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Brock Chisholm, CC, CBE, MC & Bar, ED (1896–1971) was a 20th-century Canadian First World War
First World War
veteran, medical practitioner, well-known psychiatrist, first Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), and the 13th officer to serve as the head of the Canadian Army
Canadian Army
medical service.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Contents

1 Background 2 Career

2.1 Canada 2.2 WHO

3 Personal and death 4 Honors, awards 5 Legacy 6 Works 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Background[edit] George Brock Chisholm was born on May 18, 1896, in Oakville, Ontario, to a family with deep ties to the region. Under Sir Isaac Brock, after whom Chisholm was named, his great-great-grandfather fought against the Americans during the War of 1812
War of 1812
and was Oakville's founder. His father was Frank Chisholm, who ran a coal yard.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Career[edit] Canada[edit] In 1915 during the First World War, age 18, Chisholm joined the Canadian Expeditionary Force, serving in the 15th Battalion, CEF as a cook, sniper, machine gunner and scout. His leadership and heroism were twice rewarded (after being twice wounded): with a Military Cross for his efforts in a battle outside of Lens, France; and the Bar. He rose to the rank of captain, was injured once, and returned home in 1917.[1][3][4][5][6] After the war, Chisholm pursued his lifelong passion of medicine, earning his MD from the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
by 1924 before interning in England, where he specialized in psychiatry. After six years in private practice in his native Oakville, he attended Yale University where he specialized in the mental health of children. During this time, Chisholm developed his strong Marxist view that children should be raised in an "as intellectually free environment" as possible, independent of the prejudices and biases (political, moral and religious) of their parents.[1][3][4][5][6] At the outbreak of the Second World War, Chisholm rapidly rose in stature within the Canadian military and government. He joined the war effort as a psychiatrist dealing with psychological aspects of soldier training, before rising to the rank of Director General Medical Services, the highest position within the medical ranks of the Canadian Army. He was the first psychiatrist to head the medical ranks of any army in the world.[1][3][4][5][6] In 1944, the Canadian Government created the position of Deputy Minister of Health. Chisholm was first the person to occupy the post and held it until 1946.[1][3][4][5][6] WHO[edit] In 1946, Chisholm became executive secretary of the Interim Commission of the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), based in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO succeeded the League of Nations's Health Organization. Chishom was one of 16 international experts consulted in drafting the agency's first constitution. He recommended the WHO's name, with emphasis on "world." He defined health for the WHO as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." The WHO charter also established that health is a fundamental human right and that "the heath of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security."[1][2][3][4][5][6][8] The WHO became a permanent UN fixture in April 1948, and Chisholm became the agency's first Director General on a 46–2 vote. Chisholm was now in the unique position of being able to bring his views on the importance of international mental and physical health to the world. Refusing re-election, he occupied the post until 1953, during which time the WHO dealt successfully with a cholera epidemic in Egypt, malaria outbreaks in Greece
Greece
and Sardinia, and introduced shortwave epidemic-warning services for ships at sea.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Personal and death[edit] On 21 June 1924, Chisholm married Grace McLean Ryrie. They had two children, Catherine Anne and Brock Ryrie.[1][5] In 1934, he predicted the coming of World War II.[6] Chisholm was a controversial public speaker who nevertheless had great conviction, and drew much cynicism within the Canadian public for comments in the mid-1940s that children should not be encouraged to believe in Santa Claus
Santa Claus
or the Bible or anything he regarded as supernaturalism. Calls for his resignation as Deputy Minister of Health were quelled by his appointment as Executive Secretary of the WHO, but his public perception as "Canada's most famously articulate angry man" lingered.[1][4] Religious and other conservative writers and groups have accused Chisholm of being a Marxist or a Communist or subversive.[7] "For instance, Brock Chisholm, a former director of the World Health Organization, pronounced that 'To achieve One-World Government, it is necessary to remove from the minds of men their individualism, their loyalty to their traditions and national identification'."[9] Such accusations fit into a Cold War
Cold War
norm in which some conservatives claimed that "a large percentage of the U.S. Communist Party consisted of 'psychiatrists, psychologists, medical doctors and social, health, and welfare workers."[10] Others contended that one goal of Communism was to "dominate the psychiatric profession and use mental health laws as a means of gaining coercive control over those who oppose Communist goals.[11] Some lumped Chisholm among other Marxists and Communists "behind the scenes," including: Wilhelm Wundt, Otto Gross, Wilhelm Steckel, Max Horkheimer, Erich Fromm, Wilhelm Reich, Kurt Lewin, Herbert Marcuse, Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, Robert Owen, A.S. Neill, Havelock Ellis, John Rawlings Rees, Sigmund Freud, Antonio Gramsci, Anatoly Lunacharsky, and Georg Lukacs.[12] Others placed Chisholm among three prominent Humanists who early on headed important United Nations
United Nations
agencies: Julian Huxley
Julian Huxley
of UNESCO
UNESCO
and John Boyd-Orr
John Boyd-Orr
of the Food and Agricultural Organization
Food and Agricultural Organization
(FAO).[13] At least one conservative women's group in Southern California considered Chisholm to be the Anti-Christ.[14] He served as president of the World Federation of Mental Health (1957–58).[3] On 4 February 1971, Chisholm died age 74 in Veterans' Hospital, Victoria, British Columbia, after a series of strokes.[1][2][3][4][5] Honors, awards[edit] Chisholm's honors and awards include:

1945: Medal of the Pasteur Institute[3] 1953: Lasker Award[3] 1957: Honorary President of the World Federalist Movement-Canada[3] 1959: Humanist
Humanist
of the Year (American Humanist
Humanist
Association 1967: Companion of the Order of Canada[3]

He was an Honorary Fellow of the Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, of the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Public Health Association among others.[3][6] Legacy[edit] At his death, the New York Times remembered Chisholm as "small town doctor who became director general of the World Health Organization" and also called him "Prophet of Disaster."[1] Historica Canada notes he was an early leader in warning about the "danger of pollution, overpopulation, and the nuclear arms race."[4] Works[edit]

Social responsibility, and three memorial papers by Gordon W. Allport (New York: Association Press, 1948) World health problems. Barriers to world health (New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1953) Nations are learning to live together (Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1954) Prescription for survival (New York: Columbia University Press, 1957) Can people learn to learn? How to know each other (New York: Harper, 1958)

See also[edit]

World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) Surgeon General (Canada) List of books, articles and documentaries about snipers

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Dr. Brock Chisholm, Former W.H.O. Head, Dies". New York Times. 5 February 1971. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e "Former Director-General: Dr Brock Chisholm, Director-General". World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Director-General's Office: Dr George Brock Chisholm". World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Brock Chisholm". Historica Canada. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Chisholm, Brock (1896–1971)". Harvard Square Library. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "George Brock Chisholm – 1896-1971". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1 April 1971. p. 166. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b Farley, John (1 January 2009). Brock Chisholm, the World Health Organization, and the Cold War. UBC Press. pp. 63 (subversive). Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ Chisholm, Brock; Winslow, C.-E.A.; Hiss, Alger (March 1948). "The World Health Organization". International Concilation. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ Story, Christopher (2007). The New Underworld Order: Triumph of Criminalism the Global Hegemony of Masonic Intelligence. Stanger Journalism. p. 441. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ Dowbiggin, Ian (19 July 2011). The Quest for Mental Health: A Tale of Science, Medicine, Scandal, Sorrow, and Mass Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 158. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ Bowers, James C. (15 November 2011). The Naked Truth: The Naked Communist - Revisited. Bookbaby. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ Eakman, B. K. (2 January 2014). Push Back!: How to Take a Stand Against Groupthink, Bullies, Agitators, and Professional Manipulators. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 177. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ Baumgarten, Grace (29 July 2016). Cannot Be Silenced. WestBow Press. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ Nickerson, Michelle M. (15 April 2012). Mothers of Conservatism: Women and the Postwar Right. Princeton University Press. p. 113. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Brock Chisholm

Smithsonian Institution Archives: Photo of Brock Chisholm Canadian Great War Project Captain George Brock Chisholm Search, Who . Biography and News Stories Biography World Health Organization
World Health Organization
Biography Office of the Governor General of Canada. Order of Canada
Order of Canada
citation. Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 26 May 2010

Non-profit organization positions

Preceded by None (First in office) Director General of the World Health Organization 1948–1953 Succeeded by Marcolino Gomes Candau

v t e

World War I snipers

Individuals

Brock Chisholm (CAN) Herman Davis
Herman Davis
(US) Joseph Gregory (CAN) Hesketh Hesketh-Prichard
Hesketh Hesketh-Prichard
(GB) Henry Norwest
Henry Norwest
(CAN) Grey Owl
Grey Owl
(CAN) Johnson Paudash (CAN) Francis Pegahmagabow
Francis Pegahmagabow
(CAN) John Shiwak (NF) Billy Sing
Billy Sing
(AUS) Richard Travis
Richard Travis
(NZ) Alvin York
Alvin York
(US)

See also

World War II snipers Vietnam War snipers List of books, articles and documentaries about snipers

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 12226429 LCCN: nr99018187 ISNI: 0000 0001 0955 354X GND: 136275834 SUDOC: 171603664 BNF: cb16234059k (da

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