BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA (BPD; formerly CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE OF INFANCY) is a chronic lung disease in which premature infants, usually those who were treated with supplemental oxygen, require long-term oxygen. It is more common in infants with low birth weight and those who receive prolonged mechanical ventilation to treat respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). It results in significant morbidity and mortality. The definition of BPD has continued to evolve since then primarily due to changes in the population, such as more survivors at earlier gestational ages, and improved neonatal management including surfactant, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy, and less aggressive mechanical ventilation.
Currently the description of BPD includes the grading of its severity into mild, moderate and severe. This correlates with the infant's maturity, growth and overall severity of illness. The new system offers a better description of underlying pulmonary disease and its severity.
* 1 Diagnosis
* 1.1 Earlier criteria * 1.2 Newer criteria
* 2 Cause and manifestations * 3 Complications * 4 Management * 5 Epidemiology * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading
The classic diagnosis of BPD may be assigned at 28 days of life if the following criteria are met:
* Positive pressure ventilation during the first 2 weeks of life for a minimum of 3 days. * Clinical signs of abnormal respiratory function. * Requirements for supplemental oxygen for longer than 28 days of age to maintain PaO2 above 50 mm Hg. * Chest radiograph with diffuse abnormal findings characteristic of BPD.
The newer National Institute of Health (US) criteria for BPD (for neonates treated with more than 21% oxygen for at least 28 days) is as follows:, Mild
* Breathing room air at 36 weeks post-menstrual age or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born before 32 weeks, or * breathing room air by 56 days postnatal age, or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born after 32 weeks gestation.
* Need for 30% oxygen with or without positive pressure ventilation or continuous positive pressure at 56 days postnatal age, or discharge (whichever comes first) for babies born after 32 weeks' gestation.
CAUSE AND MANIFESTATIONS
Prolonged high oxygen delivery in premature infants causes necrotizing bronchiolitis and alveolar septal injury, with inflammation and scarring. This results in hypoxemia . Today, with the advent of surfactant therapy and high frequency ventilation and oxygen supplementation, infants with BPD experience much milder injury without necrotizing bronchiolitis or alveolar septal fibrosis. Instead, there are usually uniformly dilated acini with thin alveolar septa and little or no interstitial fibrosis. It develops most commonly in the first 4 weeks after birth.
Feeding problems are common in infants with BPD, often due to prolonged intubation. Such infants often display oral-tactile hypersensitivity (also known as oral aversion). Physical findings:
* hypoxemia ; * hypercapnia ; * crackles , wheezing , * increased bronchial secretions; * hyperinflation ; * frequent lower respiratory infections ; * delayed growth * cor pulmonale ; * CXR shows with hyperinflation, low diaphragm, atelectasis , cystic changes.
There is evidence to show that steroids given to babies less than 8 days old can prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, the risks of treatment may outweigh the benefits. It is unclear if starting steroids more than 7 days after birth is harmful or beneficial. It is thus recommended that they only be used in those who cannot be taken off of a ventilator.
The rate of BPD varies among institutions, which may reflect neonatal risk factors, care practices (e.g., target levels for acceptable oxygen saturation), and differences in the clinical definitions of BPD.
* ^ Merck Manual, Professional Edition, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
* ^ Northway Jr, WH; Rosan, RC; Porter, DY (Feb 16, 1967).
"Pulmonary disease following respirator therapy of hyaline-membrane
disease. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia.". The New England Journal of
Medicine. 276 (7): 357–68. PMID 5334613 . doi
* ^ Sahni, R; Ammari, A; Suri, MS; Milisavljevic, V; Ohira-Kist, K;
Wung, JT; Polin, RA (Jan 2005). "Is the new definition of
bronchopulmonary dysplasia more useful?". Journal of perinatology :
official journal of the California
* Bhandari, A; Bhandari, V (Jan 2007). "Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: an update" (PDF). Indian journal of pediatrics. 74 (1): 73–7. PMID 17264460 . doi :10.1007/s12098-007-0032-z . * Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia on National Institutes of Health
* v * t * e
Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period / fetal disease (P , 760–779 )
Maternal factors and complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery
CHORION /AMNION :
UMBILICAL CORD :
Length of gestation and fetal growth
* Brachial plexus lesion
* Erb\'s palsy * Klumpke paralysis
* pleural disease
* Wilson–Mikity syndrome * Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Haemorrhagic and hematologic disease
* ABO * Anti-Kell * Rh c * Rh D * Rh E