The Info List - Brownsville, Texas

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Brownsville is the county seat of Cameron County, Texas, United States. It is the sixteenth-most populous city in the state of Texas, with a population at the 2010 census of 175,023[3] and an estimated population in 2014 of 183,046.[4] Brownsville is located at the southernmost tip of Texas, on the northern bank of the Rio Grande, directly north and across the border from Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The 2014 U.S. Census
Bureau estimate placed the Brownsville-Harlingen metropolitan area population at 420,392, making it the ninth most populous metropolitan area in the state of Texas.[5] In addition, the international Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area
Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area
was estimated to have a population of 1,136,995.[6] Brownsville has one of the highest poverty rates in the nation, and is frequently cited as having the highest percentage of residents in the nation below the federal poverty level.[7] But the urban area is also one of the fastest growing in the United States.[8] The city's population dramatically increased after a boom in the steel industry during the first decade of the 1900s, when steel output tripled.[citation needed] In the early 21st century, the Port of Brownsville has become a major economic hub for South Texas, where shipments arrive from other parts of the United States, from Mexico, and from around the world.[9] Brownsville's economy is based mainly on its international trade with Mexico
through the North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA). It is home to one of the fastest growing manufacturing sectors in the nation.[10] Brownsville has been recognized as having one of the best pro-business climates in the United States,[11] and the city has been ranked among the least expensive places to live in the U.S.[12] Brownsville served as a site for several battles and events in the Texas
Revolution,[13] the Mexican–American War,[14] and the American Civil War.[15] Just across the U.S– Mexico
border lies Matamoros, Tamaulipas, a city with a population of 500,000 people. It was a major site of the Mexican War of Independence,[16] the Mexican Revolution,[17] and the French Intervention.[18] It also is a major manufacturing center.


1 History

1.1 20th century to present

2 Geography

2.1 Flora 2.2 Climate

3 Demographics 4 Economy

4.1 Top employers 4.2 Technology growth in the 2010s

5 Government

5.1 City

6 County Commission representation

6.1 State representation 6.2 Federal representation

6.2.1 Social Security Administration 6.2.2 Federal Courthouse 6.2.3 Military installations 6.2.4 National parks

7 Education

7.1 Universities and colleges 7.2 Vocational schools 7.3 Primary and secondary schools

7.3.1 Public schools Magnet schools State charter schools

7.3.2 Private and parochial schools

7.4 Public libraries 7.5 University libraries

8 Transportation

8.1 Railroad 8.2 Mass transit 8.3 Highways 8.4 International bridges 8.5 Airport 8.6 Cycling and hiking

9 Culture

9.1 Festivals and parades 9.2 Museums 9.3 Theatre 9.4 Arts

9.4.1 Films made or inspired by Brownsville 9.4.2 TV shows made or inspired by Brownsville

9.5 Sports

10 Media

10.1 Newspapers 10.2 Television 10.3 Radio

11 Points of interest

11.1 Sanctuary

12 Notable natives/residents 13 Sister cities 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 External links


This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (April 2017)

See also: Timeline of Brownsville, Texas

Brownsville in 1857

Main article: Mexican-American War In April 1846, construction of a fort on the Mexican border was begun by American forces due to increased instability in the region on the eve of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
of 1846–1848.[19] Before the completion of the construction, the Mexican Army began the Siege of Fort Texas, during the first active campaign in the Mexican–American War, from May 3–9, 1846. The first battle of the war occurred on May 8, when General Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
received word of the siege of the fort. Taylor's forces rushed to help, but Mexican troops intercepted them, resulting in the Battle of Palo Alto, approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) north of present-day Brownsville.[citation needed] The next morning the Mexican forces had retreated, and Taylor's troops caught up with them, resulting in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, which took place within the present city limits. When Taylor finally arrived at the besieged Fort Texas, he found that two soldiers had died, including the fort's commander, Major Jacob Brown. In his honor, General Taylor renamed the facility as Fort Brown. An old cannon at the University of Texas
at Brownsville and Texas
Southmost College marks the spot where Major Brown received his fatal wound.[citation needed]

Battle of Palo Alto
Battle of Palo Alto
fought on May 8, 1846.

It should be noted that Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
was a young second lieutenant at this battle. Two future U.S. presidents served at this battle. The city of Brownsville was originally established late in 1848 by Charles Stillman, and was made the county seat of the new Cameron County on January 13, 1849. The state originally incorporated the city on January 24, 1850. This was repealed on April 1, 1852, due to a land-ownership dispute between Stillman and the former owners. The state reincorporated the city on February 7, 1853, which remains in effect. The issue of ownership was not decided until 1879, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Stillman. Main article: Cortina Troubles On July 13, 1859, the First Cortina War started. Juan Nepomuceno Cortina became one of the most important historical figures of the area, and continued to exert a decisive influence in the local events until his arrest in 1875. The First Cortina War ended on December 27, 1859. In May 1861, the brief Second Cortina War took place. Main article: American Civil War During the American Civil War, Brownsville served as a smuggling point for Confederate goods into Mexico, most importantly cotton smuggled to European ships waiting at the Mexican port of Bagdad. Initially the Confederates controlled Fort Brown. In November 1863, Union troops landed at Port Isabel and marched for Brownsville to stop the smuggling. In the ensuing battle of Brownsville, Confederate forces abandoned the fort, blowing it up with 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) of explosives. In 1864, Confederate forces commanded by John Salmon 'Rip' Ford reoccupied the town. On May 15, 1865, a month after the surrender had been signed at Appomattox Court House, the Battle of Palmito Ranch
Battle of Palmito Ranch
(generally accepted as the war's last battle) was fought and won by the Confederates. As President, Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
sent Union General Frederick Steele
Frederick Steele
to Brownsville to patrol the Mexican–American border after the Civil War to aid the Juaristas with military supplies. 20th century to present[edit] Like other Southern states, Texas
passed a new constitution and Jim Crow laws that established racial segregation and disenfranchised African Americans at the turn of the 20th century, generally by raising barriers to voter registration. While Hispanic residents were considered white under the terms of the US annexation of Texas, the white-dominated legislature still found ways to suppress their participation in politics. On August 13 and 14, 1906, Brownsville was the site of the Brownsville Affair. Racial tensions were high between white townsfolk and black infantrymen who were stationed at Fort Brown. On the night of August 13, one white bartender was killed and a white police officer was wounded by rifle shots in the street. Townsfolk, including the mayor, accused the infantrymen of the murders. Without affording them a chance to defend themselves in a hearing, President Theodore Roosevelt dishonorably discharged the entire 167-member regiment due to their alleged "conspiracy of silence". Further investigations in the 1970s found that the soldiers were not at fault, and the Nixon Administration reversed all dishonorable discharges. Only two men of the unit were still alive. On September 8, 1926, The Junior College of the Lower Rio Grande Valley (later known as Texas
Southmost College) admitted its first class. In 1945, Fort Brown
Fort Brown
was decommissioned after the end of World War II. In 1948 the City
and College acquired the land. Between 1945 and 1970, Brownsville's population continued to grow, more than doubling from 25,000 to 52,000 people. In 1991, Brownsville received a university via the partnership with the University of Texas
at Brownsville. Geography[edit] Brownsville is located on the U.S.– Mexico
border (marked here by the Rio Grande) opposite Matamoros, Tamaulipas. According to the U.S. Census
Bureau, the city has a total area of 146.3 square miles (378.9 km2), making it the largest American city by land area in the lower Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley. It is the third-largest American city by land area along the U.S.- Mexico
border, after San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas. A total of 132.3 square miles (342.7 km2) of Brownsville's area is land, and 13.9 square miles (36.1 km2) is water.[3] Brownsville is among the southernmost of all contiguous U.S. cities. Within the contiguous United States, only a handful of municipalities in Florida's Miami-Dade and Monroe counties (plus Everglades City
in Collier County) are located further south than Brownsville. It lies at exactly the same latitude as North Miami Beach in northern Miami-Dade County. In its efforts to become a cleaner, greener city, Brownsville became one of the first cities in the U.S. and Texas
to require stores to charge a fee for single-use plastic shopping bags. In the first five years of the program, approximately $3.8 million was collected. Funds have been used for city beautification and maintenance projects.[20] These results have led other cities in the area to also consider such a fee. Forbes
has identified Brownsville as one of 12 metropolitan areas in the U.S. with the cleanest air; Laredo was the only other Texas
metropolitan area to be among the 12.[21] Flora[edit] Broadleaf evergreen plants, including palms, dominate Brownsville neighborhoods to a greater degree than is seen elsewhere in Texas—even in nearby cities such as Harlingen and McAllen. Soils are mostly of clay to silty clay loam texture, moderately alkaline (pH 8.2) to strongly alkaline (pH8.5) and with a significant degree of salinity in many places.[22] Climate[edit]


Climate chart (explanation)


    1.3     71 52

    1.1     74 55

    1.2     79 60

    1.5     84 66

    2.6     88 72

    2.6     92 76

    2     94 76

    2.4     94 76

    5.9     91 73

    3.7     86 67

    1.8     79 60

    1.2     72 53

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

totals in inches

Metric conversion


    32     21 11

    27     23 13

    31     26 15

    39     29 19

    67     31 22

    65     33 24

    52     34 25

    62     35 25

    150     33 23

    95     30 19

    46     26 15

    29     22 12

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

totals in mm

Brownsville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa),[23] just outside a hot semi-arid climate. Its winter temperatures are slightly cooler than would qualify for a tropical savanna climate (Aw). Years with above-average temperatures are not rare and occasionally land the city in a tropical climate. Yet the nearby ocean waters and winds from the Gulf of Mexico
help keep Brownsville cooler during the summer relative to cities further inland, such as Laredo and McAllen. Temperatures above 100 °F (37.8 °C) are uncommon, with an average of only 1.1 days reaching that level of heat. At the other extreme, there is an average of one to two nights per year with freezing temperatures.[24] Average monthly rainfall demonstrates a strong September maximum; the next-wettest month is October, with a slight May–June peak across the rest of the year. Generally, November through April represents a marked drier season, and Brownsville can go for weeks with minimal, even negligible, rainfall, especially during the cooler season. Despite this, Brownsville's rain totals fluctuate and the city has had several years of above-average precipitation from time to time. Extreme temperatures range from 12 °F (−11 °C) on February 13, 1899 to 106 °F (41 °C) on March 27, 1984. The greatest snowfall in a day and a season was 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), which fell on December 25, 2004.[24] The coolest month is January and the warmest month is August.[25] Brownsville's proximity to the Gulf Coast means it is in the path of hurricanes. Throughout its history, the area has been affected by several major hurricanes, most notably the 1933 Cuba-Brownsville hurricane, Beulah, Allen, Bret and Dolly. The area is more likely to be affected by weak cyclones, tropical storms, and depressions. Since 2010, the city has seen an increase in the number and damage of tropical storms, believed to be caused by the El Niño
El Niño
phenomenon. On December 25, 2004, Brownsville had its first instance of measurable snow in 109 years,[26] with 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), and the first recorded White Christmas. This was part of the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm.[27] Because it is located at the intersection of different climate regimes (subtropical, Chihuahuan desert, Gulf Coast plain, and Great Plains), it is a prime birding area. Its unique network of resacas (distributaries of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
and oxbow lakes) provide habitat for numerous nesting/breeding birds of various types – most notably during the spring and fall migrations.

Climate data for Brownsville, Texas
(1981−2010 normals,[a] extremes 1878−present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 93 (34) 94 (34) 106 (41) 104 (40) 102 (39) 103 (39) 104 (40) 105 (41) 105 (41) 99 (37) 98 (37) 94 (34) 106 (41)

Average high °F (°C) 70.6 (21.4) 73.7 (23.2) 78.9 (26.1) 83.7 (28.7) 88.4 (31.3) 92.1 (33.4) 93.6 (34.2) 94.4 (34.7) 90.5 (32.5) 85.7 (29.8) 79.1 (26.2) 71.8 (22.1) 83.5 (28.6)

Average low °F (°C) 51.6 (10.9) 54.7 (12.6) 59.6 (15.3) 65.9 (18.8) 72.3 (22.4) 75.7 (24.3) 76.3 (24.6) 76.2 (24.6) 73.1 (22.8) 66.9 (19.4) 59.6 (15.3) 52.7 (11.5) 65.4 (18.6)

Record low °F (°C) 18 (−8) 12 (−11) 28 (−2) 37 (3) 41 (5) 56 (13) 58 (14) 63 (17) 51 (11) 35 (2) 27 (−3) 16 (−9) 12 (−11)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.27 (32.3) 1.08 (27.4) 1.23 (31.2) 1.54 (39.1) 2.64 (67.1) 2.57 (65.3) 2.04 (51.8) 2.44 (62) 5.92 (150.4) 3.74 (95) 1.82 (46.2) 1.15 (29.2) 27.44 (697)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 7.3 5.5 4.4 4.0 4.9 5.9 5.3 6.6 10.0 7.5 6.0 7.0 74.4

Average relative humidity (%) 79.3 77.4 74.6 75.1 76.5 75.0 73.2 73.8 76.3 75.3 76.1 78.2 75.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.6 151.3 206.8 232.7 266.4 306.5 334.4 306.4 252.0 228.3 166.2 130.7 2,712.3

Percent possible sunshine 39 48 56 61 64 74 79 76 68 64 51 40 61

Source: NOAA
(relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[24][28][29]


Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 2,734

1860 2,734


1870 4,905


1880 4,938


1890 6,134


1900 6,305


1910 10,517


1920 11,791


1930 22,021


1940 22,083


1950 35,086


1960 48,040


1970 52,522


1980 84,997


1990 98,962


2000 139,722


2010 175,023


Est. 2016 183,823 [30] 5.0%

U.S. Decennial Census

As of the census[1] of 2010, there were 175,023 people, 49,871 households, and 41,047 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,207.1 people per square mile (466.0/km2). There were 53,936 housing units at an average density of 372.0 per square mile (143.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was:

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) – 91.28%

Mexican – 73.93% Puerto Rican – 0.15% Cuban - 0.11% Other Hispanic or Latino – 17.08%

Not Hispanic or Latino – 8.72%

White alone - 7.75%[31]

There were 38,174 households out of which 50.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 20.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 15.7% were non-families. 13.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.62 and the average family size was 3.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 34.6% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,468, and the median income for a family was $26,186. Males had a median income of $21,739 versus $17,116 for females. The per capita income for the city is $9,762. About 31.6% of families and 35.7% of the population were below the federal poverty line, including 48.4% of those under the age of 18 and 31.5% of those 65 or over.[32] As of the estimated census of 2015, the city's population stands at 183,887 with 50,207 households.[33] The current metropolitan area estimates count 422,156 residents, an increase from 406,220 and its combined statistical area stood at 444,059 residents, an increase from 428,354, according to the census of 2010.[34][35] It is the 131st largest city in the United States along with the 126th largest metropolitan area and the 93rd largest combined statistical area. Economy[edit] An important pillar of the economy is the Port of Brownsville. The port, located 2 miles (3.2 km) from the city, provides an important link between the road networks of nearby Mexico, and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
of Texas.[36] Top employers[edit] According to the Brownsville Economic Development Council
Brownsville Economic Development Council
(BEDC),[37] the top employers in the city as of May 2015 were:

# Employer # of Employees

1 Brownsville Independent School District 7,670

2 Cameron County 1,950

3 University of Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley 1,734

4 Keppel AmFELS 1,650

5 Walmart 1,413

6 Abundant Life Home Health 1,300

7 City
of Brownsville 1,227

8 Caring For You Home Health 1,200

9 H-E-B
Grocery 975

10 Maximus 950

Technology growth in the 2010s[edit] SpaceX
is building the SpaceX
South Texas
Launch Site, a private space launch facility east of Brownsville on the Gulf Coast.[38][39] The new launch facility is expected to draw US$85 million to the city of Brownsville and eventually generate approximately US$51 million in annual salaries from some 500 jobs created by 2024.[40] The facility itself is projected to employ 75–100 full-time workers in the early years with up to 150 full-time employees/contractors by 2019.[41] As of October 2014[update], the University of Texas
at Brownsville and the Brownsville Economic Development Council
Brownsville Economic Development Council
(BEDC), in collaboration with SpaceX, are building radio-frequency (RF) technology facilities for STARGATE
( Spacecraft
Tracking and Astronomical Research into Gigahertz Astrophysical Transient Emission). The facility is intended to provide students and faculty access to RF technologies widely used in spaceflight operations, and will include satellite and spacecraft tracking.[42] BEDC purchased five lots in Boca Chica Village
Boca Chica Village
totaling 2.3 acres (0.93 ha) near the SpaceX
launch site and renamed it as the STARGATE
subdivision. The beach location will include a 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2) tracking center."[43] STARGATE
has received several startup grants including US$1.2 million from the US Economic Development Administration.[44] Government[edit]

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Picture of Brownsville; on the right is the "Old Federal Courthouse", where city commission meetings are held.

Brownsville has a council–manager style of government. The mayor and six city commissioners, two at-large and four district, serve staggered four-year terms. Elections are held for one at-large and two district seats every two years. Municipal elections are held on the first Saturday of May in odd numbered years. Once a winner is determined, the commissioner-elect will be seated at the next regular meeting of the Brownsville City
Commission. City
elected officials are non-partisan, meaning that they do not have a party affiliation. They may be personally affiliated with a political party but this has no bearing on the office.[citation needed] As of 2015, the members of the commission were:[45]

Mayor: Antonio "Tony" Martinez (since 2011) Commissioner At-Large "A": Cesar de Leon (since 2015) Commissioner At-Large "B": Dr. Rose M.Z. Gowen (since 2009) Commissioner District 1: Ricardo Longoria Jr. (since 2003) Commissioner District 2: Jessica Tetreau-Kalifa (since 2011) Commissioner District 3: Deborah Portillo (since 2013) Commissioner District 4: John Villarreal (since 2011)

The next regular elections for the city will occur in the following years:[45]

Mayor: 2019 At-Large "A": 2019 At-Large "B": 2017 District 1: 2019 District 2: 2019 District 3: 2017 District 4: 2017

The city commission appoints the city manager. Since 2006, the city manager is Charlie Cabler.[46] The city commission also appoints a six-member public utilities board for a four-year term. Members are limited to two consecutive or non-consecutive terms. The mayor is an ex-officio member of the board. The current board members are:[47]

Nurith Galonsky, chair Rafael Vela, cice-chair Rafael S. Chacon, secretary/treasurer Martin C. Arambula, member Noemi Garcia-Martinez, member Edna Oceguera, member

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County Commission representation[edit] The majority of Brownsville is represented by two of the four commission precinct commissioners. They have staggered four-year terms. County offices are partisan, thus the Democratic and Republican Parties will hold primaries in the March of the year of the year that office term expires. The Candidate who receives the highest amount of votes will then receive their party's nomination. The Libertarian Party selects their candidate by means of their County Convention. The nominees of each party will then run in a general election in November, the winner of which will become the Commissioner the following January. The following commissioners represent at least part of the City
of Brownsville:

South and East Brownsville are represented by Precinct 1 Commissioner, Sofia Benavides (D). (since 2006) North, Central Brownsville are represented by Precinct 2 Commissioner, Alex Dominguez (D). (since 2014) A sizable portion of Brownsville farm and scrub land north of FM 511 is represented by Precinct 3 Commissioner, David Garza (D). (since 2001)[48]

The chief executive of the county or the Cameron County Judge is Pete Sepulveda, Jr. (N/A) (since 2015)[49] The next regular elections for the County Commission Precincts 1, 2, and 3 will occur in the following years:

Precinct 1: 2016 Precinct 2: 2018 Precinct 3: 2016 Judge: 2018

State representation[edit] The City
of Brownsville falls under two State House of Representatives districts. Each representative has a two-year term and is elected in the same manner as other partisan elected officials.

District 37: Rene O. Oliveira (D) (since 1991)[50] District 38: Eduardo "Eddie" Lucio III (D) (since 2007)[51]

All of Brownsville is represented by Texas
Senatorial District 27, the incumbent senator is a Democrat, Eduardo "Eddie" Lucio Jr. (1991–present)[52]

Brazos Island
Brazos Island
Brazos Island
Brazos Island
State Scenic Park, also known as Brazos Island State Recreation Area, which has 217 acres Boca Chica State Park Las Palomas Wildlife Management Area – Boca Chica Unit[53] Resaca de la Palma, is a 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) State Park and World Birding Center
World Birding Center
site located to the northwest of Brownsville, Texas.[54] Texas
Department of Public Safety TxDPS located at 2901 Paredes Line Road Texas
Attorney General's Office, Child Support Division[55]

Federal representation[edit] All of Brownsville is represented by U.S. Congressional District 34, the incumbent Representative is Filemon Vela Jr., elected in 2013, (D).[56] The United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
operates post offices in Brownsville. The Brownsville Main Post Office is located at 1535 East Los Ebanos Boulevard.[57] Downtown Brownsville is served by the Downtown Brownsville Post Office at 1001 East Elizabeth Street.[58] There is also a National Weather Service
National Weather Service
office and doppler radar site in 20 South Vermillion Avenue Brownsville, Texas. They provide forecasts and radar coverage for Deep South Texas
and the adjacent coastal waters.[59] Social Security Administration[edit]

Social Security Administration located at 3115 Central Boulevard

Federal Courthouse[edit]

The Reynaldo G. Garza – Filemon B. Vela United States Courthouse is located at 600 E. Harrison Street[60]

Military installations[edit]

The Brownsville Armed Forces Reserve Center (AFRC) located at Woodruff Avenue host units from the U.S. Army Reserve and the Texas
Army National Guard.[61] The Reserve Officers' Training Corps
Reserve Officers' Training Corps
(ROTC) located at 80 Fort Brown[62]

National parks[edit]

Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park[63]

Education[edit] Universities and colleges[edit]

UT School of Public Health

University of Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley (previously University of Texas–Pan American and University of Texas
at Brownsville) Texas
Southmost College[64] The University of Texas
Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health (UTSPH), Brownsville Regional Campus The School of Public Health (UTSPH) opened in 2001 as part of the legislated Regional Academic Health Center program, or RAHC and is physically located on the campus of the University of Texas
at Brownsville. UTSPH – Brownsville is a regional campus of the University of Texas
School of Public Health statewide network which offer students a graduate certificate in public health and the Master of Public Health (M.P.H.) graduate degree.

Starting in 2009, the Brownsville Regional Campus also began offering a PhD program in Epidemiology and a Doctorate in Public Health (DrPH) in Health Promotion, the only programs of their kind in South Texas. Major public health concerns of the faculty and researchers found here in the Lower Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley Texas
include diabetes, tuberculosis, obesity, cardiovascular disease and hepatitis. Other areas of public health significance include physical activity, behavioral journalism, healthy living, diet and lifestyles activities. The Brownsville Regional Campus is also developing a strong research focus in genetics and its relationship to infectious and chronic disease.[65] Vocational schools[edit]

South Texas
Vocational Technical Institute[66] Brightwood College
Brightwood College
Brownsville Campus (formerly known as Kaplan College)[67] Southern Careers Institute Brownsville Campus[68]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (May 2017)

Public schools[edit] Most of Brownsville is served by Brownsville Independent School District. The BISD counted its total enrollment in the 2014–15 school year at 48,155 students in 58 schools.[69] It is the 17th largest school district in Texas. A portion of northern Brownsville is served by the Los Fresnos Consolidated Independent School District. In addition, Brownsville residents are allowed to apply to magnet schools operated by the South Texas
Independent School District, as well as BISD magnet schools. Each BISD high school has a magnet school within the school, Gladys Porter High School is home to the High School for Engineering Professions. Homer Hanna High School is home of the Tech Med Magnet Program for Medical and Health Professions. Lopez High School houses the district's Fine Arts Academy, James Pace High School has a Criminal Justice Magnet School and Simon Rivera High School hosts the International Business Magnet School. Magnet schools[edit]

The Science Academy of South Texas[70]

State charter schools[edit]

Raul Yzaguirre School for Success Sentry Technology Prep Charter High School IDEA Frontier Academy and College Preparatory IDEA Brownsville Academy and College Preparatory IDEA Riverview Academy and College Preparatory Harmony Science Academy-Brownsville (K–12) Brownsville Early College High School Math and Science Academy-UTB Athlos Leadership Academy (K-9) Livingway Leadership Academy (Pre-K-5)

Private and parochial schools[edit] Grades 9-12:

Saint Joseph Academy (grades 7 through 12) Valley Christian High School First Baptist High School

Grades 1-8:

Brownsville SDA School Episcopal Day School First Baptist School Faith Christian Academy Guadalupe Regional Middle School Incarnate Word Academy Kenmont Montessori School St. Luke's Catholic School St. Mary's Catholic School

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Brownsville
Roman Catholic Diocese of Brownsville
operates area Catholic schools. Public libraries[edit] The Brownsville Public Library System

The Main Branch Library, located at 2600 Central Boulevard[71] The Southmost Branch Library located at 4320 Southmost Boulevard.[72][71] The Cameron County Law Library located at 974 E. Harrison Street[73][74]

University libraries[edit]

Arnulfo L. Oliveira Memorial Library located at 80 Fort Brown University Boulevard Library located at 2035 University Blvd.[75]


Interstate 69E/U.S. Highway 77/83 overpass construction over McDavitt Blvd.

Railroad[edit] Several attempts were made to attract a railroad, but not until 1904 did the St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico
Railway reach the City
of Brownsville. In 1910 a railroad bridge was constructed between Brownsville and Matamoros (Mexico) and regular service between the two towns began. The introduction of the rail link to Brownsville opened the area for settlement of northern farmers, who began arriving in the lower Rio Grande
Rio Grande
valley in large numbers after the turn of the century. The new settlers cleared the land of brush, built extensive irrigation systems and roads, and introduced large-scale truck farming. In 1904 H. G. Stillwell, Sr., planted the first commercial citrus orchard in the area, thus opening the way for citrus fruit culture, one of the Valley's leading industries. The expansion of farming in the area and the railroad link to the north brought new prosperity to Brownsville and spurred a host of civic improvements.[76] Today, the Brownsville and Rio Grande
Rio Grande
International Railroad (reporting mark BRG) Brownsville and Rio Grande
Rio Grande
International Railroad is a terminal switching railroad headquartered in Brownsville, Texas. BRG operates 45 mi (68 km) of line at the Port of Brownsville, and interchanges with Union Pacific
Union Pacific
and TFM. BRG traffic includes steel, agricultural products, food products, and general commodities.[77] Mass transit[edit] Established in mid-Brownsville in 1978, with expanding bus service to rapidly developing North Brownsville, the Brownsville Urban System (BUS), currently known as the Brownsville Metro, consists of 3 hubs running 13 routes covering a large portion of Brownsville. The system provides 11 paratransit vans to disabled passengers, meeting the standards for the Americans with Disabilities Act. It is the only mass transit system in its county and the largest in the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley. The system also provides service to around 1.5 million passengers per year.[78] One of its main terminals is located at 755 International Blvd., called La Plaza at Brownsville.[79] Highways[edit] Brownsville is served by the following Interstate Highways, U.S. Routes, and Texas
State Highways:

Interstate 69E/U.S. Route 77 to Kingsville, Corpus Christi (U.S. 77 is a proposed part of the North American Free Trade Agreement's future fully completed Interstate 69 corridor) Interstate 169/SH 550 from North Brownsville to the Port of Brownsville is a toll road around the central portions of Brownsville that forms a loop around the city. An interchange carries traffic from I-69E onto the highway. U.S. Route 83 to Harlingen U.S. Route 281 to Pharr SH 4 from Southeast Brownsville to Boca Chica State Park SH 48 from Central Brownsville to Port Isabel

International bridges[edit]

Two of three bridges connecting Brownsville to its sister city, Matamoros.

Brownsville has three international bridges:

The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge (B&M), known locally as the "Old Bridge." The B&M International Bridge also serves as an international railway for Union Pacific. Gateway International Bridge, known locally as the "New Bridge" despite the fact that it's no longer the city's newest international bridge. The Veterans International Bridge at Los Tomates, or locally simply known as the "Los Tomates" or "Veterans" bridge.

Airport[edit] Brownsville has its own city-owned airport, the Brownsville/South Padre Island International Airport. The airport is used for general aviation and is served by United Airlines
United Airlines
(service to Houston-Intercontinental), and Envoy Air
Envoy Air
(service to Dallas-Fort Worth).[80] Cycling and hiking[edit] The city of Brownsville currently operates seven cycling paths around the area. Around 64 miles of the city's streets are bicycle trails and on-street bike lanes. The city's move towards a more environmental-friendly area has created the nickname "The Bicycling Capital of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley." The current operating cycling paths are:[81]

Brownsville Historic Battlefield Trails, a national trail spanning 9 miles Paseo de la Resaca Trails, a 7-mile trail with both ends meeting at the Brownsville Sports Park Monte Bella Mountain Bike Trail, a 6.3-mile trail located in North Brownsville Belden Trail, located in Downtown Brownsville; connects the West portion of the city with its adjacent areas Brownsville Sports Park Hike & Bike Trail Resaca de la Palma
Resaca de la Palma
State Park Trails, an 8-mile trail owned by a state park Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, part of the National Wildlife Refuge System

Culture[edit] Festivals and parades[edit]

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During mid to late February, Charro Days takes place in Brownsville. The holiday is a two-nation fiesta celebrating the friendship between Brownsville and its sister city and border town, Matamoros. The celebration attracts around 50,000 guests per year. It is accompanied with El Grito, a joyous shout originating in Mexican culture[82] as well as a visit from the Mr. Amigo Association. Honorees who have attended previous events include Vicente Fernandez
Vicente Fernandez
and Mexican actors Arath de la Torre
Arath de la Torre
and Eduardo Yanez. Sombrero Festival
is another celebration taking place around the same time as Charro Days. The festival is a three-day event consisting of performances from rock, tejano and corrido artists as well as a variety of contests.

AirFiesta is an air show hosted in mid-February in Brownsville. The event consists of professional aerobatics performers as well as militia from the U.S. Army, Navy and Air Force. The event takes place at the Brownsville/ South Padre Island
South Padre Island
International Airport. An arts and craft show is also hosted along with the event. The Latin Jazz Festival
is an annual musical event hosted around early October in Downtown Brownsville. The event is a 3-day celebration of Latin Jazz performers, art and dance. The first festival took place in 1997 and was founded by Tito Puente, a composer from New York City known as the "King of Latin Jazz". Local artists and bands perform songs by Latin Jazz artists. The city hosts two different parades throughout the year. The Fourth of July Parade is an annual parade hosted in the Fourth of July
Fourth of July
in Downtown Brownsville. The event has the same route as Charro Days and was created in 2000. The Winter Break Parade is an annual parade also hosted in Downtown Brownsville around early December. The parade consists of floats made by different schools around the city. St. Mary, Mother of the Church Fall Festival
is a Catholic festival held in 1914 Barnard Road. The event features live music and auction. It is hosted by the Catholic Diocese of Brownsville. The organizations also holds festivals in nearby areas such as McAllen, Edinburg and Mission.

Museums[edit] Children's Museum of Brownsville is a museum for young children consisting of educational exhibits and learning centers. Building efforts commenced in 2000 with the museum opening in 2005. It is located next to the Camille Lightner Playhouse in the center of Dean Porter Park in 501 E. Ringgold Street.[83] Founded in 1935, the Brownsville Museum of Fine Arts is an arts museum featuring exhibitions on Egyptian and Astronomical art. The museum was formerly known as the Brownsville Art League, formed by a group of eight women. The museum underwent a renovation in 1960, featuring a 4,000 sq ft studio and in 2002, it changed its name to its current name also receiving a 17,000 sq foot renovation. It is located in Downtown Brownsville at 660 East Ringgold Street.[84][85] The Historic Brownsville Museum is a historic museum opened to the public in 1986. The building was used as a Spanish Colonial Revival passenger depot and was later abandoned. The museum features Spanish architecture and education programs. It also hosts meeting for various organizations including City
and State officials. Several renovations were made to give the museum a more "present" look such as the addition of a Spanish-style fountain, a courtyard and an engine building.[86][87] Built in 1850 by Henry Miller, owner of the Miller Hotel in downtown Brownsville, the Stillman House Museum was owned by city founder Charles Stillman and Mexican consul Manuel Pérez Treviño. It was the site of meetings with Mexican president Porfirio Diaz. The great grandson of Stillman bought the house after the previous homeowners sold it and was donated to the city after renovations. It opened to the public in 1960. The home experienced damage from Hurricane Dolly in 2008 and reopened to the public the next year after renovations were made.[88] Costumes of the Americas Museum is an indigenous clothing museum located in 501 Ringgold Street. Inspired by Bessie Kirkland Johnson, the museum was opened in 1997, featuring clothing from indigenous people in several Mexican states and other Latin American countries.[89] The Commemorative Air Force Museum is an aircraft museum located in 955 Minnesota Ave., next to the Brownsville/South Padre Island International Airport. The museum features World War II
World War II
aircraft and also holds tours on the early events leading to wars in Asia and Europe. It also features the stories of aviation pilots who were part of the 201st Mexican Fighter Squadron and hosts the annual AirFiesta in February.[90] Theatre[edit] Jacob Brown Auditorium is an performing arts auditorium located in Downtown Brownsville. The venue has a 1,593 person capacity and has a variety of functions including banquet ceremonies, conference meetings and being a reception hall.[91] It is part of the University of Texas at Brownsville campus, now University of Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley. The Arts Center is a performing arts and concert venue in conjunction with Texas
Southmost College. It is associated with several theater organizations including Chamber Music America and the Association of Performing Arts Presenters. The center is strictly used for theater shows, while only using the lobby for meetings. It is currently the only Arts Center currently operating south of San Antonio.[92] Camille Lightner Playhouse is a performing arts auditorium founded in 1964 and located on 500 E Ringgold Street. The venue hosts auditions for local and Broadway plays, as well as hosting the Henri Awards, an awards show honoring the best in the venue's staff. It also holds a summer workshop for younger children and holds a reception hall at the DeStefano Room.[93] Arts[edit] The Brownsville area is full of well-established art galleries and museums that represent not only art of the region and Mexico
but feature traveling exhibits from around the world.[94] Films made or inspired by Brownsville[edit]

Year Title Lead actor(s)[95]

1981 Back Roads Sally Field, Tommy Lee Jones[96]

2000 The President's Man Chuck Norris, Dylan Neal

2004 Pink Punch Adal Ramones, Omar Chaparro

2011 The Big Year* Jack Black, Owen Wilson[97]

2012 Get the Gringo Mel Gibson[98]

2013 A Night in Old Mexico Robert Duvall[99]

2015 Endgame Efren Ramirez, Rico Rodriguez[100][101]

2017 The Green Ghost Danny Trejo[102]

* The Big Year
The Big Year
featured a scene where Brownsville, Texas
was written in front of the screen. Film draws inspiration from wildlife in the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley. TV shows made or inspired by Brownsville[edit]

Year Title Lead actor(s)

2007 Friday Night Lights Kyle Chandler, Connie Britton[103]

2011 Border Wars N/A[104]

2017 Jeff Ross
Jeff Ross
Roasts The Border: Live From Brownsville, Texas N/A

Sports[edit] Each year, Brownsville hosts the Jackie Robinson World Series for nine-year-old baseball players. In 1920 the St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
held spring training in Brownsville.[105] In 2011 and 2013, University of Texas
at Brownsville Ocelots team captured the NAIA Women's Volleyball National Championship in Sioux City, Iowa
Sioux City, Iowa
at the Tyson Events Center. These are the golf courses operating within the Brownsville city limit:

Fort Brown
Fort Brown
Memorial Golf Course Valley International Country Club[106] Rancho Viejo Resort and Country Club[107] River Bend Country Club Brownsville Golf Center Brownsville Municipal Golf Course

Media[edit] See also: List of newspapers in Texas, List of radio stations in Texas, and List of television stations in Texas Newspapers[edit]

The Brownsville Herald Valley Morning Star The Monitor Island Breeze Coastal Current The Collegian

Television[edit] The Brownsville area is served by numerous local television affiliates:

XHRIO-TV 2 MundoFox
– Matamoros, Tamaulipas KGBT-TV
– Harlingen KRGV-TV
5 ABC – Weslaco XHAB 7 Televisa Regional
Televisa Regional
Matamoros, Tamaulipas XERV 9 Canal de las Estrellas
Canal de las Estrellas
Matamoros, Tamaulipas XHOR 14 Azteca 7
Azteca 7
Reynosa, Tamaulipas KXFX-CD
20 Fox – Brownsville KCWT-CD
21 The CW – McAllen KVEO-TV
23 NBC
– Brownsville KMBH 38 PBS – Harlingen KTLM
40 Telemundo
– McAllen KLUJ-TV 44 TBN – Harlingen KNVO-TV
48 Univision
– McAllen KNWS-LP
64 Azteca America
Azteca America
– Brownsville


KVNS 1700 AM Fox Sports Radio KURV
710 AM News Talk KFRQ 94.5 FM Rock KKPS
La Nueva 99.5 99.5 FM Tejano KNVO 101.1 FM XEEW-FM
97.7 FM Los 40 Latin Pop KVLY 107.9 FM MIX FM Contemporary Hit Radio KBFM
Wild 104 104.1 FM Hip Hop, Contemporary R&B, Pop, Reggaeton KBNR 88.3 FM Radio Manantial (Spanish Christian) KTEX
100.3 FM Country XHMLS Exa FM 91.3 FM Latin Pop XHAAA "La Caliente" 93.1 FM XHNA Mega 105.9 FM Regional Mexican KHKZ
Kiss 106.3 Adult Contemporary KVMV 96.9 FM Contemporary Christian KJJF/ KHID 88.9 Public Radio 88 FM NPR
and Performance Today KJAV 104.9 Jack FM
Jack FM
Adult Hits UTB Radio[108] (formerly UTB Sting Radio) Internet Radio
Internet Radio
with diverse DJ Shows e.g., Thinking Out Loud[109] philosophy programming

Points of interest[edit]

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A picture of the Brownsville Masonic Temple Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Masonic Lodge No. 81, constructed in 1882. It was the original Cameron County Courthouse.

Local attractions include the Gladys Porter Zoo, the Brownsville Museum of Fine Art, Camille Lightner Playhouse, a historical downtown with buildings over 150 years old, the Port of Brownsville, and the Children's Museum of Brownsville. There is also easy access to South Padre Island and the Mexican city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas. Sunrise Mall is the largest shopping mall in the city of Brownsville. Since being remodeled in 2015 the mall has become the primary mall in the Brownsville-Harlingen metroplex. Brownsville previously had another shopping mall, Amigoland Mall by Simon, though the building has since been purchased by the University of Texas
at Brownsville (now University of Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley) after many of its tenants moved from Amigoland to Sunrise. Sanctuary[edit]

Sabal Palm Sanctuary[110]

Notable natives/residents[edit]

James Carlos Blake: award-winning novelist, received his elementary education at Saint Joseph Academy[111] Shelbie Bruce: actress.[112] José Tomás Canales: lawyer, writer, politician.[113] Oscar Casares: author and professor of creative writing at UT Austin; published two books about Brownsville, including Amigoland (2009) Carlos Cascos: outgoing county judge of Cameron County; incoming Secretary of State of Texas. Buddy Garcia: 2012 member of the Texas
Railroad Commission; now resides in Austin. Reynaldo G. Garza (1915–2004): Judge of Brownsville was first appointed to the United States District Court in 1961 by U.S. President John F. Kennedy, and to the United States Court of Appeals by President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
in 1978. Tony Garza: former U.S. Ambassador to Mexico.[citation needed] Gilberto Hinojosa: County judge of Cameron County from 1995 to 2007, unseated in 2006 by Republican Carlos Cascos; Texas
Democratic Party chairman since 2012. Mifflin Kenedy
Mifflin Kenedy
(1818–95): South Texas
rancher and steamboat businessman; interred at Buena Vista Burial Park in Brownsville. Bernard L. Kowalski (1929–2007): film and television director. Kris Kristofferson: country music star, singer and songwriter, 2004 Hall of Fame Inductee, and actor[114] Eddie Lucio Jr.: member of the Texas
State Senate from Brownsville since 1991; pro-life activist.[citation needed] Eddie Lucio III: member of the Texas
House of Representatives from Brownsville since 2007.[citation needed] Bianca Marroquín: Mexican musical theatre and television actress.[115] Domingo Martinez: author of The Boy Kings of Texas, a Memoir Grace Napolitano: U.S. Representative for California's 32nd congressional district Jose Rolando Olvera Jr.: U.S. District Judge for the Southern District of Texas
appointed by U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2015[116] Americo Paredes (1915–99): author of George Washington Gomez[117] Rudy Ruiz: award-winning Latino author, entrepreneur and advocate; attended Saint Joseph Academy.[118] Ramón Saldívar: scholar of Chicano literature and culture, awarded the National Humanities Medal by President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2012, teaches at Stanford University. Julian Schnabel: "neo-expressionist" painter and Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe
Golden Globe
winner and director of The Diving Bell and the Butterfly; attended Saint Joseph Academy. Bruce Sterling: author of the Mirrorshades
anthology and one of the pioneers of the cyberpunk genre. Emeraude Toubia: actress (Shadowhunters).[119] Benjamin D. Wood: noted education expert.[clarification needed] Jaime Zapata (1979–2011): U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent who was ambushed, shot, and killed by Los Zetas
Los Zetas
in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.[120] He was returning from a meeting in Mexico
City; Victor Avila, another agent who accompanied him, was wounded in the same incident.[121]

Sister cities[edit]

Heroica Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico

See also[edit]


List of museums in the Texas
Gulf Coast Nuevo Santander Virreinato de Nueva España José de Escandón
José de Escandón
y Helguera, 1st Count of Sierra Gorda


^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.


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Club at UTB. Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2012.  ^ "Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary". Audobun Texas. Retrieved June 20, 2012.  ^ McMillan, Maura. "A Tribe of One," Firsts: the Book Collector's Magazine, May 2001 ^ Hispanic heritage awards. Hispanic Heritage Foundation. 2006. p. 1971.  ^ 'Judge J. T. Canales Dies at Brownsville,' Del Rio Herald New, April 1, 1975, pg. 16 ^ " Kris Kristofferson
Kris Kristofferson
Hall of Fame Induction". Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012.  ^ "Dancer with Brownsville ties now starring in musicals". The Brownsville Herald. July 31, 2003. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved March 24, 2012.  ^ "President Obama Nominates Seven to Serve on the United States District Courts". whitehouse.gov. 2014-09-18. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ "Américo Paredes: Biography". Lib.utexas.edu. 1915-09-03. Archived from the original on 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2013-09-21.  ^ Brito, Victoria (November 21, 2014). "Author to Watch: Rudy Ruiz". Valley Morning Star. Retrieved June 11, 2016.  ^ "Brownsville native on television tonight". The Monitor. May 16, 2008. Retrieved June 7, 2015.  ^ "6 Zetas arrested in death of agent". San Antonio
San Antonio
News. February 24, 2011.  ^ "Jaime Zapata, U.S. Immigration And Customs Enforcement Agent, Killed In Mexico". The Huffington Post. February 16, 2011. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Brownsville, Texas External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brownsville, Texas.

has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Brownsville.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Brownsville (Texas).

Official website Brownsville Convention and Visitors Bureau Brownsville Chamber of Commerce Brownsville Public Library System Brownsville, Texas
in The Handbook of Texas
Online National Weather Service
National Weather Service
- Brownsville

v t e

Brownsville, Texas


Primary & Secondary Schools

Brownsville ISD

Homer Hanna HS Lopez HS James Pace HS Gladys Porter HS Simon Rivera HS Brownsville Early College HS

Los Fresnos CISD Saint Joseph Academy Valley Christian High School

Other education

University of Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley Brownsville Campus

Formerly University of Texas
at Brownsville

Southmost College


Brownsville Affair


The Brownsville Herald El Nuevo Heraldo


Brownsville/ South Padre Island
South Padre Island
International Airport

Veterans Memorial High School has a Brownsville address but is outside the city limits.

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Cameron County, Texas, United States

County seat: Brownsville


Brownsville Harlingen La Feria Los Fresnos Palm Valley Port Isabel Rio Hondo San Benito


Bayview Combes Indian Lake Laguna Vista Los Indios Primera Rancho Viejo Santa Rosa South Padre Island




Arroyo Colorado Estates Arroyo Gardens Bixby Bluetown Cameron Park Chula Vista Del Mar Heights El Camino Angosto Encantada-Ranchito-El Calaboz Grand Acres Green Valley Farms Iglesia Antigua Juarez La Feria North La Paloma La Tina Ranch Lago Laguna Heights Las Palmas II Lasana Laureles Lozano Olmito Orason Ratamosa Reid Hope King San Pedro Santa Maria Solis South Point Tierra Bonita Villa del Sol Villa Pancho Yznaga

Other unincorporated communities

Arroyo City Boca Chica Village

Ghost towns

Santa Rita

v t e

County seats of Texas


Abilene Albany Alice Alpine Amarillo Anahuac Anderson Andrews Angleton Anson Archer City Aspermont Athens Austin


Baird Ballinger Bandera Bastrop Bay City Beaumont Beeville Bellville Belton Benjamin Big Lake Big Spring Boerne Bonham Boston Brackettville Brady Breckenridge Brenham Brownfield Brownsville Brownwood Bryan Burnet


Caldwell Cameron Canadian Canton Canyon Carrizo Springs Carthage Center Centerville Channing Childress Clarendon Clarksville Claude Cleburne Coldspring Coleman Colorado City Columbus Comanche Conroe Cooper Corpus Christi Corsicana Cotulla Crane Crockett Crosbyton Crowell Crystal City Cuero


Daingerfield Dalhart Dallas Decatur Del Rio Denton Dickens Dimmitt Dumas


Eagle Pass Eastland Edinburg El Paso Eldorado Emory


Fairfield Falfurrias Farwell Floresville Floydada Fort Davis Fort Stockton Fort Worth Franklin Fredericksburg


Gail Gainesville Galveston Garden City Gatesville George West Georgetown Giddings Gilmer Glen Rose Goldthwaite Goliad Gonzales Graham Granbury Greenville Groesbeck Groveton Guthrie


Hallettsville Hamilton Haskell Hebbronville Hemphill Hempstead Henderson Henrietta Hereford Hillsboro Hondo Houston Huntsville


Jacksboro Jasper Jayton Jefferson Johnson City Jourdanton Junction


Karnes City Kaufman Kermit Kerrville Kingsville Kountze


La Grange Lamesa Lampasas Laredo Leakey Levelland Liberty Linden Lipscomb Littlefield Livingston Llano Lockhart Longview Lubbock Lufkin


Madisonville Marfa Marlin Marshall Mason Matador McKinney Memphis Menard Mentone Meridian Mertzon Miami Midland Monahans Montague Morton Mount Pleasant Mount Vernon Muleshoe


Nacogdoches New Braunfels Newton


Odessa Orange Ozona


Paducah Paint Rock Palestine Palo Pinto Pampa Panhandle Paris Pearsall Pecos Perryton Pittsburg Plains Plainview Port Lavaca Post


Quanah Quitman


Rankin Raymondville Refugio Richmond Rio Grande
Rio Grande
City Robert Lee Roby Rockport Rocksprings Rockwall Rusk


San Angelo San Antonio San Augustine San Diego San Marcos San Saba Sanderson Sarita Seguin Seminole Seymour Sherman Sierra Blanca Silverton Sinton Snyder Sonora Spearman Stanton Stephenville Sterling City Stinnett Stratford Sulphur Springs Sweetwater


Tahoka Throckmorton Tilden Tulia Tyler




Van Horn Vega Vernon Victoria


Waco Waxahachie Weatherford Wellington Wharton Wheeler Wichita Falls Woodville



v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Texas

Sylvester Turner
Sylvester Turner
(D) (Houston) Ron Nirenberg
Ron Nirenberg
(I) (San Antonio) Mike Rawlings
Mike Rawlings
(D) (Dallas) Steve Adler (D) (Austin) Betsy Price
Betsy Price
(R) (Fort Worth) Dee Margo
Dee Margo
(R) (El Paso) Jeff Williams (R) (Arlington) Joe McComb (R) (Corpus Christi) Harry LaRosiliere
Harry LaRosiliere
(I) (Plano) Pete Saenz
Pete Saenz
(D) (Laredo) Dan Pope (R) (Lubbock) Douglas Athas (Garland) Beth Van Duyne (R) (Irving) Ginger Nelson (Amarillo) Ron Jensen (Grand Prairie) Tony Martinez (Brownsville) Johnny Isbell (Pasadena) Brian Loughmiller (R) (McKinney) Stan Pickett (Mesquite) Jim Darling (McAllen) Jeff Cheney (Frisco) Jose Segarra (Killeen) Kyle Deaver (Waco) Kevin Falconer (R) (Carrollton) Jerry Morales (Midland) Chris Watts (Denton) Norm Archibald (Abilene) Becky Ames (R) (Beaumont) David Turner (Odessa) Alan McGraw (Round Rock) Glenn Barham (Wichita Falls) Paul Voelker (Richardson) Dean Ueckert (Lewisville) Martin Heines (Tyler) Tom Reid (Pearland) Nancy Berry (College Station)

v t e

 State of Texas

Austin (capital)


Architecture Climate Cuisine Geography Government Healthcare History Languages Law Literature Media

Newspapers Radio TV

National Historic Landmarks Recorded Texas
Historic Landmarks National Register of Historic Places Sites Sports Symbols Texans Tourist attractions Transportation

Seal of Texas


Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Gambling Politics


Ark‑La‑Tex Big Bend Blackland Prairies Brazos Valley Central Texas Coastal Bend Concho Valley Cross Timbers Deep East Texas East Texas Edwards Plateau Golden Triangle Hill Country Llano Estacado Northeast Texas North Texas Osage Plains Panhandle Permian Basin Piney Woods Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley Southeast Texas South Plains South Texas Texoma Trans-Pecos West Texas

Metropolitan areas

Abilene Amarillo Austin–Round Rock Beaumont–Port Arthur Brownsville–Harlingen College Station–Bryan Corpus Christi Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington El Paso Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land Killeen–Temple Laredo Longview Lubbock McAllen–Edinburg–Mission Midland Odessa San Angelo San Antonio–New Braunfels Sherman–Denison Texarkana Tyler Victoria Waco Wichita Falls


See: List of counties in Texas

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158271426 LCCN: n80034369 GND: 4444466-7 BNF: