested that scalpers played a big role. On July 31, 2012, in Helsinki
Helsinki
, Finland, Springsteen performed his longest concert ever at 4 hours and 6 minutes and 33 songs. Not included in this total time is a thirty-minute, five-song, solo acoustical set he did about two hours before the show.

Springsteen was honored with the 2013 MusiCares Person of the Year award in recognition of his creative accomplishments as well as his charitable work and philanthropic activities. A ceremony was held on February 8, 2013, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, two days before the Grammy Awards .

Despite saying he would sit out the 2012 presidential election , Springsteen campaigned for President Barack Obama's re-election in Ohio
Ohio
, Iowa
Iowa
, Virginia
Virginia
, Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
, and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
. At the rallies, he briefly spoke to the audience and performed a short acoustic set that included a newly written song titled "Forward". Obama also used "We Take Care of Our Own" as one of his top campaign songs. Use of the song helped boost sales of the song by 409%.

On October 29, 2012, the New Jersey
New Jersey
area was hit hard by Hurricane Sandy . Two days later, Springsteen dedicated his performance at the Blue Cross Arena in Rochester, New York , to those affected by the storm and those helping to recover. Springsteen and the E Street Band performed "Land of Hope and Dreams" at a one-hour televised telethon called Hurricane Sandy: Coming Together on November 2, 2012, which aired on NBC
NBC
and at the same time many other channels. Springsteen also joined Billy Joel
Billy Joel
, Steven Tyler
Steven Tyler
and Jimmy Fallon for a performance of " Under the Boardwalk
Under the Boardwalk
". All money was donated to the American Red Cross
American Red Cross
. Springsteen and the E Street Band, along with many top names in the music industry, performed at Madison Square Garden on December 12, 2012, for 12-12-12: The Concert for Sandy Relief .

At year's end, the Wrecking Ball Tour was named Top Draw for having the top attendance out of any tour by the Billboard Touring Awards . The tour finished second to Roger Waters
Roger Waters
, who had the top grossing tour of 2012. Springsteen finished second only to Madonna as the top money maker of 2012 with $33.44 million. The Wrecking Ball album, along with the single "We Take Care of Our Own", was nominated for three Grammy Awards , including Best Rock Performance and Best Rock Song for "We Take Care of Our Own" and Best Rock Album . Rolling Stone named Wrecking Ball the number one album of 2012 on their Top 50 albums of 2012 list.

In March 2013, and for the first time since re-uniting with Springsteen in 1999, Steven Van Zandt was forced to miss the Australian leg of the band's tour due to acting commitments on his television show Lilyhammer . He was replaced by guitarist Tom Morello for the leg.

In late July 2013, the documentary Springsteen they include Springsteen's earliest recording from 1966, songs from his tenure in early 1970s bands such as the Castiles, Steel Mill
Steel Mill
and The Bruce Springsteen Band, along with a track from each studio album of his career. On September 27, 2016, Simon "> Springsteen receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom at the White House
White House
from President Barack Obama

Springsteen began the final leg of The River 2016 Tour on August 23, 2016, at MetLife Stadium in New Jersey
New Jersey
where he performed for 3 hours and 52 minutes making it at the time the longest show he had ever performed in the United States. The record was broken two nights later at MetLife Stadium when Springsteen performed a 3-hour 59-minute show, later topped by his performance of August 30, 2016, at 4 hours and 1 minute which then stood as his longest show in the United States. That record again was topped on September 7, 2016, at Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, where Springsteen performed for 4 hours and 4 minutes, which now stands as his longest show in the United States and second-longest ever next to a 2012 show in Helsinki which lasted two minutes longer. The tour ended in September 2016; however, dates from January 22, 2017 to February 25, 2017 were added using the same promotional image from The River Tour 2016 although the tour was now renamed the Summer \'17 tour. The River 2016 Tour was the top-grossing worldwide tour of 2016; it pulled in $268.3 million globally and was the highest grossing tour since 2014 for any artist topping Taylor Swift
Taylor Swift
's 2015 tour which grossed $250.1 million.

Springsteen supported Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
's 2016 presidential campaign by performing an acoustic set of "Thunder Road", "Long Walk Home" and "Dancing in the Dark" at a rally in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
on November 7, 2016. On November 22, 2016, Springsteen was presented—along with twenty other recipients—the Presidential Medal of Freedom award by Barack Obama . The award is the highest honor for a civilian to receive and is "presented to individuals who have made especially meritorious contributions to the security or national interests of the United States, to world peace, or to cultural or other significant public or private endeavors." On January 12, 2017, Springsteen along with Patti Scialfa performed a special 15-song acoustic set for President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama at the White House
White House
's East Room two days before the president gave his farewell address to the nation.

On June 16, 2017 it was reported that Springsteen would be performing an eight-week run on Broadway in New York City
New York City
at the 1,000 seat Walter Kerr Theatre in the fall of 2017. On August 9, 2017, the performances, being dubbed " Springsteen on Broadway ", were officially confirmed and the opening is set for October 12 and will run through November 26. Preview performances begin on October 3. In addition to his music, the show will feature Springsteen reading excerpts from his 2016 autobiography, Born to Run
Born to Run
and performing other spoken reminiscences written for the show. “My show is just me, the guitar, the piano and the words and music. Some of the show is spoken, some of it is sung. It loosely follows the arc of my life and my work” Springsteen said. Ticket registration for “Springsteen on Broadway” begins Wednesday August 9 and will close on August 27. Those lucky enough to get ticket will be notified on August 29, and the tickets, priced at $75 to $850, will go on sale the next day.

MUSICAL STYLE

Springsteen (second from right) was among the five recipients of the 2009 Kennedy Center Honors

Springsteen draws on many musical influences from the reservoir of traditional American popular music, folk , blues and country . From the beginning, rock and roll has been a dominant influence and Springsteen's musical and lyrical evocations, as well as public tributes, of artists such as Dylan, Presley, The Animals , Roy Orbison , Gary "U.S." Bonds , and many others helped to rekindle interest in their music. Springsteen's other preferred musical style is American folk, evident on his debut album, Greetings from Asbury Park, New Jersey , and more strongly on Nebraska and The Ghost of Tom Joad. Springsteen songs such as "This Hard Land" demonstrate the lyrical and musical influence of Woody Guthrie .

Elements of Latin American music, jazz, soul, and funk influences can be heard on Springsteen's second album, The Wild, the Innocent the song " New York City
New York City
Serenade" is even reminiscent of the music of George Gershwin
George Gershwin
. Prominent in these two records is the pianist David Sancious , who left the band shortly into the recording of Springsteen's third album, Born To Run
Born To Run
(which also emphasized the piano, played by Roy Bittan ).

Subsequently, Springsteen focused more on the rock elements of his music. He initially compressed the sound and developed Darkness on the Edge of Town just as straightforward as concise musical idiom, for the simple riffs, rock guitar solos and clearly recognizable song structures are dominant. His music has been categorized as heartland rock , a style typified by Springsteen, John Fogerty , Tom Petty
Tom Petty
, Bob Seger , and John Mellencamp . This music has a lyrical reference to the U.S. everyday and the music is kept rather simple and straightforward. This development culminated with Springsteen's hit album Born in the U.S.A., the title song of which has a constantly repeating, fanfare-like keyboard riff and a pounding drum beat. These sounds fit with Springsteen's voice: it cries to the listener the unsentimental story of a disenchanted angry figure. Even songs that can be argued to be album tracks proved to be singles that enjoyed some chart success, such as " My Hometown " and "I\'m on Fire ", in which the drum line is formed from subtle hi-hat and rim-clicks-shock (shock at the edge of the snare drum ) accompanied by synthesizer and Springsteen's soft guitar line. The album, along with some previous records such as "Cadillac Ranch" showed clear rockabilly influences as is evident from his guitar solos, in-fills and vocal styles on these. Another clear influence of early rock n roll on Springsteen's music is evident on the song "Light of Day".

In recent years, Springsteen has changed his music further. There are more folk elements up to the gospel to be heard. His last solo album, Devils and Dust , drew rave reviews not only for Springsteen's complex songwriting, but also for his expressive and sensitive singing.

On the album We Shall Overcome: The Seeger Sessions Springsteen performed folk classics with a folk band, rather than his usual E Street Band. On his ensuing tour he also interpreted some of his own rock songs in a folk style.

On his 2012 album, Wrecking Ball, Springsteen incorporated a variety of styles, including folk, gospel, and even hip-hop, with a rap in the song "Rocky Ground". His studio work with producer Ron Aniello, Wrecking Ball (Bruce Springsteen album) and High Hopes (album) , has also become more experimental, featuring loops and computerized sounds.

LYRICAL THEMES

"I spent most of my life as a musician measuring the distance between the American Dream and American reality." —Bruce Springsteen

Often described as cinematic in their scope, Springsteen's lyrics frequently explore highly personal themes such as individual commitment, dissatisfaction and dismay with life in a context of every day situations.

It has been recognized that there was a shift in his lyrical approach starting with the album Darkness on the Edge of Town
Darkness on the Edge of Town
, in which he focused on the emotional struggles of working class life.

PERSONAL LIFE

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The Springsteen family greets the Obama family on-stage at a rally in Cleveland
Cleveland
, Ohio
Ohio
on November 2, 2008.

In the early 1980s, Springsteen met Patti Scialfa at The Stone Pony , a bar in New Jersey
New Jersey
where local musicians regularly perform. On that particular evening she was performing alongside one of Springsteen's pals, Bobby Bandiera, with whom she had written "At Least We Got Shoes" for Southside Johnny. Springsteen liked her voice and after the performance, introduced himself to her. Soon after that, they started spending time together and became friends.

Early in 1984, Springsteen asked Scialfa to join the E Street Band for the upcoming Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
Tour. According to the book Bruce Springsteen on Tour 1969–2005 by Dave Marsh, it looked like Springsteen and Scialfa were on the brink of becoming a couple through the first leg of the tour. But before that could happen, Barry Bell introduced Julianne Phillips to Springsteen and on May 13, 1985, they were married. The two were opposites in background, had an 11-year age difference and his traveling took its toll on their relationship. In 1987, Springsteen wrote his next album, Tunnel of Love, on which many of the songs described his unhappiness in the relationship with Phillips.

In 1988, the Tunnel of Love Express Tour began and Springsteen convinced Scialfa to join the tour again. She expressed reluctance at first, since she wanted to start recording her first solo album, but after Springsteen told her that the tour would be short, she agreed to postpone her own solo record. Phillips and Springsteen separated in the spring of 1988, but it wasn't made known to the press. Springsteen and Scialfa fell in love with each other during the Tunnel of Love Express Tour and started living together soon after his separation from Phillips. On August 30, 1988, Julianne filed for divorce and it was finalized on March 1, 1989. Springsteen received press criticism for the hastiness in which he and Scialfa took up their relationship. In a 1995 interview with The Advocate, Springsteen told Judy Wieder about the negative publicity the couple subsequently received. "It's a strange society that assumes it has the right to tell people whom they should love and whom they shouldn't. But the truth is, I basically ignored the entire thing as much as I could. I said, 'Well, all I know is, this feels real, and maybe I have got a mess going here in some fashion, but that's life.'" He also told Wieder that, "I went through a divorce, and it was really difficult and painful and I was very frightened about getting married again. So part of me said, 'Hey, what does it matter?' But it does matter. It's very different than just living together. First of all, stepping up publicly—which is what you do: You get your license, you do all the social rituals—is a part of your place in society and in some way part of society's acceptance of you ... Patti and I both found that it did mean something."

Springsteen and Scialfa lived in New Jersey, before moving to Los Angeles, where they decided to start a family. On July 25, 1990, Scialfa gave birth to the couple's first child, Evan James Springsteen. On June 8, 1991, Springsteen and Scialfa married at their Los Angeles home in a very private ceremony, only attended by family and close friends. Their second child, Jessica Rae Springsteen , was born on December 30, 1991; and their third child, Samuel Ryan Springsteen, was born on January 5, 1994.

When the children reached school-age in the early 1990s, Springsteen and Scialfa moved back to New Jersey
New Jersey
specifically to raise a family in a non-paparazzi environment. The grounds of his New Jersey
New Jersey
home include a large swimming pool. The family owns and lives on a horse farm in Colts Neck, New Jersey . They also own homes in Wellington, Florida , Los Angeles and Rumson, New Jersey
New Jersey
.

Their older son, Evan, graduated from Boston College
Boston College
. He writes and performs his own songs and won the 2012 Singer/Songwriter Competition held during the Boston College's Arts Festival. Their daughter Jessica is a nationally ranked champion equestrian , and graduated from Duke University
Duke University
. She made her show-jumping debut with the Team USA in August 2014. Their younger son, Sam, is a firefighter.

It has been reported that the press conference regarding the 2009 Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLIII half-time show was Springsteen's first press conference in more than 25 years. However, he has appeared in a few radio interviews, most notably on NPR
NPR
and BBC
BBC
. 60 Minutes
60 Minutes
aired one of his last extensive interviews on TV before his tour to support his album, Magic. Springsteen has talked about his mental health struggles.

Springsteen is an activist for LGBT
LGBT
rights and has spoken out many times as a strong supporter of gay marriage . In 2009, he posted the following statement on his website: "I've long believed in and have always spoken out for the rights of same sex couples and fully agree with Governor Corzine when he writes that 'The marriage-equality issue should be recognized for what it truly is—a civil rights issue that must be approved to assure that every citizen is treated equally under the law.'" In 2012, he lent his support to an ad campaign for gay marriage called "The Four 2012". Springsteen noted in the ad, "I couldn't agree more with that statement and urge those who support equal treatment for our gay and lesbian brothers and sisters to let their voices be heard now." In April 2016, Springsteen cancelled a show in Greensboro, North Carolina days before it was to take place to protest the state's newly passed Public Facilities Privacy "> Springsteen playing at the Stadium of Light , Sunderland , UK, in 2012

Springsteen has been a member of, or has been backed by, several bands during his career, most notably the E Street Band . Earlier bands include the Rogues, the Castiles, Earth, Child, Steel Mill, the Sundance Blues
Blues
Band, Dr Zoom and the Sonic Boom, and the Bruce Springsteen Band. In October 1972 he formed a new band for the recording of his debut album Greetings from Asbury Park, N.J., which became known as The E Street Band, although the name was not used until September 1974. The E Street Band performed on all of Springsteen's recorded works from his debut until 1982's Nebraska, a solo album on which Springsteen himself played all the instruments. The full band returned for the next album Born in the USA , but from 1988 to 1999, albums were recorded with session musicians . The E Street Band were briefly reunited in 1995 for new contributions to the Greatest Hits compilation, and on a more permanent basis from 1999, since which time they have recorded more albums and performed a number of high-profile tours. The 2005 album Devils & Dust was largely a solo recording, with some contribution from session musicians and the 2006 folk rock We Shall Overcome: The Seeger Sessions album was recorded and toured with another band, known as The Sessions Band.

DISCOGRAPHY

Main article: Bruce Springsteen discography

* Greetings from Asbury Park, N.J. (1973) * The Wild, the Innocent & the E Street Shuffle (1973) * Born to Run
Born to Run
(1975) * Darkness on the Edge of Town
Darkness on the Edge of Town
(1978) * The River (1980) * Nebraska (1982) * Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
(1984) * Tunnel of Love (1987) * Human Touch
Human Touch
(1992) * Lucky Town
Lucky Town
(1992) * The Ghost of Tom Joad
The Ghost of Tom Joad
(1995) * The Rising (2002) * Devils & Dust (2005) * We Shall Overcome: The Seeger Sessions (2006) * Magic (2007) * Working on a Dream (2009) * Wrecking Ball (2012) * High Hopes (2014)

CONCERT TOURS

HEADLINING TOURS

* Born to Run
Born to Run
tours (1974–77) * Darkness Tour (1978–79) * The River Tour (1980–81) * Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
Tour (1984–85) * Tunnel of Love Express Tour (1988) * Bruce Springsteen 1992–1993 World Tour (1992–93) * Ghost of Tom Joad Tour
Ghost of Tom Joad Tour
(1995–97) * Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
and the E Street Band Reunion Tour (1999–2000) * The Rising Tour (2002–03) * Devils & Dust Tour (2005) * Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
with The Seeger Sessions Band Tour (2006) * Magic Tour (Bruce Springsteen) (2007–08) * Working on a Dream Tour (2009) * Wrecking Ball World Tour (2012–13) * High Hopes Tour (2014) * The River Tour 2016 (2016-2017)

CO-HEADLINING TOURS

* Human Rights Now! (1988) * Vote for Change
Vote for Change
(2004)

AWARDS AND NOMINATIONS

ACADEMY AWARD

YEAR NOMINEE/WORK AWARD RESULT

1994 Streets of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Song Won

1996 Dead Man Walkin\' Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Song Nominated

AMERICAN MUSIC AWARDS

YEAR NOMINEE/WORK AWARD RESULT

1985 Himself Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist Nominated

1985 Dancing in the Dark Favorite Pop/Rock Single Won

1985 Himself Favorite Pop/Rock Male Video Artist Nominated

1986 Himself Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist Won

1986 Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
Favorite Pop/Rock Album Won

1986 Himself Favorite Pop/Rock Male Video Artist Won

2016 The River Tour 2016 Tour of the Year Nominated

BRIT AWARDS

YEAR NOMINEE/WORK AWARD RESULT

1985 Himself Best International Solo Artist Nominated

1986 Himself Best International Solo Artist Won

1987 Himself Best International Solo Artist Nominated

2003 Himself International Male Solo Artist Nominated

2006 Himself International Male Solo Artist Nominated

2008 Himself International Male Solo Artist Nominated

2010 Himself International Male Solo Artist Nominated

2011 Himself International Male Solo Artist Nominated

2013 Himself International Male Solo Artist Nominated

GOLDEN GLOBE AWARDS

YEAR NOMINEE/WORK AWARD RESULT

1994 Streets of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song Won

2009 The Wrestler Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song Won

GRAMMY AWARDS

Springsteen has won 20 Grammy Awards out of 49 Nominations.

YEAR WORK AWARD RESULT

1981 "Devil with the Blue Dress"/ "Good Golly Miss Molly" / "Jenny Take a Ride" Best Rock Vocal Performance, Male Nominated

1982 The River

1985 "Dancing in the Dark " Record of the Year

Best Rock Vocal Performance, Male Won

Born in the U.S.A. Album of the Year Nominated

1986 " Born in the U.S.A.
Born in the U.S.A.
" Record of the Year

1988 "Tunnel of Love " Best Rock Vocal Solo Performance Won

" Brilliant Disguise " Best Pop Vocal Performance, Male Nominated

"Paradise By The "C"" Best Rock Instrumental Performance (Orchestra, Group or Soloist)

1993 " Human Touch
Human Touch
" Best Rock Song

Best Rock Vocal Performance, Male

1995 "Streets of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
" (from the film Philadelphia
Philadelphia
) Best Rock Song Won

Best Rock Vocal Performance, Male

Song of the Year

Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television

Record of the Year Nominated

1997 "Dead Man Walkin\' " Best Male Rock Vocal Performance

Blood Brothers Best Music Video, Long Form

The Ghost of Tom Joad
The Ghost of Tom Joad
Best Contemporary Folk Album Won

1998 "Thunder Road " Best Male Rock Vocal Performance Nominated

2000 "The Promise" Best Rock Song

Best Male Rock Vocal Performance

2003 The Rising Album of the Year

Best Rock Album Won

"The Rising " Song of the Year Nominated

Best Male Rock Vocal Performance Won

Best Rock Song

2004 "Disorder in The House" (with Warren Zevon
Warren Zevon
) Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal

2005 "Code of Silence" Best Rock Vocal Solo Performance

2006 Devils & Dust Best Contemporary Folk Album Nominated

Best Long Form Music Video

" Devils & Dust " Song of the Year

Best Rock Song

Best Rock Vocal Solo Performance Won

2007 We Shall Overcome: The Seeger Sessions Best Traditional Folk Album

"Wings for Wheels: The Making of Born to Run" Best Long Form Music Video

2008 Magic Best Rock Album Nominated

" Radio Nowhere " Best Solo Rock Vocal Performance Won

Best Rock Song

"Once Upon a Time in the West" Best Rock Instrumental Performance

2009 " Girls in Their Summer Clothes
Girls in Their Summer Clothes
" Best Rock Song

Best Solo Rock Vocal Performance Nominated

2010 "The Wrestler " (from the film 'The Wrestler ') Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media

" Sea of Heartbreak " (with Rosanne Cash
Rosanne Cash
) Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals

" Working on a Dream " Best Rock Song

Best Solo Rock Vocal Performance Won

2013 " We Take Care of Our Own " Best Rock Performance Nominated

Best Rock Song

Wrecking Ball Best Rock Album

JUNO AWARDS

YEAR NOMINEE/WORK AWARD RESULT

1985 Born in the USA International Album of the Year Won

1993 Himself International Entertainer of the Year Nominated

MTV VIDEO MUSIC AWARDS

YEAR NOMINEE/WORK AWARD RESULT

1985 I\'m on Fire Best Male Video Won

1985 Dancing in the Dark Best Stage Performance Won

1985 Dancing in the Dark Best Overall Performance Nominated

1986 Glory Days Best Male Video Nominated

1986 Glory Days Best Overall Performance Nominated

1987 Born to Run
Born to Run
Best Stage Performance Nominated

1987 War Best Stage Performance Nominated

1988 Tunnel of Love Video of the Year Nominated

1988 Tunnel of Love Best Male Video Nominated

1988 Tunnel of Love Best Art Direction Nominated

1988 Tunnel of Love Best Editing Nominated

1988 Tunnel of Love Viewer\'s Choice Nominated

1991 Human Touch
Human Touch
Best Male Video Nominated

1994 Streets of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Best Male Video Nominated

1994 Streets of Philadelphia Best Video from a Film Won

1997 Secret Garden Best Video from a Film Nominated

OTHER RECOGNITION

* Polar Music Prize in 1997 * Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
, 1999 * Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
something Springsteen always found to be ironic, considering that the song "is about leaving New Jersey" * The minor planet 23990 , discovered September 4, 1999, by I. P. Griffin at Auckland, New Zealand, was named in his honor. * Ranked No. 23 on Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine's 2004 list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time * Made Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People of the Year 2008 list * Won Critics\' Choice Movie Award for Best Song with "The Wrestler" in 2009 * 2009 Kennedy Center Honors recipient * Forbes
Forbes
magazine ranked him 6th in The Celebrity 100 in 2009 * Named 2013 MusiCares Person of the Year * 2016 Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient * Springsteen was the guest on BBC
BBC
Radio 4 's Desert Island Discs on December 18, 2016, talking about his childhood, family, mental health and his musical influences and development

SEE ALSO

* Book: Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen

* EGOT * List of artists who reached number one on the U.S. Mainstream Rock chart * List of best-selling music artists
List of best-selling music artists
* List of highest-grossing concert tours * Music of New Jersey
New Jersey

NOTES

* ^ "Blinded by the Light" would later be a hit for Manfred Mann and reach No. 1, the only time Springsteen had a No. 1 single as a songwriter. * ^ This quote is an excerpt from Springsteen's speech from the stage at a rally for presidential candidate Barack Obama
Barack Obama
on November 2, 2008

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SOURCES

* Alterman, Eric . It Ain't No Sin To Be Glad You're Alive: The Promise of Bruce Springsteen. Little Brown, 1999. ISBN 0-316-03885-7 . * Coles, Robert. Bruce Springsteen's America: The People Listening, a Poet Singing. Random House, 2005. ISBN 0-375-50559-8 . * Cullen, Jim. Born in the U.S.A.: Bruce Springsteen
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and the American Tradition. 1997; Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 2005. New edition of 1997 study book places Springsteen's work in the broader context of American history and culture. ISBN 0-8195-6761-2 * Eliot, Marc with Appel, Mike . Down Thunder Road. Simon or by incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article through appropriate citations . (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

* Greetings from E Street: The Story of Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
and the E Street Band. Chronicle Books, 2006. ISBN 0-8118-5348-9 . * Days of Hope and Dreams: An Intimate Portrait of Bruce Springsteen. Billboard Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8230-8387-X . * Racing in the Street: The Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
Reader. Penguin, 2004. ISBN 0-14-200354-9 . * Runaway American Dream: Listening to Bruce Springsteen. Da Capo Press, 2005. ISBN 0-306-81397-1 . * The Ties That Bind: Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
A to E to Z. Visible Ink Press, 2005. ISBN 1-57859-157-0 . * Bruce Springsteen: "Talking". Omnibus Press, 2004. ISBN 1-84449-403-9 . * For You: Original Stories and Photographs by Bruce Springsteen's Legendary Fans. LKC Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9784156-0-0 . * Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
on Tour: 1968–2005. by Dave Marsh Bloomsbury USA, 2006. ISBN 978-1-59691-282-3 . * The Gospel according to Bruce Springsteen: Rock and Redemption from Asbury Park to Magic. by Jeffrey B. Symynkywicz. Westminster John Knox Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-664-23169-9 . * Magic in the Night: The Words and Music of Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
by Rob Kirkpatrick . St. Martin's Griffin, 2009. ISBN 0-312-53380-2 . * Land of Hope and Dreams: Celebrating 25 Years of Bruce Springsteen In Ireland by Greg Lewis and Moira Sharkey. Magic Rat Books. ISBN 978-0-9562722-0-1 * The Light in Darkness. A history of the Darkness on The Edge of Town album and tour. Lawrence Kirsch Communications. 2009 ISBN 978-0-9784156-1-7 * Springsteen on Springsteen: Interviews, Speeches, and Encounters edited by Jeff Burger. Chicago Review Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-61374-434-5 * Bruce by Peter Ames Carlin . Touchstone, 2012. ISBN 978-1439191828

* Springsteen: Saint In The City: 1949-1974 by Craig Statham. Soundcheck Books, 2013. ISBN 978-0957144231 .

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