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BROWNSVILLE is the county seat of Cameron County, Texas
Texas
. It is the sixteenth most populous city in the state of Texas
Texas
, with a population at the 2010 census of 175,023 and an estimated population in 2014 of 183,046. It is located at the southernmost tip of Texas, on the northern bank of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
, directly north and across the border from Matamoros, Tamaulipas , Mexico
Mexico
.

The 2014 U.S. Census
Census
Bureau estimate placed the Brownsville-Harlingen metropolitan area population at 420,392, making it the ninth most populous metropolitan area in the state of Texas. In addition, the international Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area
Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area
was estimated to have a population of 1,136,995.

Brownsville has one of the highest poverty rates in the nation, and is frequently cited as having the highest percentage of residents below the federal poverty level out of all cities in the nation.

Nonetheless, the Brownsville urban area is one of the fastest growing in the United States. The city's population dramatically increased after it experienced a boom in the steel industry during the first decade of the 1900s, when steel output tripled. In recent times, the Port of Brownsville has become a major economic hub for South Texas
Texas
, where shipments arrive from other parts of the United States, from Mexico, and from around the world.

Brownsville's economy is mainly based on its international trade with Mexico
Mexico
through the North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA), and is home to one of the fastest growing manufacturing sectors in the nation. Brownsville has been recognized as having one of the best pro-business climates in the United States, and the city has been ranked among the least expensive places to live in the U.S.

Brownsville served as a site for several battles and events in the Texas
Texas
Revolution , the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
, and the American Civil War . Right across the U.S– Mexico
Mexico
border lies Matamoros, Tamaulipas , a city with a population of 500,000 people and a major site of the Mexican War of Independence , the Mexican Revolution , and the French Intervention .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Flora * 2.2 Climate

* 3 Demographics

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Top employers * 4.2 Technology growth in the 2010s

* 5 Government

* 5.1 City
City
government

* 6 County Commission representation

* 6.1 State representation

* 6.2 Federal representation

* 6.2.1 Social Security Administration * 6.2.2 Federal Courthouse * 6.2.3 Military installations * 6.2.4 National parks

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Universities and colleges * 7.2 Vocational schools

* 7.3 Primary and secondary schools

* 7.3.1 Public schools

* 7.3.1.1 Magnet schools * 7.3.1.2 State charter schools

* 7.3.2 Private and parochial schools

* 7.4 Public libraries * 7.5 University libraries

* 8 Transportation

* 8.1 Railroad * 8.2 Mass transit * 8.3 Highways * 8.4 International bridges * 8.5 Airport

* 8.6 Cycling and hiking

* 8.6.1 Cyclobia

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Festivals and parades * 9.2 Museums * 9.3 Theatre

* 9.4 Arts

* 9.4.1 Films made or inspired by Brownsville * 9.4.2 TV shows made or inspired by Brownsville

* 9.5 Sports

* 10 Media

* 10.1 Newspapers * 10.2 Television
Television
* 10.3 Radio

* 11 Points of interest

* 11.1 Sanctuary

* 12 Notable natives/residents * 13 Sister cities * 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Bibliography * 18 External links

HISTORY

This section RELIES LARGELY OR ENTIRELY ON A SINGLE SOURCE . Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page . Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (April 2017)

See also: Timeline of Brownsville, Texas
Texas
Brownsville in 1857 Main article: Mexican-American War

In April 1846, construction of a fort on the Mexican border was begun by American forces due to increased instability in the region on the eve of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
of 1846–1848. Before the completion of the construction, the Mexican Army began the Siege of Fort Texas
Texas
, during the first active campaign in the Mexican–American War, from May 3–9, 1846. The first battle of the war occurred on May 8, when General Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
received word of the siege of the fort. Taylor's forces rushed to help, but Mexican troops intercepted them, resulting in the Battle of Palo Alto , approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) north of present-day Brownsville.

The next morning the Mexican forces had retreated, and Taylor's troops caught up with them, resulting in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma , which took place within the present city limits. When Taylor finally arrived at the besieged Fort Texas, it was found that two soldiers had died, one of them the fort's commander, Major Jacob Brown. In his honor, General Taylor renamed the fort Fort Brown . An old cannon at the University of Texas
Texas
at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College marks the spot where Major Brown received his fatal wound. Battle of Palo Alto fought on May 8, 1846.

The city of Brownsville was originally established late in 1848 by Charles Stillman , and was made the county seat of the new Cameron County on January 13, 1849. The state originally incorporated the city on January 24, 1850. This was repealed on April 1, 1852, due to a land-ownership dispute between Stillman and the former owners. The state reincorporated the city on February 7, 1853, which remains in effect. The issue of ownership was not decided until 1879, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Stillman. Main article: Cortina Troubles

On July 13, 1859, the First Cortina War started. Juan Nepomuceno Cortina became one of the most important historical figures of the area, and continued to exert a decisive influence in the local events until his arrest in 1875. The First Cortina War ended on December 27, 1859. In May 1861, the brief Second Cortina War took place. Main article: American Civil War
American Civil War

During the American Civil War, Brownsville served as a smuggling point for Confederate goods into Mexico, most importantly cotton smuggled to European ships waiting at the Mexican port of Bagdad . Initially the Confederates controlled Fort Brown. In November 1863, Union troops landed at Port Isabel and marched for Brownsville to stop the smuggling. In the ensuing battle of Brownsville , Confederate forces abandoned the fort, blowing it up with 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) of explosives. In 1864, Confederate forces commanded by John Salmon \'Rip\' Ford reoccupied the town.

On May 15, 1865, a month after the surrender had been signed at Appomattox Court House , the Battle of Palmito Ranch (generally accepted as the war's last battle) was fought and won by the Confederates. Ulysses S. Grant sent Union General Frederick Steele
Frederick Steele
to Brownsville to patrol the Mexican–American border after Civil War to aid the Juaristas with military supplies.

On August 13 and 14, 1906, Brownsville was the site of the Brownsville Affair . Racial tensions were high between white townsfolk and black infantrymen stationed at Fort Brown . On the night of August 13, one white bartender was killed and a white police officer was wounded by rifle shots in the street. Townsfolk, including the mayor, accused the infantrymen of the murders. Without affording them a chance to defend themselves in a hearing, President Theodore Roosevelt dishonorably discharged the entire 167-member regiment due to their alleged "conspiracy of silence ". Further investigations in the 1970s found that the soldiers were not at fault, and the Nixon Administration reversed all dishonorable discharges. Only two men of the unit were still alive.

On September 8, 1926, The Junior College of the Lower Rio Grande Valley (later known as Texas
Texas
Southmost College ) admitted its first class. In 1945, Fort Brown was decommissioned after the end of World War II. In 1948 the City
City
and College acquired the land. Between 1945 and 1970, Brownsville's population continued to grow, more than doubling from 25,000 to 52,000 people. In 1991, Brownsville received a university via the partnership with the University of Texas
Texas
at Brownsville .

GEOGRAPHY

Brownsville is located on the U.S.– Mexico
Mexico
border (marked here by the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
) opposite Matamoros, Tamaulipas. According to the U.S. Census
Census
Bureau, the city has a total area of 146.3 square miles (378.9 km2), making it the largest American city by land area in the lower Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley and the third largest American city by land area along the U.S.- Mexico
Mexico
border, after San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas
Texas
. A total of 132.3 square miles (342.7 km2) of Brownsville's area is land, and 13.9 square miles (36.1 km2) is water.

Brownsville is among the southernmost of all contiguous U.S. cities. Within the contiguous United States , only a handful of municipalities in Florida
Florida
's Miami-Dade and Monroe counties (plus Everglades City
City
in Collier County ) are further south than Brownsville, which lies at exactly the same latitude as North Miami Beach in northern Miami-Dade County.

In its efforts to become a cleaner, greener city, Brownsville became one of the first cities in the U.S. and Texas
Texas
to require stores to charge a fee for single-use plastic shopping bags. In its first five years, approximately $3.8 million was collected. Funds have been used for city beautification and maintenance projects. This has led other cities in the area to also consider such a fee. Forbes has identified Brownsville as one of 12 metropolitan areas in the U.S. with the cleanest air; Laredo was the only other Texas
Texas
metropolitan area to be among the 12.

FLORA

Broadleaf evergreen plants, including palms , dominate Brownsville neighborhoods to a greater degree than is seen elsewhere in Texas—even in nearby cities such as Harlingen and McAllen
McAllen
. Soils are mostly of clay to silty clay loam texture, moderately alkaline (pH 8.2 ) to strongly alkaline (pH8.5 ) and with a significant degree of salinity in many places.

CLIMATE

BROWNSVILLE

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

1.3 71 52 1.1 74 55 1.2 79 60 1.5 84 66 2.6 88 72 2.6 92 76 2 94 76 2.4 94 76 5.9 91 73 3.7 86 67 1.8 79 60 1.2 72 53

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

METRIC CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

32 21 11 27 23 13 31 26 15 39 29 19 67 31 22 65 33 24 52 34 25 62 35 25 150 33 23 95 30 19 46 26 15 29 22 12

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Brownsville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), just outside a hot semi-arid climate with winter temperatures just slightly cooler than would qualify for a tropical savanna climate (Aw). Years with above-average temperatures are not rare and occasionally land the city in a tropical climate . Yet the nearby ocean waters and winds of the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
help keep Brownsville cooler during the summer relative to cities further inland such as Laredo and McAllen
McAllen
. Thus temperatures above 100 °F (37.8 °C) are uncommon, with an average of only 1.1 days reaching that level of heat. At the other extreme, there is an average of one to two nights per year with freezing temperatures. Average monthly rainfall demonstrates a strong September maximum; the next-wettest month is October, with a slight May–June peak across the rest of the year. Generally, November through April represents a marked drier season, and Brownsville can go for weeks with minimal, even negligible, rainfall, especially over the cooler season. Despite this, Brownsville's rain totals fluctuate and can experience several years of above average precipitation. Extreme temperatures range from 12 °F (−11 °C) on February 13, 1899 to 106 °F (41 °C) on March 27, 1984. The greatest snowfall in a day and a season was 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), which fell on December 25, 2004. The coolest month is January and the warmest month is August.

Brownsville's proximity to the Gulf Coast has made it a target for hurricanes. Throughout its history, the area has been impacted by several major hurricanes, most notably the 1933 Cuba-Brownsville hurricane , Beulah , Allen , Bret and Dolly . While the area has been struck by major hurricanes, it is more prone to impacts by weak cyclones, tropical storms and depressions. In addition, the city has seen an increase in tropical storm impacts in the 2010s, most likely due to the El Niño
El Niño
phenomenon.

On December 25, 2004, Brownsville had its first instance of measurable snow in 109 years, with 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), and the first recorded White Christmas . This was part of the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm .

Brownsville's location at the intersection of different climate regimes (subtropical, Chihuahuan desert, Gulf Coast plain, and Great Plains) causes it to be a birding location. Its unique network of resacas (distributaries of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
and oxbow lakes) provide habitat for nesting/breeding birds of various types – most notably during the spring and fall migrations.

CLIMATE DATA FOR BROWNSVILLE, TEXAS (1981−2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1878−PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 93 (34) 94 (34) 106 (41) 104 (40) 102 (39) 103 (39) 104 (40) 105 (41) 105 (41) 99 (37) 98 (37) 94 (34) 106 (41)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 70.6 (21.4) 73.7 (23.2) 78.9 (26.1) 83.7 (28.7) 88.4 (31.3) 92.1 (33.4) 93.6 (34.2) 94.4 (34.7) 90.5 (32.5) 85.7 (29.8) 79.1 (26.2) 71.8 (22.1) 83.5 (28.6)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 51.6 (10.9) 54.7 (12.6) 59.6 (15.3) 65.9 (18.8) 72.3 (22.4) 75.7 (24.3) 76.3 (24.6) 76.2 (24.6) 73.1 (22.8) 66.9 (19.4) 59.6 (15.3) 52.7 (11.5) 65.4 (18.6)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) 18 (−8) 12 (−11) 28 (−2) 37 (3) 41 (5) 56 (13) 58 (14) 63 (17) 51 (11) 35 (2) 27 (−3) 16 (−9) 12 (−11)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 1.27 (32.3) 1.08 (27.4) 1.23 (31.2) 1.54 (39.1) 2.64 (67.1) 2.57 (65.3) 2.04 (51.8) 2.44 (62) 5.92 (150.4) 3.74 (95) 1.82 (46.2) 1.15 (29.2) 27.44 (697)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 7.3 5.5 4.4 4.0 4.9 5.9 5.3 6.6 10.0 7.5 6.0 7.0 74.4

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 79.3 77.4 74.6 75.1 76.5 75.0 73.2 73.8 76.3 75.3 76.1 78.2 75.9

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 130.6 151.3 206.8 232.7 266.4 306.5 334.4 306.4 252.0 228.3 166.2 130.7 2,712.3

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 39 48 56 61 64 74 79 76 68 64 51 40 61

Source: NOAA
NOAA
(relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1850 2,734

1860 2,734

0.0%

1870 4,905

79.4%

1880 4,938

0.7%

1890 6,134

24.2%

1900 6,305

2.8%

1910 10,517

66.8%

1920 11,791

12.1%

1930 22,021

86.8%

1940 22,083

0.3%

1950 35,086

58.9%

1960 48,040

36.9%

1970 52,522

9.3%

1980 84,997

61.8%

1990 98,962

16.4%

2000 139,722

41.2%

2010 175,023

25.3%

EST. 2016 183,823

5.0%

U.S. Decennial Census

As of the census of 2010, there were 175,023 people, 49,871 households, and 41,047 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,207.1 people per square mile (466.0/km2). There were 53,936 housing units at an average density of 372.0 per square mile (143.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was: Hispanic or Latino (of any race) – 91.28% Mexican – 73.93% Puerto Rican – 0.15% Cuban - 0.11% Other Hispanic or Latino – 17.08% Not Hispanic or Latino – 8.72% White alone - 7.75%

There were 38,174 households out of which 50.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 20.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 15.7% were non-families. 13.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.62 and the average family size was 3.99.

In the city, the population was spread out with 34.6% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,468, and the median income for a family was $26,186. Males had a median income of $21,739 versus $17,116 for females. The per capita income for the city is $9,762. About 31.6% of families and 35.7% of the population were below the federal poverty line , including 48.4% of those under the age of 18 and 31.5% of those 65 or over.

As of the estimated census of 2015, the city's population stands at 183,887 with 50,207 households. The current metropolitan area estimates count 422,156 residents, an increase from 406,220 and its combined statistical area stood at 444,059 residents, an increase from 428,354, according to the census of 2010. It is the 131st largest city in the United States along with the 126th largest metropolitan area and the 93rd largest combined statistical area.

ECONOMY

An important pillar of the economy is the Port of Brownsville . The port, located 2 miles (3.2 km) from the city, provides an important link between the road networks of nearby Mexico, and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Texas.

TOP EMPLOYERS

According to the Brownsville Economic Development Council (BEDC), the top employers in the city as of May 2015 were:

# EMPLOYER # OF EMPLOYEES

1 Brownsville Independent School District 7,670

2 Cameron County 1,950

3 University of Texas
Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley 1,734

4 Keppel AmFELS 1,650

5 Walmart 1,413

6 Abundant Life Home Health 1,300

7 City
City
of Brownsville 1,227

8 Caring For You Home Health 1,200

9 H-E-B Grocery 975

10 Maximus 950

TECHNOLOGY GROWTH IN THE 2010S

SpaceX
SpaceX
is building the SpaceX
SpaceX
South Texas
Texas
Launch Site , a private space launch facility east of Brownsville on the Gulf Coast.

The new launch facility is expected to draw US$85 million to the city of Brownsville and eventually generate approximately US$51 million in annual salaries from some 500 jobs created by 2024.

The facility itself is projected to employ 75–100 full-time workers in the early years with up to 150 full-time employees/contractors by 2019.

As of October 2014 , the University of Texas
Texas
at Brownsville and the Brownsville Economic Development Council (BEDC), in collaboration with SpaceX, are building radio-frequency (RF) technology facilities for STARGATE
STARGATE
( Spacecraft
Spacecraft
Tracking and Astronomical Research into Gigahertz Astrophysical Transient Emission). The facility is intended to provide students and faculty access to RF technologies widely used in spaceflight operations, and will include satellite and spacecraft tracking .

BEDC purchased five lots in Boca Chica Village
Boca Chica Village
totaling 2.3 acres (0.93 ha) near the SpaceX
SpaceX
launch site and renamed it as the STARGATE subdivision. The beach location will include a 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2) tracking center."

STARGATE
STARGATE
has received several startup grants including US$1.2 million from the US Economic Development Administration
Economic Development Administration
.

GOVERNMENT

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CITY GOVERNMENT

Picture of Brownsville; on the right is the "Old Federal Courthouse ", where city commission meetings are held.

Brownsville has a council–manager style of government. The mayor and six city commissioners, two at-large and four district, serve staggered four-year terms. Elections are held for one at-large and two district seats every two years. Municipal elections are held on the first Saturday of May in odd numbered years. Once a winner is determined, the commissioner-elect will be seated at the next regular meeting of the Brownsville City
City
Commission. City
City
elected officials are non-partisan, meaning that they do not have a party affiliation. They may be personally affiliated with a political party but this has no bearing on the office.

As of 2015, the members of the commission were:

* Mayor: Antonio "Tony" Martinez (since 2011) * Commissioner At-Large "A": Cesar de Leon (since 2015) * Commissioner At-Large "B": Dr. Rose M.Z. Gowen (since 2009) * Commissioner District 1: Ricardo Longoria Jr. (since 2003) * Commissioner District 2: Jessica Tetreau-Kalifa (since 2011) * Commissioner District 3: Deborah Portillo (since 2013) * Commissioner District 4: John Villarreal (since 2011)

The next regular elections for the city will occur in the following years:

* Mayor: 2019 * At-Large "A": 2019 * At-Large "B": 2017 * District 1: 2019 * District 2: 2019 * District 3: 2017 * District 4: 2017

The city commission appoints the city manager. Since 2006, the city manager is Charlie Cabler. The city commission also appoints a six-member public utilities board for a four-year term. Members are limited to two consecutive or non-consecutive terms. The mayor is an ex-officio member of the board. The current board members are:

* Nurith Galonsky, chair * Rafael Vela, cice-chair * Rafael S. Chacon, secretary/treasurer * Martin C. Arambula, member * Noemi Garcia-Martinez, member * Edna Oceguera, member

This article may REQUIRE CLEANUP to meet's quality standards . The specific problem is: BRIEF INFORMATION. Please help improve this article if you can. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

COUNTY COMMISSION REPRESENTATION

The majority of Brownsville is represented by two of the four commission precinct commissioners. They have staggered four-year terms. County offices are partisan, thus the Democratic and Republican Parties will hold primaries in the March of the year of the year that office term expires. The Candidate who receives the highest amount of votes will then receive their party's nomination. The Libertarian Party selects their candidate by means of their County Convention. The nominees of each party will then run in a general election in November, the winner of which will become the Commissioner the following January.

The following commissioners represent at least part of the City
City
of Brownsville:

* South and East Brownsville are represented by Precinct 1 Commissioner, Sofia Benavides (D). (since 2006) * North, Central Brownsville are represented by Precinct 2 Commissioner, Alex Dominguez (D). (since 2014) * A sizable portion of Brownsville farm and scrub land north of FM 511 is represented by Precinct 3 Commissioner, David Garza (D). (since 2001)

The chief executive of the county or the Cameron County Judge is Pete Sepulveda, Jr. (N/A) (since 2015)

The next regular elections for the County Commission Precincts 1, 2, and 3 will occur in the following years:

* Precinct 1: 2016 * Precinct 2: 2018 * Precinct 3: 2016 * Judge: 2018

STATE REPRESENTATION

The City
City
of Brownsville falls under two State House of Representatives districts. Each representative has a two-year term and is elected in the same manner as other partisan elected officials.

* District 37: Rene O. Oliveira (D) (since 1991) * District 38: Eduardo "Eddie" Lucio III (D) (since 2007)

All of Brownsville is represented by Texas
Texas
Senatorial District 27, the incumbent senator is a Democrat, Eduardo "Eddie" Lucio Jr. (1991–present)

* Brazos Island Brazos Island State Scenic Park, also known as Brazos Island State Recreation Area, which has 217 acres * Boca Chica State Park * Las Palomas Wildlife Management Area – Boca Chica Unit * Resaca de la Palma , is a 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) State Park and World Birding Center site located to the northwest of Brownsville, Texas. * Texas
Texas
Department of Public Safety TxDPS located at 2901 Paredes Line Road * Texas
Texas
Attorney General's Office, Child Support Division

FEDERAL REPRESENTATION

All of Brownsville is represented by U.S. Congressional District 34, the incumbent Representative has been, since 2015, Filemon Vela Jr. (D).

The United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
operates post offices in Brownsville. The Brownsville Main Post Office is located at 1535 East Los Ebanos Boulevard. Downtown Brownsville is served by the Downtown Brownsville Post Office at 1001 East Elizabeth Street.

There is also a National Weather Service office and doppler radar site in 20 South Vermillion Avenue Brownsville, Texas. They provide forecasts and radar coverage for Deep South Texas
Texas
and the adjacent coastal waters.

Social Security Administration

* Social Security Administration located at 3115 Central Boulevard

Federal Courthouse

* The Reynaldo G. Garza – Filemon B. Vela United States Courthouse is located at 600 E. Harrison Street

Military Installations

* The Brownsville Armed Forces Reserve Center (AFRC) located at Woodruff Avenue host units from the U.S. Army Reserve and Texas
Texas
Army National Guard . * The Reserve Officers\' Training Corps (ROTC) located at 80 Fort Brown

National Parks

* Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park
Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park

EDUCATION

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES

UT School of Public Health

* University of Texas
Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley (previously University of Texas–Pan American and University of Texas
Texas
at Brownsville ) * Texas
Texas
Southmost College

* The University of Texas
Texas
Health Science Center at Houston
Houston
, School of Public Health (UTSPH), Brownsville Regional Campus The School of Public Health (UTSPH) opened in 2001 as part of the legislated Regional Academic Health Center program, or RAHC and is physically located on the campus of the University of Texas
Texas
at Brownsville. UTSPH – Brownsville is a regional campus of the University of Texas
Texas
School of Public Health statewide network which offer students a graduate certificate in public health and the Master of Public Health (M.P.H.) graduate degree.

Starting in 2009, the Brownsville Regional Campus also began offering a PhD program in Epidemiology and a Doctorate in Public Health (DrPH) in Health Promotion, the only programs of their kind in South Texas. Major public health concerns of the faculty and researchers found here in the Lower Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley Texas
Texas
include diabetes , tuberculosis , obesity , cardiovascular disease and hepatitis . Other areas of public health significance include physical activity, behavioral journalism, healthy living, diet and lifestyles activities. The Brownsville Regional Campus is also developing a strong research focus in genetics and its relationship to infectious and chronic disease.

VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

* South Texas
Texas
Vocational Technical Institute * Brightwood College
Brightwood College
Brownsville Campus (formerly known as Kaplan College) * Southern Careers Institute Brownsville Campus

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

This section RELIES LARGELY OR ENTIRELY ON A SINGLE SOURCE . Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page . Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (May 2017)

Public Schools

Most of Brownsville is served by Brownsville Independent School District . The BISD counted its total enrollment in the 2014–15 school year at 48,155 students in 58 schools. It is the 17th largest school district in Texas. A portion of northern Brownsville is served by the Los Fresnos Consolidated Independent School District .

In addition, Brownsville residents are allowed to apply to magnet schools operated by the South Texas
Texas
Independent School District , as well as BISD magnet schools. Each BISD high school has a magnet school within the school, Gladys Porter High School is home to the High School for Engineering Professions. Homer Hanna High School is home of the Tech Med Magnet Program for Medical and Health Professions. Lopez High School houses the district's Fine Arts Academy, James Pace High School has a Criminal Justice Magnet School and Simon Rivera High School hosts the International Business Magnet School.

Magnet Schools

* The Science Academy of South Texas
Texas

State Charter Schools

* Raul Yzaguirre School for Success * Sentry Technology Prep Charter High School * IDEA Frontier Academy and College Preparatory * IDEA Brownsville Academy and College Preparatory * IDEA Riverview Academy and College Preparatory * Harmony Science Academy-Brownsville (K–12) * Brownsville Early College High School * Math and Science Academy-UTB * Athlos Leadership Academy (K-9) * Livingway Leadership Academy (Pre-K-5)

Private And Parochial Schools

Grades 9-12:

* Saint Joseph Academy (grades 7 through 12) * Valley Christian High School * First Baptist High School

Grades 1-8:

* Brownsville SDA School * Episcopal Day School * First Baptist School * Faith Christian Academy * Guadalupe Regional Middle School * Incarnate Word Academy * Kenmont Montessori School * St. Luke's Catholic School * St. Mary's Catholic School

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Brownsville
Roman Catholic Diocese of Brownsville
operates area Catholic schools.

PUBLIC LIBRARIES

The Brownsville Public Library System

* The Main Branch Library, located at 2600 Central Boulevard * The Southmost Branch Library located at 4320 Southmost Boulevard.

* The Cameron County Law Library located at 974 E. Harrison Street

UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

* Arnulfo L. Oliveira Memorial Library located at 80 Fort Brown * University Boulevard Library located at 2035 University Blvd.

TRANSPORTATION

Interstate 69E
Interstate 69E
/U.S. Highway 77 /83 overpass construction over McDavitt Blvd.

RAILROAD

Several attempts were made to attract a railroad, but not until 1904 did the St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico
Mexico
Railway reach the City
City
of Brownsville. In 1910 a railroad bridge was constructed between Brownsville and Matamoros (Mexico) and regular service between the two towns began. The introduction of the rail link to Brownsville opened the area for settlement of northern farmers, who began arriving in the lower Rio Grande
Rio Grande
valley in large numbers after the turn of the century.

The new settlers cleared the land of brush, built extensive irrigation systems and roads, and introduced large-scale truck farming. In 1904 H. G. Stillwell, Sr., planted the first commercial citrus orchard in the area, thus opening the way for citrus fruit culture, one of the Valley's leading industries. The expansion of farming in the area and the railroad link to the north brought new prosperity to Brownsville and spurred a host of civic improvements.

Today, the Brownsville and Rio Grande
Rio Grande
International Railroad (reporting mark BRG) Brownsville and Rio Grande
Rio Grande
International Railroad is a terminal switching railroad headquartered in Brownsville, Texas. BRG operates 45 mi (68 km) of line at the Port of Brownsville, and interchanges with Union Pacific
Union Pacific
and TFM. BRG traffic includes steel, agricultural products, food products, and general commodities.

MASS TRANSIT

Established in mid-Brownsville in 1978, with expanding bus service to rapidly developing North Brownsville, the Brownsville Urban System (BUS), currently known as the Brownsville Metro, consists of 3 hubs running 13 routes covering a large portion of Brownsville. The system provides 11 paratransit vans to disabled passengers, meeting the standards for the Americans with Disabilities Act . It is the only mass transit system in its county and the largest in the Rio Grande Valley. The system also provides service to around 1.5 million passengers per year. One of its main terminals is located at 755 International Blvd., called La Plaza at Brownsville.

HIGHWAYS

Brownsville is served by the following Interstate Highways
Interstate Highways
, U.S. Routes , and Texas
Texas
State Highways :

* Interstate 69E
Interstate 69E
/U.S. Route 77 to Kingsville , Corpus Christi (U.S. 77 is a proposed part of the North American Free Trade Agreement 's future fully completed Interstate 69 corridor) * Interstate 169 /SH 550 from North Brownsville to the Port of Brownsville is a toll road around the central portions of Brownsville that forms a loop around the city. An interchange carries traffic from I-69E onto the highway. * U.S. Route 83 to Harlingen * U.S. Route 281 to Pharr * SH 4 from Southeast Brownsville to Boca Chica State Park * SH 48 from Central Brownsville to Port Isabel

INTERNATIONAL BRIDGES

Two of three bridges connecting Brownsville to its sister city, Matamoros .

Brownsville has three international bridges:

* The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge (B&M), known locally as the "Old Bridge." The B connects the West portion of the city with its adjacent areas * Brownsville Sports Park Hike ">

CULTURE

FESTIVALS AND PARADES

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During mid to late February, Charro Days takes place in Brownsville. The holiday is a two-nation fiesta celebrating the friendship between Brownsville and its sister city and border town, Matamoros . The celebration attracts around 50,000 guests per year. It is accompanied with El Grito, a joyous shout originating in Mexican culture as well as a visit from the Mr. Amigo Association. Honorees who have attended previous events include Vicente Fernandez and Mexican actors Arath de la Torre and Eduardo Yanez . Sombrero Festival
Festival
is another celebration taking place around the same time as Charro Days. The festival is a three-day event consisting of performances from rock , tejano and corrido artists as well as a variety of contests.

* AirFiesta is an air show hosted in mid-February in Brownsville. The event consists of professional aerobatics performers as well as militia from the U.S. Army, Navy and Air Force. The event takes place at the Brownsville/ South Padre Island International Airport. An arts and craft show is also hosted along with the event. * The Latin Jazz Festival
Festival
is an annual musical event hosted around early October in Downtown Brownsville. The event is a 3-day celebration of Latin Jazz performers, art and dance. The first festival took place in 1997 and was founded by Tito Puente , a composer from New York City
City
known as the "King of Latin Jazz". Local artists and bands perform songs by Latin Jazz artists. * The city hosts two different parades throughout the year. The Fourth of July
Fourth of July
Parade is an annual parade hosted in the Fourth of July in Downtown Brownsville. The event has the same route as Charro Days and was created in 2000. The Winter Break Parade is an annual parade also hosted in Downtown Brownsville around early December. The parade consists of floats made by different schools around the city. * St. Mary, Mother of the Church Fall Festival
Festival
is a Catholic festival held in 1914 Barnard Road. The event features live music and auction. It is hosted by the Catholic Diocese of Brownsville. The organizations also holds festivals in nearby areas such as McAllen, Edinburg and Mission.

MUSEUMS

Children's Museum of Brownsville is a museum for young children consisting of educational exhibits and learning centers. Building efforts commenced in 2000 with the museum opening in 2005. It is located next to the Camille Lightner Playhouse in the center of Dean Porter Park in 501 E. Ringgold Street.

Founded in 1935, the Brownsville Museum of Fine Arts is an arts museum featuring exhibitions on Egyptian and Astronomical art. The museum was formerly known as the Brownsville Art League, formed by a group of eight women. The museum underwent a renovation in 1960, featuring a 4,000 sq ft studio and in 2002, it changed its name to its current name also receiving a 17,000 sq foot renovation. It is located in Downtown Brownsville at 660 East Ringgold Street.

The Historic Brownsville Museum is a historic museum opened to the public in 1986. The building was used as a Spanish Colonial Revival passenger depot and was later abandoned. The museum features Spanish architecture and education programs. It also hosts meeting for various organizations including City
City
and State officials. Several renovations were made to give the museum a more "present" look such as the addition of a Spanish-style fountain, a courtyard and an engine building.

Built in 1850 by Henry Miller, owner of the Miller Hotel in downtown Brownsville, the Stillman House Museum was owned by city founder Charles Stillman and Mexican consul Manuel Pérez Treviño . It was the site of meetings with Mexican president Porfirio Diaz
Porfirio Diaz
. The great grandson of Stillman bought the house after the previous homeowners sold it and was donated to the city after renovations. It opened to the public in 1960. The home experienced damage from Hurricane Dolly in 2008 and reopened to the public the next year after renovations were made.

Costumes of the Americas Museum is an indigenous clothing museum located in 501 Ringgold Street. Inspired by Bessie Kirkland Johnson, the museum was opened in 1997, featuring clothing from indigenous people in several Mexican states and other Latin American countries.

The Commemorative Air Force Museum is an aircraft museum located in 955 Minnesota Ave., next to the Brownsville/South Padre Island International Airport. The museum features World War II
World War II
aircraft and also holds tours on the early events leading to wars in Asia and Europe. It also features the stories of aviation pilots who were part of the 201st Mexican Fighter Squadron and hosts the annual AirFiesta in February.

THEATRE

Jacob Brown Auditorium is an performing arts auditorium located in Downtown Brownsville. The venue has a 1,593 person capacity and has a variety of functions including banquet ceremonies, conference meetings and being a reception hall. It is part of the University of Texas
Texas
at Brownsville campus, now University of Texas
Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley.

The Arts Center is a performing arts and concert venue in conjunction with Texas
Texas
Southmost College. It is associated with several theater organizations including Chamber Music America and the Association of Performing Arts Presenters . The center is strictly used for theater shows, while only using the lobby for meetings. It is currently the only Arts Center currently operating south of San Antonio.

Camille Lightner Playhouse is a performing arts auditorium founded in 1964 and located on 500 E Ringgold Street. The venue hosts auditions for local and Broadway plays, as well as hosting the Henri Awards, an awards show honoring the best in the venue's staff. It also holds a summer workshop for younger children and holds a reception hall at the DeStefano Room.

ARTS

The Brownsville area is full of well-established art galleries and museums that represent not only art of the region and Mexico
Mexico
but feature traveling exhibits from around the world.

Films Made Or Inspired By Brownsville

YEAR TITLE LEAD ACTOR(S)

1981 Back Roads Sally Field , Tommy Lee Jones

2000 The President\'s Man Chuck Norris
Chuck Norris
, Dylan Neal
Dylan Neal

2004 Pink Punch Adal Ramones , Omar Chaparro

2011 The Big Year
The Big Year
* Jack Black
Jack Black
, Owen Wilson

2012 Get the Gringo Mel Gibson

2013 A Night in Old Mexico
Mexico
Robert Duvall

2015 Endgame Efren Ramirez , Rico Rodriguez

2017 The Green Ghost Danny Trejo

* The Big Year
The Big Year
featured a scene where Brownsville, Texas
Texas
was written in front of the screen. Film draws inspiration from wildlife in the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley.

TV Shows Made Or Inspired By Brownsville

YEAR TITLE LEAD ACTOR(S)

2007 Friday Night Lights Kyle Chandler , Connie Britton

2011 Border Wars N/A

2017 Jeff Ross
Jeff Ross
Roasts The Border: Live From Brownsville, Texas N/A

SPORTS

Each year, Brownsville hosts the Jackie Robinson World Series for nine-year-old baseball players. In 1920 the St. Louis Cardinals held spring training in Brownsville. In 2011 and 2013, University of Texas at Brownsville Ocelots team captured the NAIA Women's Volleyball National Championship in Sioux City, Iowa at the Tyson Events Center.

These are the golf courses operating within the Brownsville city limit:

* Fort Brown Memorial Golf Course * Valley International Country Club * Rancho Viejo Resort and Country Club * River Bend Country Club * Brownsville Golf Center * Brownsville Municipal Golf Course

MEDIA

See also: List of newspapers in Texas
Texas
, List of radio stations in Texas
Texas
, and List of television stations in Texas
Texas

NEWSPAPERS

* The Brownsville Herald * Valley Morning Star * The Monitor * Island Breeze * Coastal Current * The Collegian

TELEVISION

The Brownsville area is served by numerous local television affiliates:

* XHRIO-TV 2 MundoFox
MundoFox
Matamoros, Tamaulipas * KGBT-TV
KGBT-TV
4 CBS
CBS
– Harlingen * KRGV-TV
KRGV-TV
5 ABC – Weslaco * XHAB 7 Televisa Regional Matamoros, Tamaulipas * XERV 9 Canal de las Estrellas Matamoros, Tamaulipas * XHOR 14 Azteca 7 Reynosa, Tamaulipas * KXFX-CD 20 Fox – Brownsville * KCWT-CD 21 The CW – McAllen * KVEO-TV
KVEO-TV
23 NBC – Brownsville * KMBH 38 PBS – Harlingen * KTLM 40 Telemundo
Telemundo
– McAllen * KLUJ-TV 44 TBN – Harlingen * KNVO-TV
KNVO-TV
48 Univision McAllen
McAllen
* KNWS-LP
KNWS-LP
64 Azteca America
Azteca America
– Brownsville

RADIO

* KVNS 1700 AM Fox Sports Radio * KURV 710 AM News Talk * KFRQ 94.5 FM Rock * KKPS La Nueva 99.5 99.5 FM Tejano * KNVO 101.1 FM * XEEW-FM 97.7 FM Los 40 Latin Pop * KVLY 107.9 FM MIX FM Contemporary Hit Radio * KBFM
KBFM
Wild 104 104.1 FM Hip Hop , Contemporary R"> A picture of the Brownsville Masonic Temple Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Masonic Lodge No. 81 , constructed in 1882. It was the original Cameron County Courthouse.

Local attractions include the Gladys Porter Zoo
Gladys Porter Zoo
, the Brownsville Museum of Fine Art, Camille Lightner Playhouse, a historical downtown with buildings over 150 years old, the Port of Brownsville , and the Children's Museum of Brownsville. There is also easy access to South Padre Island and the Mexican city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas . Sunrise Mall is the largest shopping mall in the city of Brownsville.

Since being remodeled in 2015 the mall has become the primary mall in the Brownsville-Harlingen metroplex. Brownsville previously had another shopping mall, Amigoland Mall by Simon , though the building has since been purchased by the University of Texas
Texas
at Brownsville (now University of Texas
Texas
Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Valley ) after many of its tenants moved from Amigoland to Sunrise.

SANCTUARY

* Sabal Palm Sanctuary

NOTABLE NATIVES/RESIDENTS

* James Carlos Blake : award-winning novelist, received his elementary education at Saint Joseph Academy * Shelbie Bruce : actress. * José Tomás Canales : lawyer, writer, politician. * Oscar Casares : author and professor of creative writing at UT Austin; published two books about Brownsville, including Amigoland (2009) * Carlos Cascos : outgoing county judge of Cameron County; incoming Secretary of State of Texas
Texas
. * Buddy Garcia : 2012 member of the Texas
Texas
Railroad Commission ; now resides in Austin . * Reynaldo G. Garza (1915–2004): Judge of Brownsville was first appointed to the United States District Court in 1961 by U.S. President John F. Kennedy, and to the United States Court of Appeals by President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
in 1978. * Tony Garza
Tony Garza
: former U.S. Ambassador to Mexico. * Gilberto Hinojosa : County judge of Cameron County from 1995 to 2007, unseated in 2006 by Republican Carlos Cascos; Texas
Texas
Democratic Party chairman since 2012. * Mifflin Kenedy
Mifflin Kenedy
(1818–95): South Texas
Texas
rancher and steamboat businessman; interred at Buena Vista Burial Park in Brownsville. * Bernard L. Kowalski (1929–2007): film and television director. * Kris Kristofferson
Kris Kristofferson
: country music star, singer and songwriter, 2004 Hall of Fame Inductee, and actor * Eddie Lucio Jr. : member of the Texas
Texas
State Senate from Brownsville since 1991; pro-life activist. * Eddie Lucio III : member of the Texas
Texas
House of Representatives from Brownsville since 2007. * Bianca Marroquín : Mexican musical theatre and television actress. * Domingo Martinez : author of The Boy Kings of Texas, a Memoir * Grace Napolitano : U.S. Representative for California\'s 32nd congressional district * Jose Rolando Olvera Jr. : U.S. District Judge for the Southern District of Texas
Texas
appointed by U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2015 * Americo Paredes (1915–99): author of George Washington Gomez * Rudy Ruiz
Rudy Ruiz
: award-winning Latino author, entrepreneur and advocate; attended Saint Joseph Academy. * Ramón Saldívar : scholar of Chicano literature and culture, awarded the National Humanities Medal by President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2012, teaches at Stanford University. * Julian Schnabel : "neo-expressionist" painter and Academy Award -nominated, Golden Globe winner and director of The Diving Bell and the Butterfly ; attended Saint Joseph Academy. * Bruce Sterling : author of the Mirrorshades anthology and one of the pioneers of the cyberpunk genre. * Emeraude Toubia : actress ( Shadowhunters
Shadowhunters
). * Benjamin D. Wood
Benjamin D. Wood
: noted education expert. * Jaime Zapata (1979–2011): U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agent who was ambushed, shot, and killed by Los Zetas in San Luis Potosí, Mexico
Mexico
. He was returning from a meeting in Mexico City
City
; Victor Avila, another agent who accompanied him, was wounded in the same incident.

SISTER CITIES

* Heroica Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Mexico

SEE ALSO

* Texas
Texas
portal

* List of museums in the Texas
Texas
Gulf Coast * Nuevo Santander * Virreinato de Nueva España * José de Escandón y Helguera, 1st Count of Sierra Gorda

NOTES

* ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.

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